Counties of Romania
A total of 41 counties, along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the countrys NUTS-3 statistical subdivisions within the European Union, most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat. The earliest organization into județe of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia dates back to at least the late 14th century, for most of the time since modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division system has been similar to the French departments one. The system has changed several times since then, and the number of counties has varied over time. The current format has largely been in place since 1968 as only small changes have made since then. The average countys land area is 5,809 square kilometres, with Timiș County the largest and Ilfov County the smallest. The municipality of Bucharest, which has the administrative level as that of a county, is both more populous and much smaller than any county, with 1,883,425 people and 228 square kilometres.
The earliest organization into județe, and ținuturi, dates back at least to the late 14th century, inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire, each județ was ruled by a jude, a person officially appointed with administrative and judicial functions. Transylvania was divided into counties headed by comes with administrative. Aside from the 1950–1968 period, this system has remained in place until today, until 1948, each județ was further divided into several plăși, each administered by a pretor. County borders were largely intact, with few adjustments, and the total number of counties was raised to 71. In 1938, King Carol II modified the law on the administration of the Romanian territory according to the fascist model, ten ținuturi were created, ruled by Rezidenți Regali, appointed directly by the Monarch. The ținuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country, as the county borders were not erased, due to the territorial changes during World War II, this style of administration did not last, and the administration at the județ level was reintroduced after the war.
Between 1941–1944, Romania administered the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of 13 separate counties. After taking over the administration of the country in 1945, the Communist Party changed the model to that of the Soviet Union in 1950. Nevertheless, the county borders set were different from those present during the interbellum. The county borders set in 1968 are still largely in place today, at present, Romania is divided into 41 counties and one municipality, these are assigned as the NUTS-3 geocode statistical subdivision scheme of Romania within the European Union. Each of the counties is further divided into cities and communes, the territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government
Romanians are natives of Romania that share a common Romanian culture and speak the Romanian language as a mother tongue, as well as by citizenship or by being subjects to the same country. Just under 89% of Romanias population identified as Romanian in the 2011 Romanian Census, in one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well. Romanians are a minority in several nearby countries. Inhabited by the ancient Dacians, todays territory of Romania was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106, the Roman administration withdrew two centuries later, under the pressure of the Goths and Carpi. Two theories account for the origin of the Romanian people, according to the first theory, the Romanians are descended from indigenous populations that inhabited what is now Romania and its immediate environs and Roman legionnaires and colonists. This process was concluded by the 10th century when the assimilation of the Slavs by the Daco-Romanians was completed.
The south-of-the Danube theory usually favours northern Albania and/or Moesia as the specific places of Romanian ethnogenesis. Small genetic differences were found among Southeastern European populations and especially those of the Dniester–Carpathian region. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations do not reflect their linguistic relationships, according to the report, the results indicate that the ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other. The entire Balkan peninsula was annexed by the Ottoman Empire, however and Wallachia were allowed a certain degree of temporary autonomy. Transylvania, a region inhabited by a slight majority of Romanian speakers had been part of the Austro-Hungarian empire until 1918. The three principalities were united for several months in 1600 under the authority of Wallachian Prince Michael the Brave and this area fell to the Ottoman Turks by the 15th century.
Up until 1541, Transylvania was part of the Kingdom of Hungary, in 1699 it became a part of the Habsburg lands. By the 19th century, the Austrian Empire was awarded by the Ottomans with the region of Bukovina and, in 1812, in 1821 and 1848, two rebellions occurred, and both failed, but they had an important role in the spreading of the liberal ideology. In 1859, Moldavia and Wallachia elected the same ruler – Alexander John Cuza and were thus unified de facto, the newly founded Kingdom of Romania—led by the Hohenzollern prince Carol I—fought a War of Independence against the Ottomans, and was recognised in 1878. Although allied with Austria-Hungary, Romania refused to go to enter World War I on the side of the Central Powers, in 1916, Romania joined the war on the side of the Triple Entente. As a result, at the end of the war, Transylvania and Bukovina were awarded to Romania, resulting in Greater Romania. As of 1920, Romanian people were believed to number over 15 million in the Romania region, larger than the populations of Sweden, the eastern territory losses were facilitated by the Molotov-Ribbentrop German-Soviet non-aggression pact
Medgidia is a city in Constanța County, south-eastern Romania. Archaeological findings show that Dobruja was inhabited since the Neolithic period, starting with 46 BC the region was administered by the Roman Empire. A castrum was built in the Carasu Valley, becoming the cradle of the settlement, in 1417, the Turks invaded Dobruja. From the 15th century onwards the region started to be colonized with Muslim population, the settlement named Karasu was mentioned on the map of Iehuda ben Zara in 1497, in the notes of Paolo Giorgio and Evliya Çelebi. Modern Medgidia was built by the Ottoman administration on the place of the old Karasu beginning with 1856 and it was built as a planned city to accommodate refugees from the Crimean War and to serve as an economic hub for the central zone of Dobruja. The town was named in honour of the sultan Abdülmecid I, after the Russo-Turkish War, Northern Dobruja became part of Romania. Medgidia is located between the Danube and the Black Sea, just 39 kilometres away from Constanța, the general aspect of the relief is that of a low plateau with a limestone structure, covered with thick deposits of loess.
The natural resources in the area consist of deposits and kaolin sand. The limestone structure of the earth permits a natural filtering of the groundwater, the climate is temperate-continental, with short and cold winters and very hot summers. Medgidia became a municipality in 1994, Medgidia houses a 500-bed hospital. Out of 1,200 registered enterprises, only 30 are state-owned and 15 are joint ventures, beside the agricultural activities, the main industry deals in cement and building materials, agricultural machinery and forging equipment, wood processing and furniture factories. Medgidia lies in the center of an area of several tens of millions hectares, with a fertile soil. The town is a road and rail node and a port to the Danube-Black Sea Canal. The Danube-Black Sea Canal crosses the town for about 6 km of its length, the canal has a capacity of 11.2 million tons/year and can admit ships of 5,000 tonnes deadweight. Provided with road and rail links, the harbor offers storage facilities and cranes able to lift up to 16-ton weights, beside a SNCFR marshaling yard, along the Canal there is a Free Trade Area in course of being finalized.
A planned highway from Bucharest to Constanţa, partially financed by the EU, will bypass the town, the Medgidia railway station links trains to a few, but very important towns and cities, including Constanţa, and Bucureşti Nord. It was opened in 1964 with exhibitions of Romanian contemporary painting, the permanent exhibition takes in classic and modern artworks but works of contemporary art classics, Lucian Grigorescu, Nicolae Tonitza, Francisc Șirato, Ștefan Dumitrescu, Iosif Iser. The museum displays a collection of ceramic artworks, in 1991 the museum was named after Lucian Grigorescu, a town native, who was deemed as the most Latin among the Romanian painters