Coffeemakers or coffee machines are cooking appliances used to brew coffee. Cold water is poured into a chamber, which is then heated up to the boiling point. This is also called automatic drip-brew, for hundreds of years, making a cup of coffee was a simple process. Roasted and ground coffee beans were placed in a pot or pan, pots were designed specifically for brewing coffee, all with the purpose of trying to trap the coffee grounds before the coffee is poured. Typical designs feature a pot with a flat expanded bottom to catch sinking grounds, other designs feature a wide bulge in the middle of the pot to catch grounds when coffee is poured. In France, in about 1710, the Infusion brewing process was introduced and this involved submersing the ground coffee, usually enclosed in a linen bag, in hot water and letting it steep or infuse until the desired strength brew was achieved. There were lots of innovations from France in the late 18th century, with help from Jean-Baptiste de Belloy, the Archbishop of Paris, the idea that coffee should not be boiled gained acceptance. The first modern method for making coffee using a coffee filter—drip brewing—is more than 125 years old, the biggin, originating in France ca. 1780, was a two-level pot holding coffee in a sock in an upper compartment into which water was poured. Coffee was then dispensed from a spout on the side of the pot, the quality of the brewed coffee depended on the size of the grounds - too coarse and the coffee was weak, too fine and the water would not drip the filter. A major problem with this approach was that the taste of the cloth filter - whether cotton, among other French innovations, Count Rumford, an eccentric American scientist residing in Paris, developed a French Drip Pot with an insulating water jacket to keep the coffee hot. Also, the first metal filter was developed and patented by French inventor, other coffee brewing devices became popular throughout the nineteenth century, including various machines using the vacuum principle. The Napier Vacuum Machine, invented in 1840, was an example of this type. While generally too complex for use, vacuum devices were prized for producing a clear brew. The principle of a brewer was to heat water in a lower vessel until expansion forced the contents through a narrow tube into an upper vessel containing ground coffee. The Bauhaus interpretation of this device can be seen in Gerhard Marcks Sintrax coffee maker of 1925, an early variant technique, called a balance siphon, was to have the two chambers arranged side-by-side on a sort of scale-like device, with a counterweight attached opposite the initial chamber. In this way, a sort of primitive automatic brewing method was achieved, an electrically heated stove was incorporated into the design of the vacuum brewer. Water was heated in a well, which reduced wait times
Long-handled coffeemakers in an Armenian cafe, 2008
Silver hot water jug, Dublin c1770, using a coffee-pot shape with a higher base.