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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease or celiac disease is a long-term autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine. Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally; this begins between six months and two years of age. Non-classic symptoms are more common in people older than two years. There may be mild or absent gastrointestinal symptoms, a wide number of symptoms involving any part of the body or no obvious symptoms. Coeliac disease was first described in childhood, it is associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 1 and thyroiditis, among others. Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, a group of various proteins found in wheat and in other grains such as barley and rye. Moderate quantities of oats, free of contamination with other gluten-containing grains, are tolerated; the occurrence of problems may depend on the variety of oat. It occurs in people. Upon exposure to gluten, an abnormal immune response may lead to the production of several different autoantibodies that can affect a number of different organs.

In the small bowel, this causes an inflammatory reaction and may produce shortening of the villi lining the small intestine. This affects the absorption of nutrients leading to anaemia. Diagnosis is made by a combination of blood antibody tests and intestinal biopsies, helped by specific genetic testing. Making the diagnosis is not always straightforward; the autoantibodies in the blood are negative, many people have only minor intestinal changes with normal villi. People may have severe symptoms and they may be investigated for years before a diagnosis is achieved; the diagnosis is being made in people without symptoms, as a result of screening. Evidence regarding the effects of screening, however, is not sufficient to determine its usefulness. While the disease is caused by a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins, it is distinct from wheat allergy, much more rare; the only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet, which leads to recovery of the intestinal mucosa, improves symptoms and reduces risk of developing complications in most people.

If untreated, it may result in cancers such as intestinal lymphoma and a increased risk of early death. Rates vary between different regions of the world, from as few as 1 in 300 to as many as 1 in 40, with an average of between 1 in 100 and 1 in 170 people, it is estimated that 80% of cases remain undiagnosed because of minimal or absent gastrointestinal complaints and lack of knowledge of symptoms and diagnostic criteria. Coeliac disease is more common in women than in men; the classic symptoms of untreated coeliac disease include pale and greasy stool, weight loss or failure to gain weight. Other common symptoms may be subtle or occur in organs other than the bowel itself, it is possible to have coeliac disease without any of the classic symptoms at all. This has been shown to comprise at least 43% of presentations in children. Further, many adults with subtle disease may only present with anaemia. Many undiagnosed individuals who consider themselves asymptomatic are in fact not, but rather have become accustomed to living in a state of chronically compromised health.

Indeed, after starting a gluten-free diet and subsequent improvement becomes evident, such individuals are able to retrospectively recall and recognise prior symptoms of their untreated disease which they had mistakenly ignored. Diarrhoea, characteristic of coeliac disease is chronic, sometimes pale, of large volume, abnormally bad smelling. Abdominal pain, bloating with abdominal distension, mouth ulcers may be present; as the bowel becomes more damaged, a degree of lactose intolerance may develop. The symptoms are ascribed to irritable bowel syndrome, only to be recognised as coeliac disease. In populations of people with symptoms of IBS, a diagnosis of coeliac disease can be made in about 3.3% of cases, or 4x more than in general. Screening them for coeliac disease is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, the British Society of Gastroenterology and the American College of Gastroenterology, but is of unclear benefit in North America. Coeliac disease leads to an increased risk of both lymphoma of the small bowel.

This risk is higher in first-degree relatives such as siblings and children. Whether or not a gluten-free diet brings. Long-standing and untreated disease may lead to other complications, such as ulcerative jejunitis and stricturing; the changes in the bowel make it less able to absorb nutrients and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K. The inability to absorb carbohydrates and fats may cause weight fatigue or lack of energy. Anaemia may develop in several ways: iron malabsorption may cause iron deficiency anaemia, folic acid and vitamin B12 malabsorption may give rise to megaloblastic anaemia. Calcium and vitamin D malabsorption may cause osteoporosis. Selenium malabsorption in coeliac dise

Trecchi Castle (Maleo)

Trecchi Castle is a 15th-century fortress located in Maleo, Province of Lodi, Italy. The construction of the building is attributed to architect Pellegrino Tibaldi; the castle was transformed into a country villa over time. 1532-1560: construction with moat and flanking towers. 1567: Bernardino Campi designed the painted decoration of the vault of the octagonal chapel of the hall of Olympus, the Apollo chamber, the hall of Poseidon. 1645: The castle became the property of the Marquis of Giovan Battista Trecchi, remained in the possession of the family of Cremona until the 1970s, when it was sold. Vedi la tesi di laurea di Gaia Polo, L’attività milanese di Bernardino Campi, Anno Acc. 2001-2002 R. Miller, in I Campi. Cultura artistica cremonese del 500, a cura di M. Gregori, Milano 1985, pp. 154–170 Painting in Italy ISBN 978-88-435-1153-2 Corrierre della seara

Eastlake Movement

The Eastlake Movement was a nineteenth-century architectural and household design reform movement started by British architect and writer Charles Eastlake. The movement is considered part of the late Victorian period in terms of broad antique furniture designations. In architecture the Eastlake Style or Eastlake architecture is part of the Queen Anne style of Victorian architecture. Eastlake's book Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and Other Details posited that furniture and decor in people's homes should be made by hand or machine workers who took personal pride in their work. Manufacturers in the United States used the drawings and ideas in the book to create mass-produced Eastlake Style or Cottage furniture; the geometric ornaments, low relief carvings, incised lines were designed to be affordable and easy to clean. Two well-known Eastlake style houses in the Los Angeles area, in Echo Park and Angelino Heights, are both on Carroll Avenue; the first is at 1330 Carroll Avenue. It was used in Michael Jackson's Thriller music video, as well as in episodes of the television show Charmed, was a focus set in the episode "Size Matters."The second house is at 1329 Carroll Avenue.

The exterior of this house has been shown, in one way or another, in all 178 episodes of Charmed, through eight seasons, from 1999–2006. In the show the house was dubbed "Halliwell Manor"; the house depicted in the show shares the same house number, 1329, but is on the fictional Prescott Street in San Francisco. This house is depicted in the Sims video game, where it is a dollhouse. Chateau-sur-Mer, on Bellevue Avenue in Newport, Rhode Island, was altered and expanded during the gilded age to incorporate an Eastlake style billiard room and bedrooms. Glenview Mansion, the John Bond Trevor Home, in Yonkers, completed in 1877. Glenview is now part of the Hudson River Museum and has six interpreted period rooms in the Eastlake style. Victorian decorative arts Category: Victorian architectural styles Stick-Eastlake