SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a psycho-social intervention that aims to improve mental health. CBT focuses on challenging and changing unhelpful cognitive distortions and behaviors, improving emotional regulation, the development of personal coping strategies that target solving current problems, it was designed to treat depression, but its uses have been expanded to include treatment of a number of mental health conditions, including anxiety. CBT includes a number of cognitive or behaviour psychotherapies that treat defined psychopathologies using evidence-based techniques and strategies. CBT is based on the combination of the basic principles from cognitive psychology, it is different from historical approaches to psychotherapy, such as the psychoanalytic approach where the therapist looks for the unconscious meaning behind the behaviors and formulates a diagnosis. Instead, CBT is a "problem-focused" and "action-oriented" form of therapy, meaning it is used to treat specific problems related to a diagnosed mental disorder.

The therapist's role is to assist the client in finding and practicing effective strategies to address the identified goals and decrease symptoms of the disorder. CBT is based on the belief that thought distortions and maladaptive behaviors play a role in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders, that symptoms and associated distress can be reduced by teaching new information-processing skills and coping mechanisms; when compared to psychoactive medications, review studies have found CBT alone to be as effective for treating less severe forms of depression and anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders and borderline personality disorder. Some research suggests that CBT is most effective when combined with medication for treating mental disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder. In addition, CBT is recommended as the first line of treatment for the majority of psychological disorders in children and adolescents, including aggression and conduct disorder.

Researchers have found that other bona fide therapeutic interventions were effective for treating certain conditions in adults. Along with interpersonal psychotherapy, CBT is recommended in treatment guidelines as a psychosocial treatment of choice, CBT and IPT are the only psychosocial interventions that psychiatry residents are mandated to be trained in. Mainstream cognitive behavioral therapy assumes that changing maladaptive thinking leads to change in behavior and affect, but recent variants emphasize changes in one's relationship to maladaptive thinking rather than changes in thinking itself; the goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is not to diagnose a person with a particular disease, but to look at the person as a whole and decide what can be altered. Therapists or computer-based programs use CBT techniques to help people challenge their patterns and beliefs and replace errors in thinking, known as cognitive distortions, such as "overgeneralizing, magnifying negatives, minimizing positives and catastrophizing" with "more realistic and effective thoughts, thus decreasing emotional distress and self-defeating behavior".

Cognitive distortions can be either a pseudo-discrimination belief or an over-generalization of something. CBT techniques may be used to help individuals take a more open and aware posture toward cognitive distortions so as to diminish their impact. Mainstream CBT helps individuals replace "maladaptive... coping skills, cognitions and behaviors with more adaptive ones", by challenging an individual's way of thinking and the way that they react to certain habits or behaviors, but there is still controversy about the degree to which these traditional cognitive elements account for the effects seen with CBT over and above the earlier behavioral elements such as exposure and skills training. CBT can be seen as having six phases: psychological assessment; these steps are based on a system created by Saslow. After identifying the behaviors that need changing, whether they be in excess or deficit, treatment has occurred, the psychologist must identify whether or not the intervention succeeded. For example, "If the goal was to decrease the behavior there should be a decrease relative to the baseline.

If the critical behavior remains at or above the baseline the intervention has failed."The steps in the assessment phase include: Step 1: Identify critical behaviors Step 2: Determine whether critical behaviors are excesses or deficits Step 3: Evaluate critical behaviors for frequency, duration, or intensity Step 4: If excess, attempt to decrease frequency, duration, or intensity of behaviors. The re-conceptualization phase makes up much of the "cognitive" portion of CBT. A summary of modern CBT approaches is given by Hofmann. There are different protocols for delivering cognitive behavioral therapy, with important similarities among them. Use of the term CBT may refer to different interventions, including "self-instructions, relaxation and/or biofeedback, development of adaptive coping strategies, changing maladaptive beliefs about pain, goal setting". Treatment is sometimes manualized, with brief and time-limited treatments for individual psychological disorders that are specific technique-driven.

CBT is used in both individual and group settings, the techniques are adapted for self-help applications. Some clinicians and researchers

Fort Dalles

Fort Dalles was a United States Army outpost located on the Columbia River at the present site of The Dalles, Oregon, in the United States. Built when Oregon was a territory, the post was used for dealing with wars with Native Americans; the post was first known as Camp Drum and Fort Drum. The first post was built on a site which overlooked an encampment used by Lewis and Clark in October 1805; this post was built in 1838 by the militia of the Oregon Provisional Government under the command of Henry A. G. Lee during the Cayuse War and was named Fort Lee; the post was built at the site of the former Wascopam Mission operated by the Methodist Mission. In the fall of 1849 United States Army troops arrived in the new Oregon Territory; this rifle regiment occupied the now-abandoned Fort Lee at Wascopum (now The Dalles]] on the Columbia River. A log fort was constructed in 1850 under the supervision of Major Tucker, named Camp Drum; when the United States Congress changed the land requirements for Army forts to 1 square mile from 10 square miles Camp Drum's tiny military contingent could control the land it required.

Although no stockade was built around the post, Camp Drum became Fort Drum on May 21, 1853, Fort Dalles on June 21, 1853. New buildings were built from 1856 to 1858 under the direction of the commander Captain Thomas Jordan at a cost of nearly $500,000. Beginning in April 1858, the log fort was torn down and several new buildings, including a commander's house and stables, were constructed under the command of Colonel George Wright, in command of the 9th Infantry. During the Yakima Wars Fort Dalles served as operational headquarters for the Army; the garrison had eight companies of troops assigned during this time. After these wars the post was downgraded to a quartermaster's depot in 1861. A fire burned down the officer's quarters in 1866. Fort Dalles was abandoned in 1867; the Fort Dalles Museum is located in the surgeon's quarters built in 1856 during the Yakima Wars, the only remaining officer's house from that period. Exhibits include arrowheads and pioneer artifacts, period antiques and photographs, weapons and information about the fort.

The Anderson Homestead includes the 1895 Anderson House, a Swedish log house, a granary and a barn. Tours are included with admission to the museum. There is a building housing antique horse-drawn wagons and carriages, early automobiles and other vehicles; the Fort Dalles Surgeon's Quarters is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. It is considered one of Oregon's finest examples of Gothic Revival architecture. National Register of Historic Places listings in Wasco County, Oregon Malcolm A. Moody House Official Fort Dalles Museum website

List of 1991 Canadian incumbents

See also: 1990 Canadian incumbents, 1992 Canadian incumbents Head of State - Queen Elizabeth II Governor General - Ray Hnatyshyn Prime Minister - Brian Mulroney Deputy Prime Minister - Don Mazankowski Minister of Finance - Michael Wilson Don Mazankowski Secretary of State for External Affairs - Joe Clark Barbara McDougall Minister of National Defence - Bill McKnight Marcel Masse Minister of National Health and Welfare - Perrin Beatty Benoît Bouchard Minister of Industry and Technology - Benoît Bouchard Michael Wilson Minister of the Environment - Robert de Cotret Jean Charest Minister of Justice - Kim Campbell Minister of Transport - Doug Lewis Jean Corbeil Minister of Communications - Marcel Masse Perrin Beatty Minister of Fisheries and Oceans - Bernard Valcourt John Crosbie Minister of Agriculture - Don Mazankowski Bill McKnight Minister of Public Works - Elmer MacKay Minister of Employment and Immigration - Barbara McDougall Bernard Valcourt Minister of Energy and Resources - Jake Epp Minister of Forestry - Frank Oberle Minister of Veterans Affairs - Gerry Merrithew See: 34th Canadian parliament Progressive Conservative Party of Canada - Brian Mulroney Liberal Party of Canada - Jean Chrétien Bloc Québécois - Lucien Bouchard New Democratic Party- Audrey McLaughlin Reform Party of Canada - Preston Manning Chief Justice: Antonio Lamer Beverley McLachlin Bertha Wilson Frank Iacobucci William Stevenson Gérard V.

La Forest John Sopinka Peter deCarteret Cory Claire L'Heureux-Dubé Charles D. Gonthier Speaker of the House of Commons - John Allen Fraser Governor of the Bank of Canada - John Crow Chief of the Defence Staff - General John de Chastelain Premier of Alberta - Don Getty Premier of British Columbia - Bill Vander Zalm Rita Johnston Michael Harcourt Premier of Manitoba - Gary Filmon Premier of New Brunswick - Frank McKenna Premier of Newfoundland - Clyde Wells Premier of Nova Scotia - Roger Bacon Donald Cameron Premier of Ontario - Bob Rae Premier of Prince Edward Island - Joe Ghiz Premier of Quebec - Robert Bourassa Premier of Saskatchewan - Grant Devine Roy Romanow Premier of the Northwest Territories - Dennis Patterson Nellie Cournoyea Premier of Yukon - Tony Penikett Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta - Helen Hunley Gordon Towers Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia - David Lam Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba - George Johnson Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick - Gilbert Finn Lieutenant-Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador - James Aloysius McGrath Frederick Russell Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia - Lloyd Roseville Crouse Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario - Lincoln Alexander Hal Jackman Lieutenant-Governor of Prince Edward Island - Marion Reid Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec - Martial Asselin Lieutenant-Governor of Saskatchewan - Sylvia Fedoruk Toronto - Art Eggleton June Rowlands Montreal - Jean Doré Vancouver - Gordon Campbell Ottawa - James A. Durrell Marc Laviolette Jacquelin Holzman Roman Catholic Bishop of Quebec - Archbishop Maurice Couture Roman Catholic Bishop of Montreal - Cardinal Archbishop Jean-Claude Turcotte Roman Catholic Bishops of London - Bishop John Michael Sherlock Moderator of the United Church of Canada - Walter H. Farquharson 1990 Canadian incumbents Events in Canada in 1991 1992 Canadian incumbents Governmental leaders in 1991 Canadian incumbents by year