Greene County, Georgia
Greene County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,994; the county seat is Greensboro. The county was created on February 3, 1786 and is named for Nathanael Greene, an American Revolutionary War major general. Greene County was formed on February 1786, from land given by Washington County, it was named in honor of a hero of the American Revolutionary War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 406 square miles, of which 387 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water; the majority of Greene County, west of a line between Woodville, Union Point, White Plains, is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northern half of the remainder of the county is located in the Little River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin, while the southern half is located in the Upper Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin. Interstate 20 U. S. Route 278 State Route 12 State Route 15 State Route 44 State Route 77 State Route 402 Oglethorpe County Taliaferro County Hancock County Putnam County Morgan County Oconee County Oconee National Forest At the 2000 census, there were 14,406 people, 5,477 households and 4,042 families residing in the county.
The population density was 37 per square mile. There were 6,653 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 52.95% White, 44.45% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.49% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races. 2.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,477 households of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.00% were married couples living together, 18.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.20% were non-families. 23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.02. 25.10% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 91.90 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.50 males. The median household income was $33,479 and the median family incomewas $39,794. Males had a median income of $31,295 versus $20,232 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,389. About 16.00% of families and 22.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.80% of those under age 18 and 20.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 15,994 people, 6,519 households, 4,677 families residing in the county; the population density was 41.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,688 housing units at an average density of 22.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 56.6% white, 38.2% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 3.4% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.1% were American, 7.6% were English, 6.1% were German.
Of the 6,519 households, 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families, 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age was 46.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,513 and the median income for a family was $42,307. Males had a median income of $32,245 versus $24,622 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,943. About 17.8% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.0% of those under age 18 and 15.6% of those age 65 or over. The county supports the racial-integrated Greene County School Board, Lake Oconee Academy and Nathanael Greene Academy. In 2001, Georgia Supreme Court Chief Justice Robert Benham convened a committee to investigate indigent defense in the state of Georgia. An avalanche of complaints about the state of public defense in Greene County, along with a number of lawsuits filed by Stephen Bright and the Southern Center for Human Rights, contributed to the formation of this commission.
The commission discovered during its investigation that indigent defendants in Greene County were pleaded guilty by judges without the presence of counsel and sometimes without being present in court to make their pleas, violations of the Sixth Amendment. Excessive bail, e.g. $50,000 for loitering, was set as well, a violation of the Eight Amendment. After two years of investigation, the committee's recommendations led to the passage of the Georgia Indigent Defense Act. Greensboro Scull Shoals Siloam Union Point White Plains Woodville National Register of Historic Places listings in Greene County, Georgia Greene County historical marker Old Greene County "Gaol" historical marker
The Apalachee are a Native American people who lived in the Florida Panhandle. They lived between the Aucilla River and Ochlockonee River, at the head of Apalachee Bay, an area known to Europeans as the Apalachee Province, they spoke a Muskogean language called Apalachee, now extinct. The Apalachee occupied the site of Velda Mound starting about 1450 CE, but had abandoned it when Spanish started settlements in the 17th century, they first encountered Spanish explorers in 1528. Traditional tribal enemies, European diseases, European encroachment reduced their population; the survivors dispersed, over time many Apalachee integrated with other groups the Creek Confederacy, while others relocated to other Spanish territories, some remained in what is now Louisiana. About 300 descendants in Rapides and Natchitoches parishes assert an Apalachee identity today; the Apalachee spoke a Muskogean language which became extinct. It was documented by Spanish settlers in letters written during the Spanish Colonial period.
Around 1100 indigenous peoples began to cultivate crops. Agriculture was important in the area, it was part of the Fort Walton Culture, a Florida culture influenced by the Mississippian culture. With agriculture, the people could grow surplus crops, which enabled them to settle in larger groups, increase their trading for raw materials and finished goods, specialize in production of artisan goods. At the time of Hernando de Soto's visit in 1539–1540, the Apalachee capital was Anhaica; the Apalachee lived on individual farmsteads of.5 acres or so. Smaller settlements might have a few houses. Larger towns were chiefdoms, they were organized around earthwork mounds built over decades for ceremonial and burial purposes. Villages and towns were situated by lakes, as the natives hunted fish and used the water for domestic needs and transport; the largest Apalachee community was at Lake Jackson, just north of present-day Tallahassee. This regional center had 200 or more houses; some of the surviving mounds are protected in Lake Jackson Mounds Archaeological State Park, The Apalachee grew numerous varieties of corn and sunflowers.
They gathered wild strawberries, the roots and shoots of the greenbrier vine, greens such as lambsquarters, the roots of one or more unidentified aquatic plants used to make flour, hickory nuts, saw palmetto berries and persimmons. They caught fish and turtles in the lakes and rivers, oysters and fish on the Gulf Coast, they hunted deer, black bears and ducks. The Apalachee were part of an expansive trade network that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Great Lakes, westward to what is now Oklahoma; the Apalachee acquired copper artifacts, sheets of mica and galena from distant locations through this trade. The Apalachee paid for such imports with shells, shark teeth, preserved fish and sea turtle meat and cassina leaves and twigs; the Apalachee made tools from stone and shell. They made pottery, wove cured buckskin, they built the bark of cypress or poplar trees. They stored food in pits in the ground lined with matting, smoked or dried food on racks over fires; the Apalachee men wore a deerskin loincloth.
The women wore a skirt made of other plant fibers. The men painted their bodies with red ochre and placed feathers in their hair when they prepared for battle; the men smoked tobacco including ones for healing. The Apalachee scalped opponents. Taking a scalp was a means of entering the warrior class, was celebrated with a scalp dance; the warriors wore headdresses made of animal fur. The village or clan of a slain warrior was expected to avenge his death; the Apalachee played a ball game, sometimes known as the "Apalachee ball game", described in detail by Spaniards in the 17th century. The fullest description, was written as part of a campaign by Father Juan de Paiva, priest at the mission of San Luis de Talimali, to have the game banned, some of the practices described may have been exaggerated; the game was embedded in ritual practices. He was concerned about the effect of community involvement in the games on the welfare of the villages and Spanish missions. In particular, he worried about towns being left defenseless against raiders when inhabitants left for a game, that field work was being neglected during game season.
Other missionaries had complained about the game. At least, they defended it as a custom that should not be disturbed, that helped keep the Apalachee happy and willing to work in the fields; the Apalachee themselves said that the game was "as ancient as memory", that they had "no other entertainment... or relief from... misery". No indigenous name for the game has been preserved; the Spanish referred to it as el juego de la pelota, "the ballgame." The game involved kicking a hard ball against a single goalpost. The same game was played by the western Timucua, was as significant among them as it was among the Apalachee. A related but d
Winyah Bay is a coastal estuary, the confluence of the Waccamaw River, the Pee Dee River, the Black River, the Sampit River in Georgetown County, in eastern South Carolina. Its name comes from the Winyaw; the historic port city of Georgetown is located on the bay, the bay serves as the terminating point for the Grand Strand. The bay is evidence of a drowned coastline, created by a rise in sea level in recent geologic time, it was a prime site for fishing by generations of Native American cultures. This area was developed by English colonists as a center of rice culture and timbering; the entrance to the bay is flanked by South Island and Cat Island. Today these comprise the Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center, as the islands were willed to the State by Tom Yawkey, former owner of the Boston Red Sox. Winyah Bay is the fourth-largest estuary on the US East Coast by discharge rate, it is home to many aquatic and terrestrial species, including sturgeon, dolphins, red drum, star drum, white shrimp, blue crabs, bald eagles and various species of seagulls.
Waterways forming and crossings of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway Nautical chart of Winyah Bay Images at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. Tribal societies with social stratification under a single leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age. In the case of indigenous tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states, tribal chiefs may represent their tribe or ethnicity in a form of self-government; the most common types are the chairman of a council and/or a broader popular assembly in "parliamentary" cultures, the war chief, the hereditary chief, the politically dominant medicineman. The term is distinct from chiefs at lower levels, such as village chief or clan chief; the descriptive "tribal" requires an ethno-cultural identity as well as some political expression. In certain situations, in a colonial context, the most powerful member of either a confederation or a federation of such tribal, clan or village chiefs would be referred to as a paramount chief.
This term has fallen out of use and such personages are now called kings. A woman who holds a chieftaincy in her own right or who derives one from her marriage to a male chief has been referred to alternatively as a chieftainess, a chieftess or in the case of the former, a chief. Anthropologist Elman Service distinguishes two stages of tribal societies: simple societies organized by limited instances of social rank and prestige, more stratified societies led by chieftains or tribal kings. Tribal societies represent an intermediate stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities. Stratified tribal societies led by tribal kings thus flourished from the Neolithic stage into the Iron Age, albeit in competition with civilisations and empires beginning in the Bronze Age. An important source of information for tribal societies of the Iron Age is Greco-Roman ethnography, which describes tribal societies surrounding the urban, imperialist civilisation of the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, tribal kingdoms were again established over much of Europe in the wake of the Migration period. By the High Middle Ages, these had again coalesced into super-regional monarchies. Tribal societies remained prevalent in much of the New World. Exceptions to tribal societies outside of Europe and Asia were Paleolithic or Mesolithic band societies in Oceania and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Europeans forced centralized governments onto these societies during colonialism, but in some instances tribes have retained or regained partial self-government. Lonco among the Mapuche Morubixaba — tribal Cacique of the Tupi people Oubutu Rajiv Tyee, a tribal chief of the Chinookan peoples in the Pacific Northwest of the present-day United States Cacique, a term used among the Taino Nation of the Caribbean islands adopted by the Spanish to refer to all heads of chiefdoms whom they encountered: Cuauhtémoc, Tecun Uman, Atlacatl, Nicarao, Tupac Amaru II Sachem, term of chiefdom of the Algonquian nations of present-day New England in the United States Afro Bolivian king Eze Gbong Gwon Jos Kgosi Mogho Naba Nkosi Oba and Oloye.
Obai Omanhene Orkoiyot Sarkin Obong Tor Tiv of the Tiv people of Central Nigeria Aliʻi and Aliʻi nui were the chiefs and high chiefs of the islands of Hawaii Islands Ariki,'ariki henua Grade-taking systems of northern Vanuatu Ibedul Meena means Chief of tribals in South Asia. Iroijlaplap Matai, in the Samoan fa'amatai system Nahnmwarki, Lepen Palikir Rangatira, a chief of Māori in New Zealand Ratu, Fijian Chief, Malay for Queen Datu and Filipino Chief Arabs, in particular peninsular Arabs and nomadic Bedouins, are organized in tribes, many of whom have official representatives in governments. Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders of Sufism; the Afro-Bolivian people, a recognized ethnic constituency of Bolivia, are led by a king whose title is recognized by the Bolivian government. In Botswana, the reigning chiefs of the various tribes are empowered to serve as advisers to the government as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi, the national House of Chiefs.
In addition to this, they serve as the ex officio chairs of the tribal kgotlas, meetings of all of the members of the tribes, where political and social matters are discussed. The band is the fundamental unit of governance among the First Nations in Canada. Most bands have elected chiefs, either directly elected by all members of the band, or indirectly by the band council, these chiefs are recognized by the Canadian state under the terms of the Indian Act; as well, there may be traditional hereditary or charismatic chiefs, w