Waterloo Wind Farm
Waterloo wind farm is based east of Manoora, South Australia. It is the largest wind farm operated by EnergyAustralia; the site is positioned on a rocky ridge on owned property at Waterloo. The 111 megawatt wind farm spreads across five acres of land and cost about $350 million, it began construction in November, 2008 and has been operational since October 2010. For about two months in 2013, the site was monitored by the Environmental Protection Authority; the wind farm’s infrasound and low-frequency noise were both examined. Acoustics firm Resonate conducted noise and meteorological monitoring in the area. Waterloo wind farm has 37 Vestas V90-3MW turbines, each 80 metres high, with each turbine blade 44 metres long and weighing about 8 tonnes; the tower sections weigh 90 tonnes in total with the tower and blades combined weighing 125 tonnes. On average the blades turn at 16.2 rpm. There are four levels in a turbine and it takes about five minutes to get to the top; each wind turbine produces on average 24 megawatt hours of power each day.
On a windy day three wind turbines can power the whole of Clare and the whole wind farm can power up to 163,000 homes or 5 to 10% of South Australia. The wind farm is planned to be upgraded with six new turbines. List of wind farms in South Australia Wind power in South Australia Waterloo Wind Farm Environmental Noise Study
A wind turbine, or alternatively referred to as a wind energy converter, is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy. Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of horizontal axis; the smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid. Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. One assessment claimed that, as of 2009, wind had the "lowest relative greenhouse gas emissions, the least water consumption demands and... the most favourable social impacts" compared to photovoltaic, geothermal and gas. The windwheel of Hero of Alexandria marks one of the first recorded instances of wind powering a machine in history.
However, the first known practical wind power plants were built in Sistan, an Eastern province of Persia, from the 7th century. These "Panemone" were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical drive shafts with rectangular blades. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries. Wind power first appeared in Europe during the Middle Ages; the first historical records of their use in England date to the 11th or 12th centuries and there are reports of German crusaders taking their windmill-making skills to Syria around 1190. By the 14th century, Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine delta. Advanced wind turbines were described by Croatian inventor Fausto Veranzio. In his book Machinae Novae he described vertical axis wind turbines with V-shaped blades; the first electricity-generating wind turbine was a battery charging machine installed in July 1887 by Scottish academic James Blyth to light his holiday home in Marykirk, Scotland.
Some months American inventor Charles F. Brush was able to build the first automatically operated wind turbine after consulting local University professors and colleagues Jacob S. Gibbs and Brinsley Coleberd and getting the blueprints peer-reviewed for electricity production in Cleveland, Ohio. Although Blyth's turbine was considered uneconomical in the United Kingdom, electricity generation by wind turbines was more cost effective in countries with scattered populations. In Denmark by 1900, there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills, producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW; the largest machines were on 24-meter towers with four-bladed 23-meter diameter rotors. By 1908, there were 72 wind-driven electric generators operating in the United States from 5 kW to 25 kW. Around the time of World War I, American windmill makers were producing 100,000 farm windmills each year for water-pumping. By the 1930s, wind generators for electricity were common on farms in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed.
In this period, high-tensile steel was cheap, the generators were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers. A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931; this was a 100 kW generator on a 30-meter tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system. It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 percent, not much different from current wind machines. In the autumn of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont; the Smith–Putnam wind turbine only ran for 1,100 hours before suffering a critical failure. The unit was not repaired, because of a shortage of materials during the war; the first utility grid-connected wind turbine to operate in the UK was built by John Brown & Company in 1951 in the Orkney Islands. Despite these diverse developments, developments in fossil fuel systems entirely eliminated any wind turbine systems larger than supermicro size. In the early 1970s, anti-nuclear protests in Denmark spurred artisan mechanics to develop microturbines of 22 kW.
Organizing owners into associations and co-operatives lead to the lobbying of the government and utilities and provided incentives for larger turbines throughout the 1980s and later. Local activists in Germany, nascent turbine manufacturers in Spain, large investors in the United States in the early 1990s lobbied for policies that stimulated the industry in those countries. Wind Power Density is a quantitative measure of wind energy available at any location, it is the mean annual power available per square meter of swept area of a turbine, is calculated for different heights above ground. Calculation of wind power density includes the effect of air density. Wind turbines are classified by the wind speed they are designed for, from class I to class III, with A to C referring to the turbulence intensity of the wind. Conservation of mass requires that the amount of air exiting a turbine must be equal. Accordingly, Betz's law gives the maximal achievable extraction of wind power by a wind turbine as 16/27 of the total kinetic energy of the air flowing through the turbine.
The maximum theoretical power output of a wind machine is thus 16/27 times the kinetic energy of the air passing through the effective disk area of the machine. If the effective area of the disk is A, the wind velocity v, the maximum theoretical power output P is: P = 16
Hornsdale Wind Farm
The Hornsdale Wind Farm is an electricity generator in the locality of Hornsdale in the south-west of the Narien Range, north of Jamestown, South Australia. It consists of 99 wind turbines with a generation capacity of 315 megawatts; the plant is operated by Neoen, a French renewable energy company. The infobox includes storage capacity from adjoining Hornsdale Power Reserve; the electricity generated by Hornsdale Wind Farm is contracted to be supplied to the Australian Capital Territory. The "Balance of Plant" civil engineering and site works for the wind farm was performed by Catcon for all three stages of construction; the wind turbine generators were imported from Denmark, the towers from Vietnam. They were commissioned by Siemens Australia. Before the whole wind farm was commissioned, Hornsdale was generating 86 MW prior to the 2016 South Australian blackout in September 2016. Two of the towers feature paintings by people from the indigenous peoples of the region. Jessica Turner is a Nukunu woman whose artwork represents the story of the serpent's role in forming aspects of the landscape waterholes.
Chris Angrave and Louise Brown are Ngadjuri people who depicted how the Mungiura were found in hilly country, peering over the top of windbreaks before a storm, blowing hard which caused a whirly wind. Tesla, Inc. won the contract and built the Hornsdale Power Reserve adjacent to the Hornsdale wind farm, for a cost to Tesla of about US$50 million. It is promoted as the largest lithium-ion battery in the world. Samsung 21700-size cells are used, it is owned and operated by Neoen, with the government having the right to call on the stored power under certain circumstances. It provides a total of 129 megawatt-hours of storage capable of discharge at 100 megawatts into the power grid, contractually divided into two parts.70 MW running for 10 minutes is contracted to the government to provide stability to the grid and prevent load-shedding blackouts while other generators are started in the event of sudden drops in wind or other network issues. This service has reduced the cost of grid services to the Australian Energy Market Operator by 90%.30 MW for 3 hours is used by Neoen for load management to store energy when prices are low and sell it when demand is high.
The battery construction was completed and testing began on 25 November 2017. It was connected to the grid on 1 December 2017; this beat Elon Musk's wager of "100 days from contract signature", which started when a grid connection agreement was signed with ElectraNet on 29 September 2017. Tesla had begun construction, some units were operational by the time the contract was signed. On 14 December 2017, at 1:58:59 am, the HPR reacted; as its generators spun down over the next 30 seconds, the loss of its 560 MW of base power caused a dip in the system frequency. By 1:59:19, the frequency had fallen to 49.8 Hz, triggered HPR's response, injecting 7.3 MW into the grid and helping to stabilise the system before the Gladstone Power Station was able to respond at 1:59:27. This synchronverter reaction is a built-in feature, but had not been demonstratedDuring two days in January 2018 when the wholesale spot price for electricity in South Australia rose due to hot weather, the battery made its owners an estimated A$1,000,000 as they sold power from the battery to the grid for a price of around A$14,000/MWh.
Based on the first six months of operation, the reserve is estimated to earn about A$18 million per year. After six months of operation, the Hornsdale Power Reserve was responsible for 55% of frequency control and ancillary services in South Australia. By the end of 2018, it was estimated that the Power Reserved had saved A$40 million in costs, most in eliminating the need for a 35 MW Frequency Control Ancillary Service. Current wind conditions
Crookwell Wind Farm
Crookwell Wind Farm, located at Crookwell west of Goulburn, New South Wales, consists of eight 600 kW wind turbines giving a total capacity of 4.8 MW. It was the first grid-connected wind farm in Australia when built by Pacific Power in 1998, it is now owned by Tilt Renewables. The farm was the largest wind farm in Australia when built, with the energy produced bought and on-sold to customers by energy retailer Great Southern Energy. Phase two of the Crookwell Wind Farm, planned to have an installed capacity of 92 MW, is under construction since 2009. Wind power in Australia List of wind farms in New South Wales Eraring Energy page on Crookwell Wind Farm
Cullerin Range Wind Farm
The 30 megawatt Cullerin Range Wind Farm is located in the localities of Cullerin and Breadalbane in the Upper Lachlan Shire, New South Wales, Australia. The wind farm was cost around $90 million; the owner, Origin Energy, sold the business to a subsidiary of Duet. Gunning Wind Farm Wind power in Australia List of wind farms in New South Wales Official website
Yambuk is a town in Victoria, Australia. The name Yambuk is an aboriginal word thought to mean'red kangaroo','full moon' or'big water'. Shell middens in the limestone cliffs to the east of the town indicate that aboriginals had lived in the area for over 2300 years. European settlement took place in the area when Lieutenant Andrew Baxter and his wife Annie Baxter squatted the Yambuck pastoral run in 1843. Significant racial conflict between aboriginals and europeans occurred around Yambuk at the time - some of the most violent clashes of the western district taking place near the Shaw river and the Eumeralla River; the township was established in the 1850s, the Post Office opening 1 March 1859. The town now has a population of 267 residents. At the 2006 census, the town and surrounding area had a population of 540, it is located. It is the site of the adjacent Codrington Wind Farm. Yambuk is locally known for a 33 metre long slide near the lake. Lake Yambuk and the Yambuk Important Bird Area lie between the coast.
"Yambuk". Travel; the Sydney Morning Herald. 8 February 2004. Retrieved 18 March 2007. "Yambuk". Gazetteer of Australia online. Geoscience Australia, Australian Government. Media related to Yambuk at Wikimedia Commons