George P. Lakoff is an American cognitive linguist and philosopher, best known for his thesis that lives of individuals are influenced by the central metaphors they use to explain complex phenomena; the conceptual metaphor thesis, introduced in his and Mark Johnson's 1980 book Metaphors We Live By has found applications in a number of academic disciplines. Applying it to politics, literature and mathematics has led Lakoff into territory considered basic to political science. In his 1996 book Moral Politics, Lakoff described conservative voters as being influenced by the "strict father model" as a central metaphor for such a complex phenomenon as the state, liberal/progressive voters as being influenced by the "nurturant parent model" as the folk psychological metaphor for this complex phenomenon. According to him, an individual's experience and attitude towards sociopolitical issues is influenced by being framed in linguistic constructions. In Metaphor and War: The Metaphor System Used to Justify War in the Gulf, he argues that the American involvement in the Gulf war was obscured or "spun" by the metaphors which were used by the first Bush administration to justify it.
Between 2003 and 2008, Lakoff was involved with a progressive think tank, the now defunct Rockridge Institute. He is a member of the scientific committee of the Fundación IDEAS, Spain's Socialist Party's think tank; the more general theory that elaborated his thesis is known as embodied mind. Lakoff served as a professor of linguistics at the University of California, from 1972 until his retirement in 2016. Although some of Lakoff's research involves questions traditionally pursued by linguists, such as the conditions under which a certain linguistic construction is grammatically viable, he is best known for his reappraisal of the role that metaphors play in the socio-political life of humans. Metaphor has been seen within the Western scientific tradition as a purely linguistic construction; the essential thrust of Lakoff's work has been the argument that metaphors are a conceptual construction and are in fact central to the development of thought. In his words: "Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature."According to Lakoff, non-metaphorical thought is possible only when we talk about purely physical reality.
People do not notice these metaphors for various reasons, including that some metaphors become'dead' in the sense that we no longer recognize their origin. Another reason is that we just don't "see" what is "going on". In intellectual debate, for instance, the underlying metaphor according to Lakoff is that argument is war: He won the argument. Your claims are indefensible, he shot down all my arguments. His criticisms were right on target. If you use that strategy, he'll wipe you out. According to Lakoff, the development of thought has been the process of developing better metaphors, he points out that the application of one domain of knowledge to another offers new perceptions and understandings. Lakoff began his career as a student and a teacher of the theory of transformational grammar developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Noam Chomsky. In the late 1960s, however, he joined with others to promote generative semantics as an alternative to Chomsky's generative syntax. In an interview he stated: During that period, I was attempting to unify Chomsky's transformational grammar with formal logic.
I had helped work out a lot of the early details of Chomsky's theory of grammar. Noam claimed — and still does, so far as I can tell — that syntax is independent of meaning, background knowledge, cognitive processing, communicative intent, every aspect of the body... In working through the details of his early theory, I found quite a few cases where semantics and other such factors entered into rules governing the syntactic occurrences of phrases and morphemes. I came up with the beginnings of an alternative theory in 1963 and, along with wonderful collaborators like "Haj" Ross and Jim McCawley, developed it through the sixties. Lakoff's claim that Chomsky asserts independence between syntax and semantics has been rejected by Chomsky, who has given examples from within his work where he talks about the relationship between semantics and syntax. Chomsky goes further and claims that Lakoff has "virtually no comprehension of the work he is discussing", his differences with Chomsky contributed to fierce, acrimonious debates among linguists that have come to be known as the "linguistics wars".
When Lakoff claims the mind is "embodied", he is arguing that all of human cognition, up through the most abstract reasoning, depends on and makes use of such concrete and "low-level" facilities as the sensorimotor system and the emotions. Therefore, embodiment is a rejection not only of dualism vis-a-vis mind and matter, but of claims that human reason can be understood without reference to the underlying "implementation details". Lakoff offers three distinct sorts of arguments in favor of embodiment. First, using evidence from neuroscience and neural network simulations, he argues that certain concepts, such as color and spatial relation concepts, can be entirely understood through the examination of how processes of perception or motor control work. Second, based on cognitive linguistics' analysis of figurative language, he argues that the reasoning we use for such abstract topics as warfare, economics, or morality is somehow ro
Mark Turner (cognitive scientist)
Mark Turner is a cognitive scientist and author. He is Institute Professor of Cognitive Science at Case Western Reserve University, he has won an Anneliese Maier Research Prize from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and a Grand Prix from the French Academy for his work in these fields. Turner and Gilles Fauconnier founded the theory of conceptual blending, presented in textbooks and encyclopedias. Turner is the director of the Cognitive Science Network and co-director of the Distributed Little Red Hen Lab. Death is the Mother of Beauty: Mind, Criticism More Than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor Reading Minds: The Study of English in the Age of Cognitive Science The Literary Mind: The Origins of Thought and Language Cognitive Dimensions of Social Science: The Way We Think About Politics, Economics and Society The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities The Artful Mind: Cognitive Science and the Riddle of Human Creativity Clear and Simple as the Truth: Writing Classic Prose Second Edition ISBN 978-0-691-14743-7.
The Origin of Ideas: Blending and the Human Spark Conceptual blending Conceptual metaphor Cognitive linguistics Cognitive rhetoric Cognitive philology Metaphor Official website Department of Cognitive Science at Case Western Reserve University Reviews by David Brooks in The Atlantic Monthly and his TED talk A summary of Clear and Simple as the Truth The Case Western Reserve University presentation of Turner on The Origin of Ideas on YouTube
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as cultures invent new genres and discontinue the use of old ones. Works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand-alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed-upon or inferred conventions; some genres may have rigid adhered-to guidelines, while others may show great flexibility. Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, actors were restricted to their genre under the assumption that a type of person could tell one type of story best.
In periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art; because art is a response to a social state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about, the use of genre as a tool must be able to adapt to changing meanings. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system, it has been suggested that genres resonate with people because of the familiarity, the shorthand communication, as well as because of the tendency of genres to shift with public mores and to reflect the zeitgeist. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation and evolution of the codes; the term genre is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.
Genre painting is a term for paintings where the main subject features human figures to whom no specific identity attaches – in other words, figures are not portraits, characters from a story, or allegorical personifications. These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is a landscape or architectural painting. Genre painting may be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, marine paintings and animal paintings; the concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory between the 17th and 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art; the genres in hierarchical order are: History painting, including narrative religious mythological and allegorical subjects Portrait painting Genre painting or scenes of everyday life Landscape and cityscape Animal painting Still life A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Genres may be determined by literary technique, content, or length. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's, they must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined with subgroups; the most general genres in literature are epic, comedy and short story. They can all be in the genres poetry, which shows best how loosely genres are defined. Additionally, a genre such as satire might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre but as a mixture of genres, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. In popular fiction, divided by genres, genre fiction is the more usual term. In literature, genre has been known as an intangible taxonomy; this taxonomy implies a concept of containment. The earliest recorded systems of genre in Western history can be traced back to Aristotle.
Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist and author of The Architext, describes Plato as creating three Imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative, epic. Lyric poetry, the fourth and final type of Greek literature, was excluded by Plato as a non-mimetic mode. Aristotle revised Plato's system by eliminating the pure narrative as a viable mode and distinguishing by two additional criteria: the object to be imitated, as objects could be either superior or inferior, the medium of presentation such as words, gestures or verse; the three categories of mode and medium can be visualized along an XYZ axis. Excluding the criteria of medium, Aristotle's system distinguished four types of classical genres: tragedy, epic and parody. Genette continues by explaining the integration of lyric poetry into the classical system during the romantic period, replacing the now removed pure narrative mode. Lyric poetry, once considered non-mimetic, was deemed to imi
Reuven Tsur is professor emeritus of Hebrew literature and literary theory at Tel Aviv University. He was born in Oradea and his mother tongue is Hungarian. In his doctoral dissertation Tsur developed an approach which he called "Cognitive Poetics"; this is an interdisciplinary approach that combines literary theory, linguistics and philosophy. It explores the relationship between the structure of the text and the human qualities perceived in it, the mediating processes that take place in the reader's mind, he applied Cognitive Poetics to rhyme, sound symbolism, poetic rhythm, metaphor and altered states of consciousness, period style, archetypal patterns, translation theory, the implied critic's decision style, critical competence and literary history. In his books and articles he applied his theories to English, German, Italian and Hebrew poetry, ranging from the Bible, through the eleventh and seventeenth century, to the eighteenth and twentieth century, his theory of metaphor has two facets: the creation and understanding of novel meanings, perceived qualities.
In his criticism of George Lakoff's claim that a road mentioned in a poem must be interpreted in light of the "life is a journey" conceptual metaphor he argued that in various works "road" may assume an indefinite number of unforeseen meanings. In his study of poetic rhythm he argues that no rules of metre have yet been devised that have not been violated by John Milton and Percy Bysshe Shelley, who are regarded as exceptionally musical poets; this required to shift the focus of investigation from what deviations are permissible in metrics to the question whether a performance can be imagined or secured in which the conflicting patterns of language and versification can be perceived at the same time. He has developed a theory that enables him to investigate the auditory information that affects the reader's or listener's impression; this theory includes a theory of rhythmical performance, submitting recorded readings to an instrumental analysis. For his work in Cognitive Poetics and poetic rhythm Tsur was awarded the 2009 Israel Prize in general literature.
In its reasons, the Prize committee states that "he is one of the outstanding, internationally renowned scholars of literature in Israel, who has the reputation of an exceptionally original researcher and theoretician of literature". In 2009, Tsur was awarded the Israel Prize in literature. In 2013, Tsur received an honorary doctorate from Osnabrück University, Germany A Perception-oriented Theory of Metre What is Cognitive Poetics On metaphoring Toward a Theory of Cognitive Poetics Review. Second and updated edition. Poetic Rhythm: Structure and Performance—An Empirical Study in Cognitive Poetics "Kubla Khan"—poetic Structure, Hypnotic Quality, Cognitive Style On the shore of nothingness: space and semantic structure List of Israel Prize recipients Cognitive poetics Tsur, Reuven. "Lakoff's Roads not Taken". Pragmatics and Cognition 7: 339-359. Willett, Steven J. "Reconsidering Reuven Tsur's Poetic Rhythm: Structure and Performance—An Empirical Study in Cognitive Poetics". Journal of Pragmatics 37/4: 497–503.
Reuven Tsur — personal website
In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as "me" or "here", that cannot be understood without additional contextual information—in this case, the identity of the speaker and the speaker's location. Words are deictic if their semantic meaning is fixed but their denotational meaning varies depending on time and/or place. Words or phrases that require contextual information to convey any meaning—for example, English pronouns—are deictic. Deixis is related to anaphora, as will be further explained below. Although this article deals with deixis in spoken language, the concept is sometimes applied to written language and communication media as well. In linguistic anthropology, deixis is treated as a particular subclass of the more general semiotic phenomenon of indexicality, a sign "pointing to" some aspect of its context of occurrence. Although this article draws examples from English, deixis is believed to be a feature of all natural languages; the term's origin is Ancient Greek: translit.
Deixis, lit.'display, demonstration, or reference', the meaning point of reference in contemporary linguistics having been taken over from Chrysippus. Fillmore termed the most common categories of contextual information of person and time the "major grammaticalized types". Similar categorizations can be found elesewhere. Personal deixis concerns itself with the grammatical persons involved in an utterance, those directly involved, those not directly involved, those mentioned in the utterance. In English, the distinctions are indicated by pronouns; the following examples show how. I am going to the movies. Would you like to have dinner? They tried to hurt me. In languages with gendered pronouns, the third-person masculine pronoun has traditionally been used as a default when using "it" is inappropriate but the gender of its antecedent is unknown or inapplicable. For example: To each his own. In English, it is now common to use the third-person plural when the antecedent is singular: To each their own.
In languages that distinguish between masculine and feminine plural pronouns, such as French or Serbo-Croatian, the masculine is again used as default. "Ils vont à la bibliothèque", "Oni idu u biblioteku" may refer either to a group of masculine nouns or a group of both masculine and feminine nouns. "Elles vont...", "One idu..." would be used only for a group of feminine nouns. In many such languages, the gender of a noun is only tangentially related to the gender of the thing the noun represents. For example, in French, the generic personne, meaning a person is always a feminine noun, so if the subject of discourse is "les personnes", the use of "elles" is obligatory if the people being considered are all men. Spatial deixis concerns itself with the spatial locations relevant to an utterance. To person deixis, the locations may be either those of the speaker and addressee or those of persons or objects being referred to; the most salient English examples are the adverbs "here" and "there" and the demonstratives "this" and "that"—although those are far from being the only deictic words.
Some examples: I enjoy living in this city. Here is, she was sitting over there. Unless otherwise specified, place deictic terms are understood to be relative to the location of the speaker, as in The shop is across the street.where "across the street" is understood to mean "across the street from where I am right now." Although "here" and "there" are used to refer to locations near to and far from the speaker "there" can refer to the location of the addressee, if they are not in the same location as the speaker. So, although Here is a good spot. Deictic projection: In some contexts, spatial deixis is used metaphorically rather than physically, i.e. the speaker is not speaking as the deictic centre. For example:I am coming home now; the above utterance would be considered as the speaker's expression of his/her going home, yet it appears to be normal for one to project his physical presence to his home rather than away from home. Here is another common example: I am not here, please leave a message.
Despite its common usage to address people who call with no one answering the phone, the here here is semantically contradictory to one's absence. This is considered normal for most people as speakers have to project themselves as answering the phone when in fact they are not physically. Languages show at least a two-way referential distinction in their deictic system: proximal, i.e. near or closer to the speaker. English exemplifies this with such pairs as this and that and there, etc. In other languages, the distinction is three-way or higher: proximal, i.e. near the speaker. This is the case in a few Romance languages and in Serbo-Croatian, Japanese, Filipino and Turkish; the archaic English forms yon and yonder once represented a distal category that has now been subsumed by the medial "there". In the Sinhala language, there is a four-way deixis syst
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t