The Codex Hermogenianus is the title of a collection of constitutions of the Roman emperors of the first tetrarchy from the years 293–94. It takes its name from its author, Aurelius Hermogenianus, a prominent jurist of the age who acted as the magister libellorum to Diocletian in this period; the work does not survive intact in complete form but a brief section may be preserved on a late antique papyrus from Egypt. From the surviving references and excerpts it is clear that it was a single book work, subdivided into thematic headings containing rescripts to private petitioners, organised chronologically. Of the texts explicitly attributed to the Codex Hermogenianus, the vast majority date from the years 293–294, though some texts may have been added to this core by Hermogenian in subsequent editions of his work. For the fifth-century author Coelius Sedulius claims that Hermogenian, like Origen, produced three editions of his work in total. Still, the seven Valentinianic constitutions attributed to the CH by the author of the Consultatio veteris cuiusdam iurisconsulti must reflect on-going insertions by subsequent users rather than authorial appendices.
Consensus opinion has it that the first edition collected the rescripts of 293 and 294, which Hermogenian had himself authored as magister libellorum. It has been proposed that Hermogenianus produced the second edition after 298, while praetorian prefect, its inclusion of western rescripts reflecting service as magister libellorum at the court of Maximian, that the final edition, incorporating extra eastern texts, was achieved c. 320 at the court of Licinius or the Law School of Beirut. If Hermogenian applied the same organisational principle to the Codex as he did in his Iuris epitomae the order of titles is to have followed that of the Praetor's Edict. Scholars' estimates as to the number of titles vary from a minimum of 18 to one of 147, though a majority favour 69. Where evidence as to the circumstances of original publication is preserved, it is overwhelmingly to the giving or subscribing of the constitution, suggesting that Hermogenian's collection was made at source in the imperial archives.
In the fourth and fifth centuries, for those wishing to cite imperial constitutions, the Codex Hermogenianus became a standard work of reference cited alongside the Codex Gregorianus, to which it seems to have functioned as a supplementary volume. The first explicit quotations of the CH are by the anonymous author of the Mosaicarum et Romanarum Legum Collatio, or Lex Dei as it is sometimes known in the 390s. Most famously, the Gregorian and Hermogenian Codes are cited as a model for the organisation of imperial constitutions since Constantine I in the directive ordering their collection in what was to become the Codex Theodosianus, addressed to the senate of Constantinople on 26 March 429, drafted by Theodosius II's quaestor Antiochus Chuzon. In the post-Theodosian era both Codes are quoted as sources of imperial constitutions by the mid-fifth-century anonymous author of the Consultatio veteris cuiusdam iurisconsulti. In the Justinianic era, the antecessor Thalelaeus cited the Hermogenian Code in his commentary on Justinian's Code.
In the west, some time before AD 506, both codices were supplemented by a set of clarificatory notes, which accompany their abridged versions in the Breviary of Alaric, were cited as sources in the Lex Romana Burgundionum attributed to Gundobad, king of the Burgundians. Texts drawn from the Codex Hermogenianus achieved status as authoritative sources of law with the original work's deliberate eclipse by two codification initiatives of the sixth century. First, the abridged version incorporated in the Breviary of Alaric, promulgated in 506, explicitly superseded the original full text throughout Visigothic Gaul and Spain; as part of the emperor Justinian's grand codificatory programme, it formed a major component of the Codex Justinianus, which came into force in its first edition across the Roman Balkans and eastern provinces in AD 529. This was subsequently rolled out to Latin north Africa, following its reconquest from the Vandals in 530, Italy in 554. So, by the mid sixth century the original text of the Hermogenian Code had been consigned to the dustbin of history over most of the Mediterranean world.
Only in Merovingian and Frankish Gaul were copies of the full version still exploited between the sixth and ninth centuries, as attested by the insertion of a quotation in two manuscripts of the Breviary. It is because of its exploitation for the Codex Justinianus that the influence of the Codex Hermogenianus is still felt today; as a component of the Justinianic law, it formed part of the Corpus Juris Civilis of the revived medieval and early modern Roman law tradition. This in turn was the model and inspiration for the civil law codes that have dominated European systems since the Code Napoleon of 1804, it was used by the compiler of the Sententiae Syriacae. There has been no attempt at a full reconstruction of all the surviving texts that derive from the CH because of the difficulty of distinguishing with absolute certainty constitutions of Hermogenian from those of Gregorian in the Codex Justinianus in the years of the mid 290s, where they appear to overlap. Honoré provides the full text of all the private rescripts of the relev
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Dame Averil Millicent Cameron cited as A. M. Cameron, is professor emerita of Late Antique and Byzantine History at the University of Oxford, was the Warden of Keble College, between 1994 and 2010. Cameron was born in Leek, the only child of working-class parents, she read Literae Humaniores at Somerville College and was married to Alan Cameron, with whom she has a son and a daughter. From 1978 to 1994 Cameron taught at King's College, serving as Professor of Ancient History, Professor of Late Antique and Byzantine Studies, Founding Director of the Centre for Hellenic Studies. In 1994 she was appointed Warden of Keble College, where she served as Chair of the Conference of Colleges and as Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Chair of the Committee on the Sackler Library and the Advisory Committee on Honorary Degrees and sat on committees for Conflict of Interest, Select Preachers, the Bampton Lectures and the Wainwright Fund, she has served as Chair of a number of academic institutions, including the Oxford Centre for Byzantine Research, the Institute of Classical Studies Advisory Council, the Cathedrals Fabric Commission for England, of the Prosopography of the Byzantine World.
Cameron has acted as the President of multiple society including: the Ecclesiastical History Society, the Council for British Research in the Levant, the Fédération internationale des associations d'études classiques. From 2018 she will become President of the Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies. Cameron holds honorary degrees from the Universities of Warwick, St Andrews, Lund, the Queen's University of Belfast and London. Cameron is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, the British Academy, the Ecclesiastical History Society, King's College, the Royal Historical Society, the Institute of Classical Studies, London. In 2007 a Festschrift edited by Hagit Amirav and Bas ter Haar Romeny, From Rome to Constantinople: Studies in Honour of Averil Cameron, was published in Cameron's honour. Cameron's early articles explored early Byzantine and early Medieval Latin writers such as Corippus and Gregory of Tours from literary and historical perspectives, her early monographs and Procopius and the Sixth Century were accompanied by a number of influential edited collections, including Images of Women in Antiquity, edited jointly with Amélie Kuhrt, History as Text.
With Christianity and the Rhetoric of Empire: The Development of Christian Discourse, Cameron sparked a scholarly conversation about'the power of discourse in society' in antiquity, seeking to understand'how Christianity was able to develop a "totalizing discourse"'. Cameron's mature scholarship has included substantial surveys such as The Later Roman Empire, AD 284-430 and significant editorial commissions, including joint editorship of volumes 12, 13, 14 of the Cambridge Ancient History along with a number of influential studies on dialogue and debate in Byzantium from the early Christian period to the twelfth century. Agathias, ISBN 0-19-814352-4 Images of Women in Antiquity, ed. with Amélie Kuhrt and the Sixth Century, ISBN 0-7156-1510-7 History as Text, ed. The Greek Renaissance in the Roman Empire, ed. with Susan Walker Christianity and the Rhetoric of Empire: The Development of Christian Discourse, ISBN 0-520-07160-3 The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East I: Problems in the Literary Sources, ed. with Lawrence I.
Conrad The Later Roman Empire, AD 284-430, ISBN 0-00-686172-5 The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East II: Land Use and Settlement Patterns, ed. with G. R. D. King The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East III: States and Armies, ed; the Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity, AD 395-600, ISBN 0-415-01420-4. G. Hall Fifty Years of Prosopography, ed. Publications of the British Academy The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. 12: The Crisis of Empire, AD 193-337, ISBN 0-521-30199-8 Vol. 13: The Late Empire, AD 337-425, ISBN 0-521-30200-5 Vol. 14: Late Antiquity: Empires and Successors, AD 425-600, ISBN 0-521-32591-9 Doctrine and Debate in Eastern Christianity, 300-1500, ed. with Robert Hoyland Late Antiquity on the Eve of Islam, The Formation of the Islamic World, ed. The Byzantines, ISBN 0-631-20262-5 Dialoguing in Late Antiquity Byzantine Matters Arguing it Out: Discussion in Twelfth-Century Byzantium Dialogues and Debates from Late Antiquity to Late Byzantium, ed. with Niels Gaul Recent articles include'The Cost of Orthodoxy', Church History and Religious Culture, vol. 93 339-61, and'Early Christi
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between 306 and 337 AD. Born in Naissus, in Dacia Ripensis, town now known as Niš, he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer, his mother was Empress Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum after his father's death in 306 AD, he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. As emperor, Constantine enacted administrative, financial and military reforms to strengthen the empire, he restructured the government, separating military authorities.
To combat inflation he introduced the solidus, a new gold coin that became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. The Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the Roman frontiers—the Franks, the Alamanni, the Goths, the Sarmatians—even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the Crisis of the Third Century. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. Although he lived much of his life as a pagan, as a catechumen, he joined the Christian faith on his deathbed, being baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia, he played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built on his orders at the purported site of Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem and became the holiest place in Christendom. The Papal claim to temporal power in the High Middle Ages was based on the forged Donation of Constantine, he has been referred to as the "First Christian Emperor", he did promote the Christian Church. Some modern scholars, debate his beliefs and his comprehension of the Christian faith itself; the age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He renamed the city Constantinople after himself, it became the capital of the Empire for more than a thousand years, with the eastern Roman Empire now being referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians. His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession by leaving the empire to his sons, his reputation for centuries after his reign. The medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue, while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity.
Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his reign, due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Trends in modern and recent scholarship have attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, he has always been a controversial figure; the fluctuations in his reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but they have been influenced by the official propaganda of the period and are one-sided; the nearest replacement is Eusebius's Vita Constantini—a mixture of eulogy and hagiography written between 335 AD and circa 339 AD—that extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues. The Vita creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine, modern historians have challenged its reliability; the fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous Origo Constantini, a work of uncertain date, which focuses on military and political events to the neglect of cultural and religious matters.
Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum, a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life. The ecclesiastical histories of Socrates and Theodoret describe the ecclesiastic disputes of Constantine's reign. Written during the reign of Theodosius II, a century after Constantine's reign, these ecclesiastic historians obscure the events and theologies of the Constantinian period through misdirection, misrepresentation, deliberate obscurity; the contemporary writings of the orthodox Christian Athanasius and the ecclesiastical history of the Arian Philostorgius survive, though their biases are no less firm. The epitomes of Aurelius Victor, Eutropius and the anonymous author of the Epitome de Caesaribus offer compressed secular political and military histories of the period. Although not Christian, the epitomes paint a favourable image of Constantine but omit reference to Constantine's religious policies.
The Panegyrici Latini, a collection of panegyrics
There were a Theodosius II of Abkhazia, a Patriarch Theodosius II of Alexandria and a Theodosius II of Constantinople. Additionally, Pope Theodoros I of Alexandria is known as Theodosius II in Coptic history. Theodosius II surnamed Theodosius the Younger, or Theodosius the Calligrapher, was the Eastern Roman Emperor for most of his life, taking the throne as an infant in 402 and ruling as the Eastern Empire's sole emperor after the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he is known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople. He presided over the outbreak of two great Christological controversies and Eutychianism. Theodosius was born in 401 as the only son of Emperor Arcadius and his Frankish-born wife Aelia Eudoxia. In January 402 he was proclaimed co-Augustus by his father, thus becoming the youngest person to bear this title in Roman history. In 408, his father died and the seven-year-old boy became Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire.
According to Procopius, the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I was appointed by Arcadius as the guardian of Theodosius, whom Yazdegerd treated as his own child, sending a tutor to raise him and warning that enmity toward him would be taken as enmity toward Persia. Government was at first by the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius, under whose supervision the Theodosian land walls of Constantinople were constructed. In 414, Theodosius' older sister Pulcheria was assumed the regency. By 416 Theodosius was declared Augustus in his own right and the regency ended, but his sister remained a strong influence on him. In June 421, Theodosius married a woman of Greek origin; the two had a daughter named Licinia Eudoxia. A separation occurred between the imperial couple, with Eudocia's establishment in Jerusalem where she favoured monastic Monophysitism and Pulcheria reassuming an influential role with the support of the eunuch Chrysaphius. Theodosius' increasing interest in Christianity, fuelled by the influence of Pulcheria, led him to go to war against the Sassanids, who were persecuting Christians.
In 423, the Western Emperor Honorius, Theodosius' uncle and the primicerius notariorum Joannes was proclaimed Emperor. Honorius' sister Galla Placidia and her young son Valentinian fled to Constantinople to seek Eastern assistance and after some deliberation in 424 Theodosius opened the war against Joannes. On 23 October 425, Valentinian III was installed as Emperor of the West with the assistance of the magister officiorum Helion, with his mother acting as regent. To strengthen the ties between the two parts of the Empire, Theodosius' daughter Licinia Eudoxia was betrothed to Valentinian. In 425, Theodosius founded the University of Constantinople with 31 chairs. Among the subjects were law, medicine, geometry, astronomy and rhetoric. In 429, Theodosius appointed a commission to collect all of the laws since the reign of Constantine I, create a formalized system of law; this plan was left unfinished, but the work of a second commission that met in Constantinople, assigned to collect all of the general legislations and bring them up to date, was completed.
The law code of Theodosius II, summarizing edicts promulgated since Constantine, formed a basis for the law code of Emperor Justinian I, the Corpus Juris Civilis, in the following century. The war with Persia proved indecisive, a peace was arranged in 422 without changes to the status quo; the wars of Theodosius were less successful. The Eastern Empire was plagued by raids by the Huns. Early in Theodosius II's reign Romans used internal Hun discord to overcome Uldin's invasion of the Balkans; the Romans strengthened their fortifications and in 424 agreed to pay 350 pounds of gold to encourage the Huns to remain at peace with the Romans. In 433 with the rise of Attila and Bleda to unify the Huns, the payment was doubled to 700 pounds; when Roman Africa fell to the Vandals in 439, both Eastern and Western Emperors sent forces to Sicily, intending to launch an attack on the Vandals at Carthage, but this project failed. Seeing the Imperial borders without significant forces, the Huns and Sassanid Persia both attacked and the expeditionary force had to be recalled.
During 443 two Roman armies were destroyed by the Huns. Anatolius negotiated a peace agreement. In 447 the Huns went through the Balkans, destroying among others the city of Serdica and reaching Athyra on the outskirts of Constantinople. During a visit to Syria, Theodosius met the monk Nestorius, a renowned preacher, he appointed Nestorius Archbishop of Constantinople in 428. Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. Nestorius tried to find a middle ground between those who, emphasizing the fact that in Christ God had been born as a man, insisted on calling the Virgin Mary Theotokos, those who rejected that title because God, as an eternal being, could not have been born. Nestorius suggested the title Christotokos as a compromise, but it did not find acceptance with either faction, he was accused of separating Christ's divine and human natures, resulting in "two Christs", a heresy called Nestorianism. Though initial
Galerius was Roman emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign, he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 299, he campaigned across the Danube against the Carpi, defeating them in 297 and 300. Although he was a staunch opponent of Christianity, Galerius ended the Diocletianic Persecution when he issued an Edict of Toleration in Serdica in 311. Galerius was born near Serdica, in Dacia Ripensis named Dacia Mediterranea, though some modern scholars consider the strategic site where he built his palace named after his mother – Felix Romuliana – his birth and funeral place, his father was a Thracian and his mother Romula was a Dacian woman, who left Dacia because of the Carpians' attacks. He followed his father's occupation, that of a herdsman, where he got his surname of Armentarius, he served with distinction as a soldier under Emperors Aurelian and Probus, in 293 at the establishment of the Tetrarchy, was designated Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria, at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces.
After a few years campaigning against Sarmatians and Goths on the Danube, he received command of the legions on the eastern imperial limits. Soon after his appointment, Galerius was dispatched to Egypt to fight the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos. In 294, Narseh, a son of Shapur I, passed over for the Sassanid succession, came into power in Persia. Narseh moved to eliminate Bahram III, a young man installed by a noble named Vahunam in the wake of Bahram II's death in 293. In early 294, Narseh sent Diocletian the customary package of gifts, but within Persia, he was destroying every trace of his immediate predecessors, erasing their names from public monuments, he sought to identify himself with the warlike reigns of Ardashir and Shapur, who had sacked Roman Antioch and captured Emperor Valerian. In 295 or 296, Narseh declared war on Rome, he appears to have first invaded western Armenia, retaking the lands delivered to Tiridates in the peace of 287. He occupied the lands there until the following year.
The historian Ammianus Marcellinus, circa 320-395, is the only source detailing the initial invasion of Armenia. Southern dates the invasion to 295. Narseh moved south into Roman Mesopotamia, where he inflicted a severe defeat on Galerius commander of the eastern forces, in the region between Carrhae and Callinicum. Diocletian may or may not have been present at the battle, but presented himself soon afterwards at Antioch, where the official version of events was made clear: Galerius was to take all the blame for the affair. In Antioch, Diocletian forced Galerius to walk a mile in advance of his imperial cart while still clad in the purple robes of an emperor; the message conveyed. Galerius' position at the head of the caravan was the conventional organization of an imperial progression, designed to show a Caesar's deference to his Augustus. Galerius's army was reinforced in the spring of 298 by new contingents collected from the empire's Danubian holdings. Narseh did not advance from Armenia and Mesopotamia leaving Galerius to lead the offensive in 298 with an attack on northern Mesopotamia via Armenia.
Diocletian may not have been present to assist the campaign. Narseh retreated to Armenia to fight Galerius' force, to Narseh's disadvantage. Local aid gave Galerius the advantage of surprise over the Persian forces, and, in two successive battles, Galerius secured victories over Narseh. During the second encounter, the Battle of Satala in 298, Roman forces seized Narseh's camp, his treasury, his harem, his wife. Narseh's wife would live out the remainder of the war in Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, serving as a constant reminder to the Persians of the Roman victory. Galerius advanced into Media and Adiabene, winning continuous victories, most prominently near Theodosiopolis, securing Nisibis before 1 October 298, he moved down the Tigris, taking Ctesiphon, gazing onwards to the ruins of Babylon before returning to Roman territory via the Euphrates. No source specifically claims that Ctesiphon was sacked, but it is assumed to have been due to the seizure of Narseh's wife and harem. Narseh had sent an ambassador to Galerius to plead for the return of his wife and children, but Galerius had dismissed this ambassador, reminding him of how Shapur had treated Valerian.
The Romans, in any case, treated Narseh's captured family well seeking to evoke comparisons to Alexander and his beneficent conduct towards the family of Darius III. Peace negotiations began with both Diocletian and Galerius presiding, their magister memoriae. The conditions of the Peace of Nisibis were heavy: Persia would give up territory to Rome, making the Tigris the boundary between the two empires. Further terms specified that Armenia was returned to Roman domination with the f