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Coffee in Italy

Caffè is the Italian word for coffee and originates from Kaffa, the region in Ethiopia where coffee originated. The Muslims first used and distributed it worldwide from the port of Mocha in Yemen, after which the Europeans named it mokka. Caffè may refer to the Italian way of preparing a coffee, an espresso, or used as a synonym for the European coffee bar. Italians are well known for their special attention to the preparation, the selection of the blends, the use of accessories when creating many types of coffees. Within the espressobar environment, the term caffè denotes straight espresso; when one orders "un caffè" it is enjoyed at the bar, standing. The espresso is always served with a saucer and demitasse spoon, sometimes with a complimentary wrapped chocolate and a small glass of water; the instrument used to prepare caffè at home, the caffettiera, is a small steam machine made of a bottom boiler, a central filter which contains the coffee grounds, an upper cup. In the traditional Moka, water is put in the boiler and the resulting boiling water passes through the coffee grounds reaches the cup.

The Neapolitan caffettiera operates somewhat differently, needs to be turned upside down when the drink is ready. Its boiler and cup are therefore interchangeable; the quantity of coffee to be put in the filter determines the richness of the final beverage, but special care is needed in order not to block the water from crossing it, in case of an excess of grounds. Some hints prescribe. A small flame has to be used to provide an appropriate moderate water pressure; the flame under the caffettiera has to be turned off ten seconds after the first characteristic noise is heard, lit again in case the cup was not filled. A related but separate translation of the Italian caffetteria is coffee house or café: an establishment in which caffè was traditionally made with a Moka; these places became common in the 19th century for enjoying caffè, while the habit of caffè drinking at home started at the beginning of the 20th century, when caffettiera machines became available to the general public. In the older caffetterie, frequented by the upper classes and culture events were held.

So, many caffetterie acquired cultural importance and became famous meeting points of artists, politicians, etc. This caffetterie culture was enjoyed by men, while women organised their tea meetings; the traditional afternoon serving of caffè has an ceremonial formality: the caffè is always brought with a silver pot. Sugar is served separately, with a separate silver spoon. After taking caffè, smokers are allowed to light their cigarettes. If women are present, it is they, it is not usual to serve pastries or biscuits with afternoon caffè, but an exception can be made in case there are women at the table. The coffee pot has to be left for a second cup. After-lunch coffee is taken at separate smaller tables, not at the main one, children are not welcome to join adults in such formalities. In the 21st century, as smoking laws and local customs change, caffè drinking becomes less formal overall. Cappuccino is not related to traditional domestic coffee, being made with an espresso machine. However, caffè-latte is made with a simple mixture of hot coffee and hot milk, served in cups that are larger than tea cups.

Caffetterie serve caffè-latte too. Like bars, coffee houses have a long history of offering environments in which people can socialize amongst their own groups and with strangers; this is reflected in language. Coffee houses have been places where people gather, work, write and pass the time. Today, coffee houses are much the same -- it's that ink and paper have been replaced with laptops and newspapers have been replaced by blogs; the layouts of coffee houses include smaller nooks and larger, more communal areas. In a more crowded coffee house, it is common for strangers to sit at the same table if that table only seats two people. Coffee houses are cozy, which encourages communication amongst strangers

Beyond The Bridge

Beyond The Bridge is a German progressive metal and progressive rock band, formed as Fall Out in Frankfurt, in 1999. The band was formed as Fall Out in Frankfurt am Main in Germany as a school band by guitar player Peter Degenfeld-Schonburg and bass player Dominik Stotzem. In 2008 and after several breaks the band started to experiment for a concept studio album and has been renamed to'Beyond The Bridge'. In 2012 the band released its first album'The Old Man and the Spirit' with producer Simon Oberender and Frontiers Records. Shortly after release of the album and main contributor to the album's release Simon Oberender died. Dilenya Mar - vocals Herbie Langhans - vocals Peter Degenfeld - guitar Christopher Tarnow - keyboards Dominik Stotzem - bass Fabian Maier - drums The Old Man and the Spirit http://www.beyondthebridge.net/

Digital Audio Control Protocol

Digital Audio Control Protocol is a protocol used by the iTunes and other audio player and server applications on Mac and Linux computers, enabling remote control by mobile devices such as iPhone and Android phones and tablet computers. By connecting the personal computer to loudspeakers the mobile device is used as a two-way remote control, allowing selection and control of music playback within a traditional listening environment such as a home or apartment. Compliant DACP clients can connect to any DACP enabled server. Clients are available for mobile platforms. Apple Remote Apple Remote is the first DACP client created for iTunes remote control. CuteRemote CuteRemote DACP remote control for Nokia Phones. TunesRemote+ TunesRemote+ for Google Android is a fork of Jeff Sharkey's TunesRemote project; the project's goal is provide remote functionality for Android with similar capabilities as Apple's remote. TunesRemote-SE TunesRemote-SE combines the DACP control software from TunesRemote+ with the graphical user interface from Firefly Client to produce an application that can control a DACP server from any computer running Java.

Remote for iTunes Remote for iTunes by Hyperfine Software for Android lets users control iTunes via their home Wi-Fi network. Remote for Windows Phone 7 Remote for Windows Phone 7 by Komodex Software lets users control DACP servers from their home Wi-Fi network.yTrack yTrack is an iPad application developed by Fabrice Dewasmes that browses a remote DACP library and let users control it. Apple iTunes Apple iTunes is the original DACP server and the specification was created for iTunes remote control. MonkeyTunes for MediaMonkey In 2009 Melloware Inc. released MonkeyTunes, the first known "third-party" DACP server for MediaMonkey, compliant with Apple's DACP protocol. TouchRemote for Foobar2000 In 2009 Wintense released TouchRemote, a plugin for the foobar2000 music player, implementing a DACP server, compliant with Apple's DACP protocol allowing Apple Inc.'s Remote application to be used. AlbumPlayer In 2011 Albumon, released a DACP plugin for their software AlbumPlayer, a full featured jukebox player for the PC.

Telescope for Songbird In 2010 Wilco released Telescope for the Songbird music player, implementing a DACP server, compliant with Apple's DACP protocol, a standard web service and mobile browser interface. Rhythmbox for Gnome In 2010 native DACP support was added to Rhythmbox after a Google Summer of Code project by Alexandre Rosenfeld. Remote Audio Output Protocol TunesRemote+, forked version of TunesRemote for Android with updates and bug fixes TunesRemote-SE, DACP client for Java platforms Remote for iTunes by Hyperfine Software, Android client using DACP MonkeyTunes, MediaMonkey DACP server foo_touchremote Foobar2000 DACP server Telescope Songbird DACP server

Bozkurt of Dulkadir

Bozkurt of Dulkadir was a bey of Beylik of Dulkadir, a Turkish beylik in Anatolia Dulkadir was a semi independent beylik under the sovereignty of the Mamluk Egypt. The beylik was located around Kahramanmaraş and Elbistan, which made the beylik a buffer territory of the Mamluks against the Ottoman Empire. After the former bey Şahsuvar was executed in Cairo by the Mamluks, Shah Budak was appointed as the bey, but his brother Bozkurt was waiting for his chance. Bozkurt took control of the beylik in 1480 by the support of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II. Being cautious not to antagonise the Mamluks, he followed a balanced policy between the two great powers. One of his daughters, Ayşe Hatun I, married to the future sultan of the Ottomans. Bozkurt captured the city Diyarbakır from the Akkoyunlu Turkmen dynasty, but he was not successful against Ismail I of the Safavids in Iran. When İsmail stormed his capital Elbistan, he had to move the capital to Maraş, today Kahramanmaraş. In 1481, Bayazıt II rose to the throne of the Ottoman Empire.

During the civil war between Bayazıt II and his brother Cem, Mamluks supported Cem and the uneasy peace between the two powers ended. Ottomans tried to control Çukurova, Cilicia of the antiquity, a region to the southwest of Dulkadir territory and under the control of Ramadanids, another buffer principality, but they were defeated by the Mamluks. Influenced by the Mamluk victory, Bozkurt gave up his balanced policy and began hostilities against the Ottomans. In 1486, he defeated an Ottoman force under the commandship of Skender Pasha. However, Mamluks were not able to defeat Ottomans to the north of the Toros Mountains and following a stalemate, the war ended in 1491. In 1512, Selim I, nicknamed "the Inflexible" or "the Grim", became the Ottoman Sultan. In 1514, during his campaign to Iran, Bozkurt's reluctance to allow safe pass for the Ottoman forces caused a problem. In 1515, before starting a war against the Mamluks, he decided to end the Dulkadir Beylik as well, he sent his future grand vizier, to Dulkadir territory.

In a battle called the Battle of Turnadağ, Sinan Pasha defeated Dulkadir army. Bozkurt as well as his sons were killed; the origin of Selim's mother Gülbahar Hatun is debatable. She might be Bozkurt's daughter. If that were the case, than Bozkurt was Selim's maternal grandfather. Yücel, Yaşar. Türkiye Tarihi Vol I. istanbul: AKDTKTTK Yayınları. Yücel, Yaşar. Türkiye Tarihi Vol II. Istanbul: AKDTKTTK Yayınları. Jorga, Nicolae. Geschichte des osmanischen. İstanbul: Yeditepe yayıncılık. ISBN 975 6480 19 X

Club Moderne

The Club Moderne is a bar in Anaconda, United States, in the Streamline Moderne style. It was built by Frank Wullus in 1937 for John Francisco; the facade was clad in Carrara glass. The interior was custom-designed and remained in a high state of preservation, with appropriate renovations in 1948. Chosen as "America's Favorite Historic Bar" in 2016 in a contest sponsored by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, beating out another notable Montana venue, the Sip'n Dip Lounge, The building was damaged by fire on the evening of October 3, 2016; the current owner, who owned the bar since 1997, expressed an intent to rebuild. Following a soft reopening on April 28, 2017, the remodeled bar reopened to the public on May 13, 2017; the owners had to replace much of the interior and refurbish the exterior, but attempted to retain its traditional look and feel. The bar and a few original furnishings were preserved along with some of the original facade. Historic American Buildings Survey No. MT-53-A, "Anaconda Historic District, Club Moderne, 801 East Park Avenue, Deer Lodge County, MT", 5 photos, 1 color transparency, 2 data pages, 2 photo caption pages

National Portrait Gallery (Sweden)

The National Portrait Gallery in a museum and portrait gallery located at Gripsholm Castle at Mariefred in Södermanland County, Sweden. It contains a collection of portraits of prominent Swedes; the collection was first established by King Gustaf Vasa who had portraits hung in the newly built Gripsholm Castle. The National Portrait Gallery acquired the status of a national portrait gallery during the reign of King Gustav III; the collection began to be expanded with non-royal persons. The National Portrait Gallery was founded in 1822 with over 4000 works that trace the portrait art changes from the 1500s to the present. Nationalmuseum has been responsible for the portrait collection since 1860; this arrangement has been periodically extended. Each year the Gripsholm Society commissions and donates a portrait of an internationally prominent Swedish citizens to the collection. Many portraits are the work of prominent Swedish artists. Greta Garbo by Einar Nerman Dag Hammarskjöld by Fritiof Schüldt Birgit Nilsson by Lasse Johnson Gunnar Myrdal by Sven Ljungberg Ingmar Bergman by Birgit Broms Porträttsamlingen website