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Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. All genomes sequenced to date encode enzymes that use coenzyme A as a substrate, around 4% of cellular enzymes use it as a substrate. In humans, CoA biosynthesis requires cysteine and adenosine triphosphate. In its acetyl form, coenzyme A is a versatile molecule, serving metabolic functions in both the anabolic and catabolic pathways. Acetyl-CoA is utilised in the post-translational regulation and allosteric regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and carboxylase to maintain and support the partition of pyruvate synthesis and degradation. Coenzyme A was identified by Fritz Lipmann in 1946, who later gave it its name, its structure was determined during the early 1950s at the Lister Institute, together by Lipmann and other workers at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital. Lipmann intended to study acetyl transfer in animals, from these experiments he noticed a unique factor, not present in enzyme extracts but was evident in all organs of the animals.

He was able to isolate and purify the factor from pig liver and discovered that its function was related to a coenzyme, active in choline acetylation. The coenzyme was named coenzyme A to stand for "activation of acetate". In 1953, Fritz Lipmann won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism". Coenzyme A is synthesized from pantothenate, found in food such as meat, cereal grains, legumes and milk. In humans and most living organisms, pantothenate is an essential vitamin that has a variety of functions. In some plants and bacteria, including Escherichia coli, pantothenate can be synthesised de novo and is therefore not considered essential; these bacteria synthesize pantothenate from the amino acid aspartate and a metabolite in valine biosynthesis. In all living organisms, coenzyme A is synthesized in a five-step process that requires four molecules of ATP, pantothenate and cysteine: Pantothenate is phosphorylated to 4′-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme pantothenate kinase.

This is the committed step in CoA biosynthesis and requires ATP. A cysteine is added to 4′-phosphopantothenate by the enzyme phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase to form 4'-phospho-N-pantothenoylcysteine; this step is coupled with ATP hydrolysis. PPC is decarboxylated to 4′-phosphopantetheine by phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase 4′-Phosphopantetheine is adenylated to form dephospho-CoA by the enzyme phosphopantetheine adenylyl transferase Finally, dephospho-CoA is phosphorylated to coenzyme A by the enzyme dephosphocoenzyme A kinase; this final step requires ATP. Enzyme nomenclature abbreviations in parentheses represent eukaryotic and prokaryotic enzymes respectively; this pathway is regulated by product inhibition. CoA is a competitive inhibitor for Pantothenate Kinase, which binds ATP. Coenzyme A, three ADP, one monophosphate, one diphosphate are harvested from biosynthesis. New research shows that coenzyme A can be synthesized through alternate routes when intracellular coenzyme A level are reduced and the de novo pathway is impaired.

In these pathways, coenzyme A needs to be provided from an external source, such as food, in order to produce 4′-phosphopantetheine. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphates degrade coenzyme A to 4′-phosphopantetheine, a stable molecule in organisms. Acyl carrier proteins are used to produce 4′-phosphopantetheine; this pathways allows for 4′-phosphopantetheine to be replenished in the cell and allows for the conversion to coenzyme A through enzymes, PPAT and PPCK. Coenzyme A is produced commercially via extraction from yeast, however this is an inefficient process resulting in an expensive product. Various ways of producing CoA synthetically, or semi-synthetically have been investigated although none are operating at an industrial scale. Since coenzyme A is, in chemical terms, a thiol, it can react with carboxylic acids to form thioesters, thus functioning as an acyl group carrier, it assists in transferring fatty acids from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acyl group is referred to as acyl-CoA.

When it is not attached to an acyl group, it is referred to as'CoASH' or'HSCoA'. This process facilitates the production of fatty acids in cells, which are essential in cell membrane structure. Coenzyme A is the source of the phosphopantetheine group, added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein and formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase. Coenzyme A is one of five crucial coenzymes that are necessary in the reaction mechanism of the citric acid cycle, its acetyl-coenzyme A form is the primary input in the citric acid cycle and is obtained from glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid beta oxidation. This process is the body's primary catabolic pathway and is essential in breaking down the building blocks of the cell such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids; when there is excess glucose, coenzyme A is used in the cytosol for synthesis of fatty acids. This process is implemented by regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the committed step in fatty acid synthesis.

Insulin stimulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, while glucagon inhibit its activity. During cell starvation, coenzyme A is synthesized and transports fatty acids in the cytosol to the mitochondria. Here, acetyl-C


Pontiothauma is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Raphitomidae. The fusiform shell is not umbilicate, anteriorly obliquely folded; the shell is spirally furrowed by lirae. The aperture ends in a short siphonal canal; the simple columella is not folded. The outer lip is thin, posteriorly wide but not sinuate; the shell lacks an operculum. The enormously expanded rostrum, the absence of eyes and operculum, at once separate this genus from any which it approaches in shell-character. Species within the genus Pontiothauma include: Pontiothauma abyssicola Smith E. A. 1895 Pontiothauma minus Smith E. A. 1906 Pontiothauma mirabile Smith E. A. 1895 Pontiothauma pacei Smith E. A. 1906Species brought into synonymy Pontiothauma ergata Hedley, 1916: synonym of Belaturricula ergata Pontiothauma fusiforme Habe, 1962: synonym of Spergo fusiformis Pontiothauma hedleyi Dell, 1990: synonym of Aforia hedleyi Pontiothauma viridis: synonym of Belomitra viridis Pace, S. "On the Anatomy of the Prosobranch Genus Pontiothauma, EA Smith."

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 28.186: 455-462. Smith, Edgar A. "I.—Natural history notes from HM Indian marine survey steamer ‘Investigator,’commander CF Oldham, RN—Series II. No. 19. Report upon the Mollusca dredged in the bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea during the season 1893–94." Journal of Natural History 16.91: 1-19. Smith, Edgar A. "XXV.—Natural history notes form RIMS ‘Investigator.’—Series III. No. 10. On Mollusca from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea." Journal of Natural History 18.105: 157-175. Powell, A. W. B. "Mollusca of Antarctic and Subantarctic seas." Biogeography and ecology in Antarctica. Springer, Dordrecht, 1965. 333-380. Tucker, J. K.. "Catalog of recent and fossil turrids". Zootaxa. 682: 1–1295. Doi:10.11646/zootaxa.682.1.1. Worldwide Mollusc Species Data Base: Raphitomidae Bouchet, P.. A new operational classification of the Conoidea. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 77: 273-308. Kantor, Yuri I. and John D. Taylor. "Foregut anatomy and relationships of raphitomine gastropods."

Bollettino Malacologico 38: 83-110

Leon J. Davis

Leon Julian Davis was a Polish-born American labor leader who co-founded the Local 1199 of the Drug and Health Care Employees Union as 1199SEIU United Healthcare Workers East. Davis was born in Pinsk, Russian Empire, on November 21, 1906. At the age of 15 he settled with his Russian-speaking family in Hartford, where he attended public schools and learned English. In 1927 his family moved to New York City. After two years at Columbia University's pharmacy school, he left to become a drug store clerk. In 1932 he founded Local 1199 of the Drug and Health Care Employees Union, which he ran for a half century. Local 1199 was a leader in walkouts in Charleston, South Carolina, he fought for collective bargaining, higher wages, better work conditions, higher living standards. Union members included: clerks, aides, laundry workers, dishwashers, elevator operators, other employees in hospitals, nursing homes and pharmacies. Local 1199 peaked at some 150,000 members in the late 1970s, it was early among unions to establish education and training for members and housing for members' families, scholarships and camps for members' children.

During the Vietnam War, Local 1199 took an early anti-war position. It supported the civil rights movement. In 1948, Davis appeared before a Congressional committee and denied membership in the Communist Party. However, he did testify that labor in general shared many social objectives with him. Davis married a social worker, he loved art and theater, read literature in three languages, gardened at his home in Flushing, New York. He died of heart failure on September 14, 1992, at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New Hyde Park, New York. Martin Luther King referred to Davis's organization as "my favorite union". A Manhattan city block on West 43rd Street between Eighth and Ninth Avenues, near the Local 1199 headquarters at 310 West 43rd Street, was named in his honor. Two books about the union, Upheaval in the Quiet Zone and Not for Bread Alone examine the deep patriarchal connection between Davis and Local 1199. SEIU New York 1199 Guide to the National Union Of Hospital And Nursing Home Employees, Local 1199 Drug and Hospital Union.

Additional Papers. Leon Davis, Cornell University Library Guide to the Leon Davis Classroom Presentation, Spring 1976, at the Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library Hip Hop Is Read: Leon J. Davis

Rock River Generating Station

Rock River Generating Station was an electrical power station located north of Beloit, Wisconsin in the town of Beloit at 827 W. B. R. Townline Road on the west bank of the Rock River; the facility was owned and operated by Wisconsin Power and Light, a wholly owned subsidiary of Alliant Energy. The facility opened in the early 1950s and consists of two 280 megawatts Babcock & Wilcox cyclone boilers each with one steam turbine. Designed to burn Illinois Basin bituminous coal supplied by rail car or barge, the site switched to natural gas or lower sulfur Powder River Basin coal. Additionally, a 30 MW combustion turbine was added in 1967 and two 50 MW combustion turbines were added between 1972 and 1977; as of 2000, the boilers were capable of operating on a variety of fuel sources, including natural gas, Powder River Basin coal, #2 fuel oil and tire-derived fuel. Coal has not been burned at the site since 2007 because the facility closed the landfill it had used for fly ash. Coal burning boilers, Unit 1 and 2, were retired April 1, 2010.

Electricity was generated via steam turbines and process water was taken from the Rock River. On June 25, 2016, a worker was killed. Demolition was expected to be completed by the end of 2016. An Alliant maintenance facility, Southern Area, Riverside Energy Center, a 603 MW combined cycle natural gas facility owned by Calpine, are located adjacent to the station. A second combined cycle natural gas plant was approved for construction March 31, 2016 at Riverside Energy Center, just west of the Rock River Generating station. List of power stations in Wisconsin

Abraham Unger

Abraham Unger was a 20th-Century American lawyer, co-founder and officer of the National Lawyers Guild, partner in the law firm of Freedman and Unger. Defendants included: Communist Party, state-level Party organizations, individual Communist and Progressive activists, radical and/or Communist-associated labor unions and their leaders and activists, Puerto Rican nationalists, fellow lawyers charged with contempt and other crimes in connection with their defense of radicals. Colleague Victor Rabinowitz noted in his memoir that Unger was "a lawyer who represented the Communist party." Unger graduated from New York University's Law School. In 1931, Unger worked for the defense of the Scottsboro Boys as a member of the International Labor Defense, a branch of the CPUSA. In 1937, he helped co-found the National Lawyers Guild, served as a national officer, headed its New York chapter for many years. An investigative report on the NLG showed Unger as a national executive board member for 1949 and 1950.

In 1949, he defended some of the twelve Party leaders in the Smith Act trials. In 1951, Unger joined more than half a dozen other lawyers in defending 17 Communist Party members, including Elizabeth Gurley Flynn; the communists were accused of conspiring to "teach and advocate violent overthrow" of the government. The other lawyers were: Abraham L. Pomerantz, Carol Weiss King, Victor Rabinowitz, Michael Begun, Harold I. Cammer, Mary Kaufman, Leonard Boudin, they were relieved by O. John Rogge, gangster Frank Costello's lawyer George Wolf, William W. Kleinman, Joseph L. Delaney, Frank Serri, Osmond K. Fraenkel, Henry G. Singer, Abraham J. Gellinoff, Raphael P. Koenig, Nicholas Atlas. In 1952, he petitioned for the commutation of Oscar Collazo’s life sentence for his attempted assassination of U. S. President Harry S. Truman. In 1953, he faced indictment for contempt refusing to answer questions from Senator Joseph McCarthy before the U. S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, he would not respond as to whether he headed the Party's section for professionals.

In the mid-1950s, he defended Puerto Rican nationalist Juan Bernardo Lebron, charged as a conspirator in the 1954 attack on the U. S. House of Representatives. Rabinowitz's circle of Communist-leaning lawyer friends included Unger, Harry Sacher, David Freedman, David Rein, Joseph Forer, Marty Popper. Like Popper, Unger defaulted to invocation of the Fifth Amendment as a standard operating procedure for clients. National Lawyers Guild "Guide to the Abraham Unger Papers TAM.157: Historical/Biographical Note". Tamiment Library. January 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017. Rabinowitz, Victor. Unrepentant Leftist: A Lawyer's Memoir. University of Illinois Press. Retrieved 5 August 2017

Nuri Berköz

M. Nuri Berköz was an Ottoman/Turkish Army soldier, he was born in Shaki, Azerbaijan in 1889. After completing his primary education in the local Russian-Tatar School, his father decided to immigrate to Ottoman Turkey with his family in early twentieth century. Upon the death of his father a while after their arrival at Bursa, he and his younger brother Mahmud first enrolled with the Bursa Military Junior High School Bursa Military High School. After graduating from Işıklar, he was admitted in 1909 to the Ottoman Military Academy in Istanbul, graduated from this distinguished institution as a young infantry lieutenant in 1912. At the outset of the First World War, he was first sent to the eastern front to join the Second Caucasus Corps; as he spoke fluent Russian, after a while it was considered more appropriate to employ his capabilities not at the battlefront, but elsewhere. He was first sent to Iranian Azerbaijan on a special mission in 1916, to Denmark and Sweden. Between 1917 and 1918, during the revolution years in Russia, he was stationed in Saint Petersburg and in Moscow as a member of the special commission dispatched for the exchange of Ottoman-Russian Prisoners of War.

When the First World War ended, he returned to Turkey and enrolled with the Ottoman Military College in Istanbul in 1919. As the Turkish War of Independence started, he and his brother Mahmud interrupted their education at the Military College and rushed to Anatolia to join Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's forces. During the Independence War, he served on the western front. After the victory, he completed the remaining part of his education at the War College and graduated as a staff officer with the rank of major. In 1930 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel and between 1932 and 1933 served in Geneva, Switzerland as the military adviser to the Turkish delegation attending to the first World Disarmament Conference organized by the League of Nations. In 1933, he was promoted to the rank of colonel and was chosen to accompany the Soviet delegation invited to attend the 10th anniversary celebrations of the young Turkish Republic. In 1935, he attended military maneuvers in Kiev, Ukraine as the chief of staff of the Turkish Military Delegation and between 1936-1937 was sent to Moscow as the Turkish Military Attaché.

Over all these years, he knew many prominent Soviet military and political figures of that period in person. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1939 and to the rank of major general in 1941. During the Second World War period, he served as a division commander for four years on the eastern border of Turkey, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general in 1946. In 1947, he became the Operational Deputy Chief of the Turkish General Staff; when he retired in 1950, he was the General commander of Gendarmerie. Lt. General Berköz died in 1975, his decorations included Silver Order of Merit, Medal of Independence etc.. Besides Russian, he spoke some Swedish. Along his military career, he was deeply interested in history, Russian literature and Turkic languages; because of his interest in Turkic languages, he was invited to join the special committee set by Turkish Language Association to translate Edouard K. Pekarski's Yakut-Russian dictionary into Turkish. Apart from this, he authored and translated from Russian a number of military books and wrote newspaper articles on military and strategic issues