French and Raven's bases of power
In a notable study of power conducted by social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram Raven in 1959, power is divided into five separate and distinct forms. In 1965 Raven revised this model to include a sixth form by separating the informational power base as distinct from the expert power base. Relating to social communication studies, power in social influence settings has introduced a large realm of research pertaining to persuasion tactics and leadership practices. Through social communication studies, it has been theorized that leadership and power are linked, it has been further presumed that different forms of power affect one's success. This idea is used in organizational communication and throughout the workforce. In a notable study of power conducted by social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram Raven in 1959, power is divided into five separate and distinct forms, they identified those five bases of power as coercive, legitimate and expert. This was followed by Raven's subsequent identification in 1965 of a sixth separate and distinct base of power: informational power.
Furthermore and Raven defined social influence as a change in the belief, attitude, or behavior of a person which results from the action of another person, they defined social power as the potential for such influence, that is, the ability of the agent to bring about such a change using available resources. Though there have been many formal definitions of leadership that did not include social influence and power, any discussion of leadership must deal with the means by which a leader gets the members of a group or organization to act and move in a particular direction. Whereby, this is to be considered "power" in social influential situations; the original French and Raven model included five bases of power – reward, legitimate and referent – however, informational power was added by Raven in 1965, bringing the total to six. Since the model has gone through significant developments: coercion and reward can have personal as well as impersonal forms. Expert and referent power can be positive.
Legitimate power, in addition to position power, may be based on other normative obligations: reciprocity and responsibility. Information may be utilized in indirect fashion. French and Raven defined social power as the potential for influence (a change in the belief, attitude or behavior of a someone, the target of influence; as we know leadership and power are linked. This model shows how the different forms of power affect one's success; this idea is used in organizational communication and throughout the workforce. "The French-Raven power forms are introduced with consideration of the level of observability and the extent to which power is dependent or independent of structural conditions. Dependency refers to the degree of internalization that occurs among persons subject to social control. Using these considerations it is possible to link personal processes to structural conditions"; the bases of social power have evolved over the years with benefits coming from advanced research and theoretical developments in related fields.
On the basis of research and evidence, there have been many other developments and elaborations on the original theory. French and Raven developed an original model outlining the change dependencies and further delineating each power basis. Though it is a common understanding that most social influence can still be understood by the original six bases of power, the foundational bases have been elaborated and further differentiated. Further Differentiating the Bases of Social Power As mentioned above, there are now six main concepts of power strategies studied in social communication research, they are described as Coercive, Legitimate, Referent and Informational. Additionally, research has shown that source credibility has an explicit effect on the bases of power used in persuasion. Source credibility, the bases of power, objective power, established based on variables such as position or title, are interrelated; the levels of each have levels of one another. The bases of power differ according to the manner in which social changes are implemented, the permanence of such changes, the ways in which each basis of power is established and maintained.
The effectiveness of power is situational. Given there are six bases of power studied in the Communication field, it is important to know the situational uses of each power, focusing on when each is most effective. According to French and Raven, "it is of particular practical interest to know what bases of power or which power strategies are most to be effective, but it is clear that there is no simple answer. For example, a power strategy that works but relies on surveillance may not last once surveillance ends. One organizational study found that reward power tended to lead to greater satisfaction on the part of employees, which means that it might increase influence in a broad range of situations. Coercive power was more effective in influencing a subordinate who jeopardized the success of the overall organization or threatened the leader's authority though in the short term it led to resentment on the part of the target. A power strategy that leads to private acceptance and long-lasting change may be difficult to implement, consume considerable
Edward N. Zalta
Edward N. Zalta is a senior research scholar at the Center for the Study of Language and Information, he received his PhD in philosophy from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 1980. Zalta has taught courses at Stanford University, Rice University, the University of Salzburg, the University of Auckland. Zalta is the Principal Editor of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Zalta's most notable philosophical position is descended from the position of Alexius Meinong and Ernst Mally, who suggested that there are many non-existent objects. On Zalta's account, some objects "exemplify" properties, while others "encode" them. While the objects that exemplify properties are discovered through traditional empirical means, a simple set of axioms allows us to know about objects that encode properties. For every set of properties, there is one object that encodes that set of properties and no others; this allows for a formalized ontology. Media related to Edward N. Zalta at Wikimedia Commons Official website CV
Robert Jay Lifton
Robert Jay Lifton is an American psychiatrist and author, chiefly known for his studies of the psychological causes and effects of wars and political violence and for his theory of thought reform. He was an early proponent of the techniques of psychohistory. Lifton was born in 1926, in Brooklyn, New York, the son of businessman Harold A. Lifton, Ciel Lifton née Roth. In 1942, he enrolled at Cornell University at the age of 16 and was admitted to New York Medical College in 1944, graduating in 1948, he interned at the Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn in 1948-49, had his psychiatric residence training at the Downstate Medical Center, New York in 1949-51. From 1951 to 1953 he served as an Air Force psychiatrist in Japan and Korea, to which he attributed his interest in war and politics, he has since worked as a teacher and researcher at the Washington School of Psychiatry, Harvard University, the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, where he helped to found the Center for the Study of Human Violence.
He has two children. She died in Boston on November 2010, from complications of pneumonia. Lifton calls cartooning his avocation, he is a member of Collegium International, an organization of leaders with political and ethical expertise whose goal is to provide new approaches in overcoming the obstacles in the way of a peaceful just and an economically sustainable world. In 2012, Lifton was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from The New School. During the 1960s, together with his mentor Erik Erikson and MIT historian Bruce Mazlish, formed a group to apply psychology and psychoanalysis to the study of history. Meetings were held at Lifton's home in Massachusetts; the Wellfleet Psychohistory Group, as it became known, focused on psychological motivations for war and genocide in recent history. In 1965, they received sponsorship from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences to establish psychohistory as a separate field of study. A collection of research papers by the group was published in 1975: Explorations in Psychohistory: The Wellfleet Papers.
Lifton's work in this field was influenced by Erikson's studies of Hitler and other political figures, as well as Sigmund Freud's concern with the mass social effects of deep-seated drives attitudes toward death. Beginning in 1953, Lifton interviewed American servicemen, prisoners of war during the Korean War as well as priests and students or teachers, held in prison in China after 1951. In addition to interviews with 25 Americans and Europeans, Lifton interviewed 15 Chinese who had fled after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. Lifton's 1961 book Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China, based on this research, was a study of coercive techniques used in the People's Republic of China that he labelled "thought reform" or "brainwashing", though he preferred the former term; the term "thought-terminating cliché" was popularized in this book. Lifton found that when the POWs returned to the United States their thinking soon returned to normal, contrary to the popular image of "brainwashing."
A 1989 reprint edition was published by University of North Carolina Press. Several of his books featured mental adaptations that people made in extreme wartime environments: Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima, Home from the War: Vietnam Veterans—Neither Victims nor Executioners, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. Regarding Hiroshima and Vietnam survivors or Nazi perpretators, Lifton believed that the psychic fragmentation experienced by his subjects was an extreme form of the pathologies that arise in peacetime life due to the pressures and fears of modern society, his studies of the behavior of people who had committed war crimes, both individually and in groups, concluded that while human nature is not innately cruel and only rare sociopaths can participate in atrocities without suffering lasting emotional harm, such crimes do not require any unusual degree of personal evil or mental illness, are nearly sure to happen given certain conditions which Lifton called "atrocity-producing situations".
The Nazi Doctors was the first in-depth study of how medical professionals rationalized their participation in the Holocaust, from the early stages of the T-4 Euthanasia Program to the extermination camps. In the Hiroshima and Vietnam studies, Lifton concluded that the sense of personal disintegration many people experienced after witnessing death and destruction on a mass scale could lead to a new emotional resilience—but that without the proper support and counseling, most survivors would remain trapped in feelings of unreality and guilt. In her 2005 autobiography My Life So Far, Jane Fonda would come to describe Lifton's work with Vietnam veterans, along with that of fellow psychiatrists Drs. Leonard Neff, Chaim Shatan, Sarah Haley, as "tireless and empathetic". Lifton was one of the first organizers of therapeutic discussion groups on this subject in which mental health practitioners met with veterans face-to-face, he and Dr. Neff lobbied for the inclusion of post-traumatic stress disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
His book on Hiroshima survivors won the 1969 National Book Award in Science. Totalism, a word first used in Thought Reform, is Lifton's term for the characteristics of ideological movements and organizations that desire total control over human behavior and thought. Lifton's usage differs from t
Brainwashing is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques. Brainwashing is said to reduce its subject’s ability to think critically or independently, to allow the introduction of new, unwanted thoughts and ideas into the subject’s mind, as well as to change his or her attitudes and beliefs; the concept of brainwashing was developed in the 1950s to explain how the Chinese government appeared to make people cooperate with them. Advocates of the concept looked at Nazi Germany, at some criminal cases in the United States, at the actions of human traffickers, it was applied by Margaret Singer, Philip Zimbardo, some others in the anti-cult movement to explain conversions to some new religious movements and other groups. This resulted in scientific and legal debate with Eileen Barker, James Richardson, other scholars, as well as legal experts, rejecting at least the popular understanding of brainwashing; the concept of brainwashing is sometimes involved in legal cases regarding child custody.
Although the term appears in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association brainwashing is not accepted as scientific fact. The Chinese term xǐnăo was used to describe the coercive persuasion used under the Maoist government in China, which aimed to transform "reactionary" people into "right-thinking" members of the new Chinese social system; the term punned on the Taoist custom of "cleansing / washing the heart / mind" before conducting ceremonies or entering holy places. The Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known English-language usage of the word "brainwashing" in an article by newspaperman Edward Hunter, in Miami News, published on 24 September 1950. Hunter was an outspoken anticommunist and was alleged to be a CIA agent working undercover as a journalist. Hunter and others used the Chinese term to explain why, during the Korean War, some American prisoners of war cooperated with their Chinese captors in a few cases defected to their side.
British radio operator Robert W. Ford and British army Colonel James Carne claimed that the Chinese subjected them to brainwashing techniques during their war-era imprisonment; the U. S. military and government laid charges of brainwashing in an effort to undermine confessions made by POWs to war crimes, including biological warfare. After Chinese radio broadcasts claimed to quote Frank Schwable, Chief of Staff of the First Marine Air Wing admitting to participating in germ warfare, United Nations commander Gen. Mark W. Clark asserted: Whether these statements passed the lips of these unfortunate men is doubtful. If they did, too familiar are the mind-annihilating methods of these Communists in extorting whatever words they want.... The men themselves are not to blame, they have my deepest sympathy for having been used in this abominable way. Beginning in 1953, Robert Jay Lifton interviewed American servicemen, POWs during the Korean War as well as priests and teachers, held in prison in China after 1951.
In addition to interviews with 25 Americans and Europeans, Lifton interviewed 15 Chinese citizens who had fled after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. Lifton found that when the POWs returned to the United States their thinking soon returned to normal, contrary to the popular image of "brainwashing."In 1956, after reexamining the concept of brainwashing following the Korean War, the U. S. Army published a report entitled Communist Interrogation and Exploitation of Prisoners of War, which called brainwashing a "popular misconception"; the report concludes that "exhaustive research of several government agencies failed to reveal one conclusively documented case of'brainwashing' of an American prisoner of war in Korea." In George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four the main character is subjected to imprisonment and torture in order to conform his thoughts and emotions to the wishes of the rulers of Orwell's fictional future totalitarian society. Orwell's vision influenced Hunter and is still reflected in the popular understanding of the concept of brainwashing.
In the 1950s many American films were filmed that featured brainwashing of POWs, including The Rack, The Bamboo Prison, Toward the Unknown, The Fearmakers. The film Forbidden Area told the story of Soviet secret agents, brainwashed through classical conditioning by their own government so they wouldn't reveal their identities. In 1962 The Manchurian Candidate "put brainwashing front and center" by featuring a plot by the Soviet government to take over the United States by use of a brainwashed presidential candidate; the concept of brainwashing became popularly associated with the research of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, which involved dogs, not humans, as subjects. In The Manchurian Candidate the head brainwasher is Dr. Yen Lo, of the Pavlov Institute; the science fiction stories of Cordwainer Smith depict brainwashing to remove memories of traumatic events as a normal and benign part of future medical practice. Mind control remains an important theme in science fiction. Terry O'Brien comments: "Mind control is such a powerful image that if hypnoti
Compliance refers to a response—specifically, a submission—made in reaction to a request. The request may be implicit; the target may not recognize that he or she is being urged to act in a particular way. Social psychology is centered on the idea of social influence. Defined as the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, attitudes, or behavior, it is important that psychologists and ordinary people alike recognize that social influence extends beyond our behavior—to our thoughts and beliefs—and that it takes on many forms. Persuasion and the gaining of compliance are significant types of social influence since they utilize the respective effect's power to attain the submission of others. Studying compliance is significant because it is a type of social influence that affects our everyday behavior—especially social interactions. Compliance itself is a complicated concept that must be studied in depth so that its uses and both its theoretical and experimental approaches may be better understood.
In the study of personality psychology, certain personality disorders display characteristics involving the need to gain compliance or control over others: Those with antisocial personality disorder tend to display a glibness and grandiose sense of self-worth. Due to their shallow affect and lack of remorse or empathy, they are well suited to con and/or manipulate others into complying with their wishes; those with histrionic personality disorder need to be the center of attention. Those with narcissistic personality disorder have an inflated self-importance, hypersensitivity to criticism and a sense of entitlement that compels them to persuade others to comply with their requests. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals and attain social or personal gains. Rather than concentrating on an individual's personality or characteristics, social psychology focuses on people as a whole and how thoughts and behaviors allow individuals to attain compliance and/or make them vulnerable to complying with the demands of others.
Their gaining of or submission to compliance is influenced by construals—i.e. An individual's interpretation of interactions; the study of compliance is recognized for the overt demonstrations of dramatic experiments such as the Stanford prison experiment and the Stanley Milgram shock experiments. These experiments served as displays of the psychological phenomena of compliance; such compliance occurred in response to overt social forces and while these types of studies have provided useful insight into the nature of compliance, today's researchers are inclined to concentrate their efforts on subtle, indirect and/or unconscious social influences. Those involved in this modern social-cognitive movement are attempting to discover the ways in which subjects' implicit and explicit beliefs and goals affect information processing and decision making in settings where influential forces are present. Philosophers view compliance in the context of arguments. Arguments are produced. In doing so, they utilize premises to support their conclusion.
Regardless of utilization of fallacy forms to get their point across, individuals engaged in philosophical arguments are overtly and logically expressing their opinion. This is an explicit action in which the person on the other side of the argument recognizes that the arguer seeks to gain compliance. In studying compliance, social psychologists aim to examine overt and subtle social influences experienced in various forms by all individuals. Implicit and explicit psychological processes are studied since they shape interactions; this is because these processes explain how certain individuals can make another comply and why someone else succumbs to compliance. In complying with the requests of others and/or by following their actions, we seek to maintain the goals of social influence: informative social influence normative social influence People are motivated to achieve their goals in the most efficient and accurate manner possible; when faced with information, an individual needs to interpret and react—particularly when faced with compliance-gaining attempts since an inaccurate behavior could result in great loss.
With that being said, people attempt to gain an accurate construal of their situation so they may respond accordingly. Individuals are rewarded for acting in accordance with the beliefs and commands of authority figures and/or social norms. Among other sources, authority may be gained on the basis of societal power and size. Individuals are to comply with an authority figure's orders or replicate the actions deemed correct by social norms because of an assumption that the individual is unaware of some important information; the need to be accurate—and the belief that others know something they do not—often supersedes the individual's personal opinion. Humans are fundamentally motivated by the need to belong—the need for social approval through the maintenance of meaningful social relationships; this need motivates people to engage in behavior. People are more to take actions to cultivate relationships with individuals they like and/or wish to gain approval from. By comp
School Bullying is a type of bullying, that occurs in any educational setting. For an act to be considered bullying it must meet certain criteria; this includes hostile intent, imbalance of power, repetition and provocation. Bullying can have a wide spectrum of effects on a student including anger, depression and suicide. Additionally, the bully can develop different social disorders or have a higher chance of engaging in criminal activity. If there is suspicion that a child is being bullied or is a bully, there are warning signs in their behavior. There are many programs and organizations worldwide which provide bullying prevention services or information on how children can cope if they have been bullied. There is no universal definition of school bullying; the following two additional criteria have been proposed to complement the above-mentioned criteria: victim distress and provocation. Some of these characteristics have been disputed; the underlying causes of school violence and bullying include gender and social norms and wider contextual and structural factors.
Discriminatory gender norms that shape the dominance of men and the subservience of women and the perpetuation of these norms through violence are found in some form in many cultures. Gender inequality and the prevalence of violence against women in society exacerbate the problem. Social norms that support the authority of teachers over children may legitimise the use of violence to maintain discipline and control; the pressure to conform to dominant gender norms is high. Young people who cannot or who choose not to conform to these norms are punished for this through violence and bullying at school. Schools themselves can "teach" children to be violent through discriminatory practices and textbooks. If unchecked, gender discrimination and power imbalances in schools can encourage attitudes and practices that subjugate children, uphold unequal gender norms and tolerate violence, including corporal punishment; some attribute part of the cause of bullying to the atmosphere. Thornberg and Knutsen state in their study, "School attributing refers to attributing the cause of bullying to the school setting."
They say that school attributing has two subcategories which are "boredom in school" and "poor antibullying practices". Boredom in school involves a student. Poor antibullying practices may include teachers and staff not caring enough to intervene, or a school not having enough teachers for students; this may lead to the students feeling unwanted or unimportant due to the lack of care from the school's staff. Schools and the education system operate within the context of wider social and structural factors and may reflect and reproduce environments that do not protect children and adolescents from violence and bullying. For example and sexual violence may be more prevalent in schools in contexts where it is more prevalent in wider society. Studies suggest that sexual violence and harassment of girls is worse in schools where other forms of violence are prevalent, in conflict and emergency contexts, that gang violence is more common in schools where gangs and drugs are part of the local culture.
In their paper "Predicting Bullying: Exploring the Contributions of Childhood Negative Life Experiences in Predicting Adolescent Bullying Behavior," Connell and Piquero identify three primary aspects of a child's life- family and peers- as major indicators to whether or not that child exhibits behavior akin to bullying. Bullying can threaten students' physical and emotional safety at school and can negatively impact their ability to learn; the best way to address bullying is to stop it. There are many different groups that can intervene to address bullying in schools: parents and school leadership; the most used strategies by teachers to prevent it are to communicate and seek help. Training school staff and students to prevent and address bullying can help sustain bullying prevention efforts over time. There are no federal mandates for bullying staff training. In addition to addressing bullying before it occurs, a great prevention strategy is to educate the students on bullying. Examples of activities to teach about bullying include: Internet or library research, such as looking up types of bullying, how to prevent it, how kids should respond Presentations, such as a speech or role-play on stopping bullying Discussions about topics like reporting bullying Creative writing, such as a poem speaking out against bullying or a story or skit teaching bystanders how to help Artistic works, such as a collage about respect or the effects of bullying Classroom meetings to talk about peer relations A victim, in the short term, may feel depressed, angry, have excessive stress, learned helplessness, feel as though their life has fallen apart, have a significant drop in school performance, or may commit suicide.
In the long term, th
Cyberbullying or cyberharassment is a form of bullying or harassment using electronic means. Cyberbullying and cyberharassment are known as online bullying, it has become common among teenagers. Cyberbullying is when someone teens, bully or harass others on social media sites. Harmful bullying behavior can include posting rumors, sexual remarks, a victims' personal information, or pejorative labels. Bullying or harassment can be identified by an intent to harm. Victims may have lower self-esteem, increased suicidal ideation, a variety of emotional responses, including being scared, frustrated and depressed. Awareness in the United States has risen in the 2010s, due in part to high-profile cases. Several US states and other countries have laws specific to cyberbullying; some are designed to target teen cyberbullying, while others use laws extending from the scope of physical harassment. In cases of adult cyberharassment, these reports are filed beginning with local police. Research has demonstrated a number of serious consequences of cyberbullying victimization.
Internet trolling is a common form of bullying over the Internet in an online community in order to elicit a reaction, disruption, or for someone's own personal amusement. Cyberstalking is another form of bullying or harassment that uses electronic communications to stalk a victim. Not all negative interaction on social media can be attributed to cyberbullying. Research suggests that there are interactions online that result in peer pressure, which can have a negative, positive, or neutral impact on those involved. A used definition of cyberbullying is "an aggressive, intentional act or behavior, carried out by a group or an individual, using electronic forms of contact and over time against a victim who cannot defend him or herself." There are many variations of the definition, such as the National Crime Prevention Council's more specific definition: "the process of using the Internet, cell phones or other devices to send or post text or images intended to hurt or embarrass another person."Cyberbullying is similar to traditional bullying, with some notable distinctions.
Victims of cyberbullying may not know the identity of their bully, or why the bully is targeting them. The harassment can have wide-reaching effects on the victim, as the content used to harass the victim can be spread and shared among many people and remains accessible long after the initial incident; the terms "cyberharassment" and "cyberbullying" are sometimes used synonymously, though some people use the latter to refer to harassment among minors or in a school setting. Cyberstalking is a form of online harassment in which the perpetrator uses electronic communications to stalk a victim; this is considered more dangerous than other forms of cyberbullying because it involves a credible threat to the victim's safety. Cyberstalkers may send repeated messages intended to harass, they may encourage others to do the same, either explicitly or by impersonating their victim and asking others to contact them. Internet trolls intentionally try to offend others in order to elicit a reaction. Trolls and cyberbullies do not always have the same goals: while some trolls engage in cyberbullying, others may be engaged in comparatively harmless mischief.
A troll may be disruptive either for their own amusement or because they are genuinely a combative person. Manuals to educate the public and parents summarize, "Cyberbullying is being cruel to others by sending or posting harmful material using a cell phone or the internet." Research and education in the field are ongoing. Research has identified basic definitions and guidelines to help recognize and cope with what is regarded as abuse of electronic communications. Cyberbullying involves repeated behavior with intent to harm. Cyberbullying is perpetrated through harassment, denigration and exclusion Cyberbullying can be as simple as continuing to send emails or text messages harassing someone who has said they want no further contact with the sender, it may include public actions such as repeated threats, sexual remarks, pejorative labels or defamatory false accusations, ganging up on a victim by making the person the subject of ridicule in online forums, hacking into or vandalizing sites about a person, posting false statements as fact aimed a discrediting or humiliating a targeted person.
Cyberbullying could be limited to posting rumors about a person on the internet with the intention of bringing about hatred in others' minds or convincing others to dislike or participate in online denigration of a target. It may go to the extent of identifying victims of crime and publishing materials defaming or humiliating them. Cyberbullies may disclose victims' personal data on websites or forums—called doxing, or may use impersonation, creating fake accounts, comments or sites posing as their target for the purpose of publishing material in their name that defames, discredits or ridicules them; this can leave the cyberbully anonymous, which can make it difficult for them to be caught or punished for their behavior, although not all cyberbullies maintain their anonymity. Text or instant messages and emails between friends can constitute cyberbullying if what is said is hurtful; the recent rise of smartphones and mobi