Rodeo is a competitive sport that arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain and Central America, South America, the United States, Canada and New Zealand. It was based on the skills required of the working vaqueros and cowboys, in what today is the western United States, western Canada, northern Mexico. Today, it is a sporting event that involves horses and other livestock, designed to test the skill and speed of the cowboys and cowgirls. American style professional rodeos comprise the following events: tie-down roping, team roping, steer wrestling, saddle bronc riding, bareback bronc riding, bull riding and barrel racing; the events are divided into two basic categories: the timed events. Depending on sanctioning organization and region, other events such as breakaway roping, goat tying, pole bending may be a part of some rodeos. American rodeo popular today within the Canadian province of Alberta and throughout the western United States, is the official state sport of Wyoming, South Dakota, Texas.
The iconic silhouette image of a "Bucking Horse and Rider" is a federal and state-registered trademark of the State of Wyoming. The Legislative Assembly of Alberta has considered making American rodeo the official sport of that province. However, enabling legislation has yet to be passed. In the United States, professional rodeos are governed and sanctioned by the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association and Women's Professional Rodeo Association, while other associations govern children's, high school and senior rodeos. Associations exist for Native Americans and other minority groups; the traditional season for competitive rodeo runs from spring through fall, while the modern professional rodeo circuit runs longer, concludes with the PRCA National Finals Rodeo in Las Vegas, now held in December. Rodeo has provoked opposition from animal rights and animal welfare advocates, who argue that various competitions constitute animal cruelty; the American rodeo industry has made progress in improving the welfare of rodeo animals, with specific requirements for veterinary care and other regulations that protect rodeo animals.
However, rodeo is opposed by a number of animal welfare organizations in the United States and Canada. Some local and state governments in North America have banned or restricted rodeos, certain rodeo events, or types of equipment. Internationally, rodeo is banned in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, with other European nations placing restrictions on certain practices; the American English word "rodeo" is taken directly from Spanish rodeo, which translates into English as "round up."The Spanish word is derived from the verb rodear, meaning "to surround" or "go around," used to refer to "a pen for cattle at a fair or market," derived from the Latin rota or rotare, meaning to rotate or go around. In Spanish America, the rodeo was the process, used by vaqueros to gather cattle for various purposes, such as moving them to new pastures, separating the cattle owned by different ranchers, or gathering in preparation for slaughter; the yearly rodeos for separating the cattle were overseen by the "Juez del Campo," who decided all questions of ownership.
The term was used to refer to exhibitions of skills used in the working rodeo. This evolved from these yearly gatherings where festivities were held and horsemen could demonstrate their equestrian skills, it was this latter usage, adopted into the cowboy tradition of the United States and Canada. The term rodeo was first used in English in 1834 to refer to a cattle round-up. Today the word is used to refer to a public exhibition of cowboy skills in the form of a competitive event. Many rodeo events were based on the tasks required by cattle ranching; the working cowboy developed skills to fit the needs of the terrain and climate of the American west, there were many regional variations. The skills required to manage cattle and horses date back to the Spanish traditions of the vaquero. Early rodeo-like affairs of the 1820s and 1830s were informal events in the western United States and northern Mexico with cowboys and vaqueros testing their work skills against one another. Following the American Civil War, rodeo competitions emerged, with the first held in Cheyenne, Wyoming in 1872.
Prescott, Arizona claimed the distinction of holding the first professional rodeo, as it charged admission and awarded trophies in 1888. Between 1890 and 1910, rodeos became public entertainment, sometimes combined Wild West shows featuring individuals such as Buffalo Bill Cody, Annie Oakley, other charismatic stars. By 1910, several major rodeos were established in western North America, including the Calgary Stampede, the Pendleton Round-Up, the Cheyenne Frontier Days. Rodeo-type events became popular for a time in the big cities of the Eastern United States, with large venues such as Madison Square Garden playing a part in popularizing them for new crowds. There was no standardization of events for a rodeo competition until 1929, when associations began forming. In the 1970s, rodeo saw unprecedented growth. Contestants referred to; these contestants were young from an urban background, chose rodeo for its athletic rewards. By 1985, one third of PRCA members had a college education and one half of the competitors had never worked on a cattle ranch.
Today, some professional rodeos are staged in air-conditioned arenas. Many other professional rodeos are held outside, under the same conditions of heat, dust or mud as were the original events
Washington Huskies football
The Washington Huskies football team represents the University of Washington in college football. Washington competes in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision as a member of the North Division of the Pac-12 Conference; the team is led by head coach Chris Petersen. Husky Stadium, located on campus, has served as the home field for Washington since 1920. Washington has won seventeen conference championships, seven Rose Bowls, claims two national championships recognized by the NCAA; the school's all-time record ranks 20th by win percentage and 19th by total victories among FBS schools as of 2018. Washington holds the FBS record for the longest unbeaten streak at 64 consecutive games, as well as the second-longest winning streak at 40 wins in a row. There have been a total of twelve unbeaten seasons in school history, including seven perfect seasons. Washington is one of four charter members of what became the Pac-12 Conference and, along with California, is one of only two schools with uninterrupted membership.
From 1977 through 2003, Washington had 27 consecutive non-losing seasons—the most of any team in the Pac-12 and the 14th longest streak by an NCAA Division I-A team. Through the 2017 season, its 390 conference victories rank second in conference history. Washington is referred to as one of the top Quarterback U's due to the long history of quarterbacks playing in the National Football League, including the second-most QB starts in NFL history. Dating back to Warren Moon in 1976, 14 of the last 19 quarterbacks who have led the team in passing for at least one season have gone on to play in the NFL. Ten different men served as Washington head coaches during the first 18 seasons. While still an independent, the team progressed from playing 1 to 2 games per season to 10 matches per season as the sport grew in popularity; the school used a variety of locations for its home field. Home attendance grew from a few hundred to a few thousand per home game, with on-campus Denny Field becoming home from 1895 onward.
The 1900 team played in-state rival Washington State College to a 5–5 tie, in the first game in the annual contest known as the Apple Cup. Gil Dobie left North Dakota Agricultural and became Washington's head coach in 1908. Dobie coached for nine remarkable seasons at Washington. Dobie's career comprised all of Washington's NCAA all-time longest 64-game unbeaten streak and included a 40-game winning streak, second longest in NCAA Division I-A/FBS history. In 1916, Washington and three other schools formed the Pacific Coast Conference, predecessor to the modern Pac-12 Conference. In Dobie's final season at Washington, his 1916 team won the PCC's inaugural conference championship. Dobie was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1951 as a charter member. Following Dobie's tenure, Washington turned to a succession of coaches with mixed results. Claude J. Hunt went a cumulative 6–3–1 highlighted by the school's second PCC championship in 1919, Tony Savage 1–1, Stub Allison 1–5; this era concluded with the team's move from Denny Field to its permanent home field of Husky Stadium in 1920.
Washington athletics adopted the initial nickname of Sun Dodgers in 1919 used until 1922, before becoming the Huskies from 1923 onward. Enoch Bagshaw graduated from Washington in 1907 as the school's first five-year letterman in football history. After leading Everett High School from 1909 to 1920, including consecutive national championships in 1919 and 1920, Bagshaw returned to Washington as the first former player turned head coach in 1921 overseeing the program's second period of sustained success. Bagshaw's tenure was marked by 63–22–6 record and the school's first two Rose Bowl berths, resulting in a 14–14 tie against Navy in the 1924 Rose Bowl and a 19–20 loss to Alabama in the 1926 Rose Bowl, his 1925 team won the school's third PCC championship. Bagshaw left the program after his 1929 team had a losing season, only the second such season in his tenure. Bagshaw died the following year at the age of 46. James Phelan succeeded Bagshaw for the 1930 season; the Notre Dame graduate guided the Huskies to a 65–37–8 record over 12 seasons.
His 1936 team won the school's fourth PCC championship, but lost in the 1937 Rose Bowl to Pittsburgh 0–21. Phelan guided the Huskies to their first bowl game victory, beating Hawaii 53–13 in the 1938 Poi Bowl. In years, he became the first former Husky head coach to take the same role in professional football. Phelan was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1973. Following Phelan, Washington fielded a succession of teams under four coaches without either great success, or failure. Washington participated in one bowl game and tallied no conference championships during this period with an overall record of 65–68–7. Ralph Welch played at Purdue under head coach James Phelan, whom he followed to Washington to become an assistant coach in 1930. In 1942, Welch was promoted to succeed Phelan as Washington's head coach and served until 1947, compiling a record of 27–20–3. World War II limited both the 1943 and 1944 seasons of the PCC, reducing team participation from ten team down to just four.
Welch's 1943 team accepted the school's third Rose Bowl bid, but lost to PCC champion USC 0–29 in the 1944 Rose Bowl. Welch's first five teams all fielded winning records. Howard Odell joined Washington in 1948 from Yale. In his five seasons from 1948 to 1952, he compiled a record of 23–25–2 with two winning seasons. John Cherberg, a Washington player and assistant from 1946 to 1952, became head coach in 1953, he compiled a 10 -- 18 -- 2 record before being removed due to a payoff scandal. Cherberg went on to become Washington state's longest se
In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby gains possession of the ball for their team. It is seen in football, including American and Canadian football, as well as association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football and Gaelic football, as well as any sport by which a loose object is passed between players toward a goal. In basketball, a pick is called a steal. In American or Canadian football, an interception occurs when a forward pass is caught by a player of the opposing defensive team; this leads to an immediate change of possession during the play: the defender who caught the ball attempts to move the ball as far towards the opposing end zone as possible. Following the stoppage of play, if the interceptor retained possession of the ball, his team takes over possession at the spot where he was downed.
Because possession is a critical component in these sports, a successful interception can be a dramatic reversal of the teams' fortunes. Interceptions are predominantly made by the secondary or the linebackers, who are closest to the quarterback's intended targets, the wide receivers, running backs, tight ends. Less a defensive lineman may get an interception from a tipped ball, a near sack, a shovel pass, or a screen pass, but are more to force a fumble than get an interception; as soon as a pass is intercepted, everyone on the defense acts as blockers, helping the person with the interception get as much yardage as possible and a touchdown. If the interception occurs on an extra point attempt, rather than an ordinary play from scrimmage, a potential return of the interception to the other end zone is sometimes called a "pick two" as it would be a defensive two point conversion rather than a touchdown. For example, on December 4, 2016, the Kansas City Chiefs strong safety Eric Berry scored the game winning points via a pick two in a 29–28 victory over the Atlanta Falcons.
Berry achieved an ordinary pick six earlier in the same game. If the intercepting team can run out the clock, the intercepting player may down the ball and not attempt to gain any yardage; this eliminates the chance of a fumble. There are player safety implications: when the ball is turned over, the play is now and unexpectedly moving in the opposite direction. All of the players on offense are susceptible to unexpected blocks if not attempting to stop the ball carrier. Additionally, offensive players the quarterback, are inexperienced tacklers and are at risk of injuring themselves while tackling the ball carrier. Only the interception of a forward pass is recorded statistically as an interception, for both the passer and the intercepting player. If a receiver fails to catch the ball and bobbles or tips it before it is intercepted if his action was responsible for the interception, it is always recorded as an interception thrown by the passer; the interception of a lateral pass is recorded as a fumble by the passer.
James Johnson was named the Outstanding Player of the 95th Grey Cup on November 25, 2007, after intercepting a record three passes, including one for a 30-yard touchdown. His defensive efforts helped lead the Saskatchewan Roughriders to a 23–19 victory over their CFL Prairie rival Winnipeg Blue Bombers; this was the first time since 1994 that a defensive player was awarded the Grey Cup's top individual title. His most notable interception of the game was when he intercepted Ryan Dinwiddie's final pass and secured Saskatchewan's victory. Lester Hayes of the Oakland Raiders was one of the National Football League's leaders at interceptions in the late 1970s and early 1980s, he was known for covering his chest and forearms with a copious amount of the adhesive Stickum to help him hold on to the ball. After the NFL outlawed the use of such foreign substances in 1981, Hayes' success rate at interceptions dropped below average though that could be due to his reputation as a "shutdown cornerback", which discouraged opposing teams from throwing to his side of the field.
He continued to use the substance, which he called "pick juice", by having it applied in smaller amounts to his wrists. Paul Krause holds the record for most career interceptions, with 81, is tied for third place for most interceptions by an NFL rookie in his first season, with 12, he played his first three years in the NFL from 1964 to 1967 with the Washington Redskins but was traded to the Minnesota Vikings, where he spent most of his career. Krause appeared in four Super Bowls with the Vikings, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1998. Rod Woodson played 16 seasons with Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Oakland, holds the NFL record for most interception returns for touchdown in an NFL career with 12, he holds the NFL record for most total defensive TD returns in a career with 13. Woodson, third on the NFL all-time career interception list with 71, was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 2009. Former New Orleans Saints safety Darren Sharper, most notable for playing 8 seasons with the Green Bay Packers and the Minnesota Vikings from 2005 to 2008, has a career total of 63 interceptions, has returned 11 of those for touchdowns.
Sharper holds th
Caldwell is a city in and the county seat of Canyon County, United States. The population was 46,237 at the 2010 census. Caldwell is considered part of the Boise metropolitan area. Caldwell is the location of the College of College of Western Idaho; the present day location of the City of Caldwell is along a natural passageway to the Inland and Pacific Northwest. Indian tribes from the west coast, north Idaho and as far away as Colorado would come to the banks of the Boise River for annual trading fairs, or rendezvous. European, Brazilian and some Australian explorers and traders soon followed the paths left by Indians and hopeful emigrants forged the Oregon Trail and followed the now hardened paths to seek a better life in the Oregon Territory. Pioneers of the Trail traveled along the Boise River to Canyon Hill and forded the river close to the Silver Bridge on Plymouth Street. During the Civil War, the discovery of gold in Idaho's mountains brought a variety of new settlers into the area. Many never made it to the mines but chose to settle along the Boise River and run ferries, stage stations, freighting businesses.
These early entrepreneurs created small farms in the river valleys. Caldwell's inception occurred as a result of the construction of the Oregon Short Line Railroad, which connected Wyoming to Oregon through Idaho. Robert E. Strahorn came to the Boise River Valley in 1883 to select a route for the railroad, he chose a site thirty miles to the west. He drove a stake into an alkali flat of sagebrush and greasewood and the City of Caldwell was platted. Caldwell was named after one of Strahorn's business partners, Alexander Caldwell, a former Senator from the State of Kansas; when Caldwell was platted in August 1883, its founder, the Idaho and Oregon Land Improvement Company, started persuading settlers and businessmen to move to the area. Within four months, Caldwell had 600 residents living in 150 dwellings, 40 businesses in operation, a school, a telephone exchange and two newspapers. On January 15, 1890 the Board of Commissioners of Ada County issued a handwritten order incorporating the City of Caldwell.
The College of Idaho was founded in Caldwell in 1891 and still is in existence today. In 1892, Canyon County was established from a portion of Ada County. Caldwell was named the county seat. Irrigation canals and waterways were constructed throughout Canyon County; these facilities provided the foundation for an agricultural based economy in Caldwell. The Oregon Short Line Railroad became part of the larger Union Pacific Railroad network and in 1906 the Caldwell freight and passenger depot was constructed. Caldwell experienced moderate growth as an agricultural processing, commercial retail and educational center during the twentieth century. In March 1908, at the end of a series of trials relating to a Coeur d'Alene miners' uprising and the Colorado Labor Wars, Albert Horsley, better known by his pseudonym Harry Orchard, pleaded guilty in District Court in Caldwell to the assassination of former Idaho governor Frank Steunenberg. Judge Fremont Wood sentenced Orchard to hang, but his sentence was commuted, he lived out the rest of his life in an Idaho prison.
This result flowed from Orchard's having turned state's evidence and having become the prosecution's star witness against Big Bill Haywood and two other leaders of the Western Federation of Miners whom the prosecution alleged had masterminded Steunenberg's assassination. Haywood and his colleagues, represented by Clarence Darrow, were acquitted. Caldwell has five secondary schools—including Caldwell High School—and six elementary schools. Caldwell has 10 city parks, a public golf course near downtown, a city pool, two skateparks. In addition, the Caldwell Industrial Airport is located southeast of downtown; the College of Idaho is located in Caldwell and is one of the oldest four-year institutions in the state. Caldwell has a high-quality water system, which remained untreated and met all federal guidelines until the 1990s when the Federal Government mandated chlorination. Caldwell is located at 43°39′30″N 116°40′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.11 square miles, of which, 22.06 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water.
Caldwell experiences a semi-arid climate with hot, dry summers. At the 2010 census, there were 46,237 people, 14,895 households and 10,776 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,096.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,323 housing units at an average density of 739.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.5% White, 0.6% African American, 1.2% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 16.1% from other races, 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 35.4% of the population. There were 14,895 households of which 46.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 15.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.7% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.51.
The median age in the city was 28.2 years. 33.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.4% male and 50.6% female. The median household income was $37,336; the per capita income was $15,731. A
1999 NCAA Division I-A football season
The 1999 NCAA Division I-A football season saw Florida State named national champions, defeating Virginia Tech in the BCS Sugar Bowl. Florida State became the first team in history to start out preseason #1 and remain there through the entire season, their 12–0 season gave them 109 victories in the'90s, the most for any decade. Virginia Tech had a remarkable season behind freshman quarterback Michael Vick, being touted as college football's best player. Vick was outshined in the national championship game by Florida State Wide Receiver Peter Warrick. Warrick had early problems with the law, charged with a misdemeanor he sat out two games early in the season, but he scored three touchdowns in the title game. The BCS adopted a new rule after the previous season, nicknamed the "Kansas State Rule," which stated that any team ranked in the top four in the final BCS poll is assured of an invitation to a BCS bowl game. A lot of teams faced debacles. East Carolina faced Hurricane Floyd, in that same week, faced the #9 Miami Hurricanes.
The Pirates were down, 23–3, but scored 24 unanswered points to win the football game, 27–23. Kansas State finished 6th in the BCS standings but again received no BCS bowl invitation, this time being passed over in favor of Michigan. Kansas State's predicament demonstrated early on the problem of trying to balance historic bowl ties and creating a system which gives top bowl bids to the most deserving teams. In addition, for a second straight season, an undefeated team from outside the BCS Automatic Qualifying conferences went undefeated but did not receive a bid to a BCS bowl game, which illustrated the problem of BCS Non-Automatic Qualifying conference teams being shut out of the BCS bowls; the NCAA Rules Committee adopted the following changes for the 1999 season: Holding penalties committed behind the line of scrimmage will be enforced from the previous spot, modifying a 1991 rule that penalized holding committed behind the scrimmage line from the spot of the foul. The penalty for intentional grounding was changed from a five-yard penalty from the spot of the foul plus loss-of-down to a loss-of-down at the spot of the foul.
Bandannas that are visible are considered illegal equipment. Offensive teams may not break a huddle with 12 or more players. Continuing action dead-ball fouls against both teams are disregarded, however any disqualified players must leave the game. Two teams upgraded from Division I-AA, thus increasing the number of Division I-A schools from 112 to 114; the Mountain West Conference was formed prior to the season by eight former members of the Western Athletic Conference. Arkansas State joined the Big West Conference as its seventh member after three seasons as an independent. Two schools made the move up to Division I-A football this season: University at Buffalo and Middle Tennessee State University. Two programs, each playing as independents, changed their names prior to the season: After Northeast Louisiana University changed its name to the University of Louisiana at Monroe, the Northeast Louisiana Indians became the Louisiana–Monroe Indians. After the University of Southwestern Louisiana changed its name to the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, the Southwestern Louisiana Ragin' Cajuns became the Louisiana–Lafayette Ragin' Cajuns.
Rankings from final regular season AP poll Sugar Bowl: #1 Florida State 46, #2 Virginia Tech 29 Orange Bowl: #8 Michigan 35, #5 Alabama 34 Rose Bowl: #4 Wisconsin 17, #22 Stanford 9 Fiesta Bowl: #3 Nebraska 31, #6 Tennessee 21 Cotton Bowl Classic: #24 Arkansas 27, #12 Texas 6 Florida Citrus Bowl: #9 Michigan State 37, #10 Florida 34 Outback Bowl: #21 Georgia 28, #19 Purdue 25 Gator Bowl: #23 Miami 28, #17 Georgia Tech 13 Peach Bowl: #16 Mississippi State 17, Clemson 7 MicronPC Bowl: Illinois 63, Virginia 21 Sun Bowl: Oregon 24, #13 Minnesota 20 Alamo Bowl: #14 Penn State* 24, #18 Texas A&M 0 Insight.com Bowl: Colorado 62, #25 Boston College 28 Holiday Bowl: #7 Kansas State 24, Washington 20 Liberty Bowl: #15 Southern Mississippi 23, Colorado State 17 Aloha Bowl: Wake Forest 23, Arizona State 3 Oahu Bowl: Hawaii-Manoa 23, Oregon State 17 Independence Bowl: Mississippi 27, Oklahoma 25 Music City Bowl: Syracuse 20, Kentucky 13 Las Vegas Bowl: Utah 17, Fresno State 16 Motor City Bowl: #11 Marshall 21, BYU 3 Humanitarian Bowl: Boise State 34, Louisville 31 Mobile Alabama Bowl: TCU 28, #20 East Carolina 14 The Heisman Memorial Trophy Award is given to the Most Outstanding Player of the year Winner: Ron Dayne, Running Back 2.
Joe Hamilton, Ga. Tech 3. Michael Vick, Va. Tech 4. Drew Brees, Purdue 5. Chad Pennington, Marshall Maxwell Award – Ron Dayne, Wisconsin Walter Camp Award – Ron Dayne, Wisconsin Davey O'Brien Award – Joe Hamilton, Georgia Tech Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award – Chris Redman, Louisville Doak Walker Award – Ron Dayne, Wisconsin Fred Biletnikoff Award – Troy Walters, Stanford Bronko Nagurski Trophy – Corey Moore, Virginia Tech, DE Chuck Bednarik Award – LaVar Arrington, Penn State Dick Butkus Award – LaVar Arrington, Penn State Lombardi Award – Corey Moore, Virginia Tech, DE Outland Trophy – Chris Samuels, Alabama, OT Jim Thorpe Award – Tyrone Carter, Minnesota Lou Groza Award – Sebastian Janikowski, Florida St. Paul "Bear" Bryant Award – Frank Beamer, Virgin
The Montreal Alouettes are a professional Canadian football team based in Montreal, Quebec. Founded in 1946, the team has been revived twice; the Alouettes compete in the East Division of the Canadian Football League and last won the Grey Cup championship in 2010. Their home field is Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season and as of 2014 home of their playoff games; the original Alouettes team won four Grey Cups and were dominant in the 1970s. After their collapse in 1982, they were reconstituted under new ownership as the Montreal Concordes. After playing for four years as the Concordes, they revived the Alouettes name for the 1986 season. A second folding in 1987 led to a nine-year hiatus of CFL football in the city; the current Alouettes franchise was established in 1996 by the owners of the Baltimore Stallions. The Stallions were disbanded at the same time as the Alouettes' re-establishment after having been the most successful of the CFL's American expansion franchises, culminating in a Grey Cup championship in 1995.
Many players from the Stallions' 1995 roster signed with the Alouettes and formed the core of the team's 1996 roster. The CFL considers all clubs that have played in Montreal as one franchise dating to 1946, considers the Alouettes to have suspended operations in 1987 before returning in 1996. Although the Alouettes' re-establishment in 1996 is considered a relocation of the Stallions, neither the league nor the Alouettes recognize the Baltimore franchise, or its records, as part of the Alouettes' official team history; the latest incarnation of the Alouettes were arguably the best CFL team of the 2000s. The Alouettes had from 1996 to 2014 the CFL's longest active playoff streak, only having missed the playoffs three times since returning to the league; the streak came to an end in 2015. They have hosted a playoff game every year except 2001, 2007, 2013, from 2015 to 2017, their five losing seasons came in 2007, 2013 and from 2015 to 2017. The years 2015 to 2017 marked the first time the team missed the playoffs in consecutive years since their re-activation.
Major stars of the recent era include Mike Pringle, the CFL career leader in rushing yards, quarterback Anthony Calvillo, who leads all of pro football in career passing yards. The Alouettes are owned by American investment banker Robert Wetenhall, it is the only CFL team to have non-Canadian ownership. Jim Popp served as the team's general manager. Canadian football has a long history in Montreal, dating to the 1850s; the Alouettes were first formed in 1946 by Canadian Football Hall of Famer Lew Hayman along with businessmen Eric Cradock and Léo Dandurand. They named themselves after "Alouette", a work song about plucking the feathers from a skylark, which had become a symbol of the Québécois; the origin of the team’s name comes from the 425 Tactical Fighter Squadron – the Royal Canadian Air Force’s first French Canadian squadron. They won their first Grey Cup championship in 1949, beating Calgary 28–15 led by quarterback Frank Filchock and running back Virgil Wagner; the 1950s were a productive decade for the Als, with quarterback Sam Etcheverry throwing passes to John "Red" O'Quinn, "Prince" Hal Patterson, with Pat Abbruzzi carrying the ball, Montreal fielded the most dangerous offence in all Canadian football.
From 1954 to 1956, they reached the Grey Cup in three straight years, but questionable defensive units led the Alouettes to defeat against the Edmonton Eskimos all three times. The team was purchased in 1954 by Ted Workman – and while the team continued to enjoy success, that all changed at the end of the 1960 season. To be more specific, the team was shaken by an announcement on November 10 – namely the trade of Hal Patterson and Sam Etcheverry to the Hamilton Tiger-Cats for Bernie Faloney and Don Paquette. Workman had concluded the deal without consulting with general manager Perry Moss; the deal fell apart because Etcheverry had just signed a new contract with a no-trade clause. The deal was reworked and Patterson was traded for Paquette. Sam Etcheverry went on to play in the NFL with the St. Louis Cardinals for 2 years followed by the San Francisco 49ers in 1963. Faloney remained in Hamilton, teamed with Patterson to form one of the most deadly quarterback-receiver combinations in CFL history.
This episode remains one of the most lopsided trades made in the Alouettes history, it ushered in a dark decade for the team. During that time, they failed to register a single winning season. From 1968 to 1976 the team played in the Autostade stadium—which had been built as a temporary stadium for Expo 67; the stadium's less-than-desirable location on Montreal's waterfront near the Victoria Bridge led to dismal attendance, putting more strain on the team's finances. The Als bottomed out in 1969, finishing 2–12. After that season, Workman sold the team to the capable Sam Berger, a former part-owner of the Ottawa Rough Riders. Berger made immediate changes to the team. On December 9, the team announced that Sam Etcheverry was returning to the organization—this time as the team's new head coach; the team unveiled new uniforms—their home jerseys were now predominantly green, with red and white trim. The white helmets with the red "wings" used during the 1960s disappeared, replaced by a white helmet with a stylized green and red bird's head that formed a lower-case "a".
As one might expect from a team that had won only two games in
Gridiron football known as North American football or, in North America football, is a football sport played in the United States and Canada. American football, which uses 11-player teams, is the form played in the United States and the best known form of gridiron football worldwide, while Canadian football, featuring 12-player teams, predominates in Canada. Other derivative varieties include indoor football, football for smaller teams, informal games such as touch and flag football. Football is played at professional, semi-professional, amateur levels; the sport originated in the 19th century out of older games related to modern rugby football and soccer. American and Canadian football developed alongside each other and were more distinct before Canadian teams adopted features of the American game. Both varieties are distinguished from other football sports by their use of hard plastic helmets and shoulder pads, the forward pass, the system of downs, a number of unique rules and positions, measurement in customary units of yards, a distinctive brown leather ball in the shape of a prolate spheroid with pointed ends.
The international governing body for the sport is the International Federation of American Football. The sport is known as "football" in the countries where it originated, regardless of the specific variety. Various sources use the term "North American football" when discussing the American and Canadian games together, it is sometimes known as "gridiron football". This name originates with the sport's characteristic playing field, marked by a series of parallel lines along the width of the field in a pattern resembling a cooking gridiron. However, "gridiron football", or "gridiron" refers to American football sometimes in distinction from Canadian football. "Gridiron" is the usual name for American football in New Zealand. Some sources, including the International Federation of American Football, use "American football" inclusive of Canadian football and other varieties; the sport developed from informal games played in North America during the 19th century. Early games had a variety of local rules and were similar to modern rugby union and soccer.
By the 1860s, teams from universities were playing each other, leading to more standardized rules and the creation of college football. While several American schools adopted rules based on the soccer rules of the British Football Association, Harvard University held to its traditional "carrying game". Meanwhile, McGill University in Montreal used rules based on rugby union. In 1874, Harvard and McGill University in Montreal organized two games using each other's rules. Harvard took a liking to McGill's rugby-style rules, subsequently played several other U. S. colleges over the next several years. American football teams and organizations subsequently adopted new rules which distinguished the game from rugby. Among the most consequential changes was the adoption of the forward pass in 1906, which allowed the quarterback to throw the ball forward over the line of scrimmage to a receiver. Canadian football remained akin to rugby for decades, though a progressive faction of players, chiefly based in the western provinces, demanded changes to the game based on the innovations in American football.
Over the years, the sport adopted more Americanized rules, though it retained some of its historical features, including a 110-yard field, 12-player teams, three downs instead of four. American football is the most common and known of these sports, it was more related to rugby, until various rule changes created by Walter Camp were implemented in 1880. It is played with eleven players to four downs and a 100-yard field; the major professional league, the National Football League, has its own rule book. College football programs play under the code defined in the NCAA Football Rules and Interpretations. High schools follow the rules and interpretations published by the National Federation of High School Associations, although some states follow the NCAA code for high school play. Youth games follow NFHS code with modifications. Adult semi-pro and minor professional, touch, etc. may follow any one of these codes or use their own rules. While the vast majority of the game is the same among these three codes, subtle variations in rules can lead to large difference in play.
Many of the differences are in the definitions of fouls. Canadian football is played exclusively in Canada. Like its American cousin, it was more related to rugby, until the Burnside rules were adopted in 1903; the game has three downs and twelve players to a side. The Canadian game features a one-point "single" for a ball kicked into the end zone and not returned by the receiving team. Like the American game, the Canadian Football League and Canadian Interuniversity Sport both have their own rulebooks, although there are fewer differences than between their American counterparts. Nine-man football, eight-man football and six-man football are varieties of gridiron football played with fewer players, they are played with four downs (often with a 15-yard requirement f