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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, perception, problem solving and thinking". Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines such as cognitive science and of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology and economics. Philosophically, ruminations of the human mind and its processes have been around since the times of the ancient Greeks. In 387 BCE, Plato is known to have suggested. In 1637, René Descartes posited that humans are born with innate ideas, forwarded the idea of mind-body dualism, which would come to be known as substance dualism. From that time, major debates ensued through the 19th century regarding whether human thought was experiential, or included innate knowledge; some of those involved in this debate included George Berkeley and John Locke on the side of empiricism, Immanuel Kant on the side of nativism.

With the philosophical debate continuing, the mid to late 19th century was a critical time in the development of psychology as a scientific discipline. Two discoveries that would play substantial roles in cognitive psychology were Paul Broca's discovery of the area of the brain responsible for language production, Carl Wernicke's discovery of an area thought to be responsible for comprehension of language. Both areas were subsequently formally named for their founders and disruptions of an individual's language production or comprehension due to trauma or malformation in these areas have come to be known as Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia. From the 1920s to the 1950s, the main approach to psychology was behaviorism, its adherents viewed mental events such as thoughts, ideas and consciousness as unobservables, hence outside the realm of a science of psychology. One pioneer of cognitive psychology, who worked outside the boundaries of behaviorism was Jean Piaget. From 1926 to the 1950s and into the 1980s, he studied the thoughts and intelligence of children and adults.

In the mid-20th century, three main influences arose that would inspire and shape cognitive psychology as a formal school of thought: With the development of new warfare technology during WWII, the need for a greater understanding of human performance came to prominence. Problems such as how to best train soldiers to use new technology and how to deal with matters of attention while under duress became areas of need for military personnel. Behaviorism provided little if any insight into these matters and it was the work of Donald Broadbent, integrating concepts from human performance research and the developed information theory, that forged the way in this area. Developments in computer science would lead to parallels being drawn between human thought and the computational functionality of computers, opening new areas of psychological thought. Allen Newell and Herbert Simon spent years developing the concept of artificial intelligence and worked with cognitive psychologists regarding the implications of AI.

This encouraged a conceptualization of mental functions patterned on the way that computers handled such things as memory storage and retrieval, it opened an important doorway for cognitivism. Noam Chomsky's 1959 critique of behaviorism, empiricism more initiated what would come to be known as the "cognitive revolution". Inside psychology, in criticism of behaviorism, J. S. Bruner, J. J. Goodnow & G. A. Austin wrote "a study of thinking" in 1956. In 1960, G. A. Miller, E. Galanter and K. Pribram wrote their famous "Plans and the Structure of Behavior"; the same year and Miller founded the Harvard Center for Cognitive Studies, which institutionalized the revolution and launched the field of cognitive science. Formal recognition of the field involved the establishment of research institutions such as George Mandler's Center for Human Information Processing in 1964. Mandler described the origins of cognitive psychology in a 2002 article in the Journal of the History of the Behavioral SciencesUlric Neisser put the term "cognitive psychology" into common use through his book Cognitive Psychology, published in 1967.

Neisser's definition of "cognition" illustrates the then-progressive concept of cognitive processes: The term "cognition" refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, elaborated, stored and used. It is concerned with these processes when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations.... Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might do, but although cognitive psychology is concerned with all human activity rather than some fraction of it, the concern is from a particular point of view. Other viewpoints are legitimate and necessary. Dynamic psychology, which begins with motives rather than with sensory input, is a case in point. Instead of asking how a man's actions and experiences result from what he saw, remembered, or believed, the dynamic psychologist asks how they follow from the subject's goals, needs, or instincts; the main focus of cognitive psychologists is on the mental processes.

Those processes include, but are not limited to, the following three stages of memory: 1-sensory memory storage: holds sensory information 2-short term memory storage: holds in

List of Canadian electoral districts 1873–82

This is a list of electoral districts or ridings in Canada for the 1874 Canadian federal election. New seats were added in 1873. Electoral Districts are constituencies that elect Members of Parliament in Canada's House of Commons every election. Annapolis Antigonish Cape Breton* Colchester Cumberland Digby Guysborough Halifax* Hants Inverness Kings Lunenburg Pictou* Queens Richmond Shelburne Victoria Yarmouth King's County* Prince County* Queen's County* Albert Carleton Charlotte City and County of St. John* City of St. John Gloucester Kent King's Northumberland Queen's Restigouche Sunbury Victoria Westmorland York Argenteuil Bagot Beauce Beauharnois Bellechasse Berthier Bonaventure Brome Chambly Champlain Charlevoix Châteauguay Chicoutimi—Saguenay Compton Dorchester Drummond—Arthabaska Gaspé Hochelaga Huntingdon Iverbville Jacques Cartier Joliette Kamouraska L'Assomption L'Islet Laprairie Laval Lévis Lotbinière Maskinongé Mégantic Missisquoi Montcalm Montmagny Montmorency Montreal Centre Montreal East Montreal West Napierville Nicolet Ottawa Pontiac Portneuf Quebec County Quebec East Quebec West Quebec-Centre Richelieu Richmond—Wolfe Rimouski Rouville Saint Maurice Shefford Sherbrooke Soulanges St. Hyacinthe St. John's Stanstead Témiscouata Terrebonne Three Rivers Two Mountains Vaudreuil Verchères Yamaska Addington Algoma Bothwell Brant North Brant South Brockville Bruce North Bruce South Cardwell Carleton Cornwall Dundas Durham East Durham West Elgin East Elgin West Essex Frontenac Glengarry Grenville South Grey East Grey North Grey South Haldimand Halton Hamilton* Hastings East Hastings North Hastings West Huron Centre Huron North Huron South Kent Kingston Lambton Lanark North Lanark South Leeds North and Grenville North Leeds South Lennox Lincoln London Middlesex East Middlesex North Middlesex West Monck Muskoka Niagara Norfolk North Norfolk South Northumberland East Northumberland West Ontario North Ontario South Ottawa * Oxford North Oxford South Peel Perth North Perth South Peterborough East Peterborough West Prescott Prince Edward Renfrew North Renfrew South Russell Simcoe North Simcoe South Stormont Toronto Centre Toronto East Victoria North Victoria South Waterloo North Waterloo South Welland Wellington Centre Wellington North Wellington South Wentworth North Wentworth South West Toronto York East York North York West Lisgar Marquette Provencher Selkirk Cariboo New Westminster Vancouver Victoria* Yale*returned two members

Tandang Sora National Shrine

The Tandang Sora National Shrine is a national monument and memorial park in Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. It is dedicated to Filipino revolutionary and centenarian, Melchora Aquino, known as "Tandang Sora". Melchora Aquino, popularly known as Tandang Sora is a key figure in the Philippine Revolution who offered shelter and medical aid to Katipunan revolutionaries despite her old age, she was known by the titles of "Mother of the Katipunan" and the "Grand Woman of the Revolution" for her role in the revolution. The place where the memorial is situated, along in present-day Banlat Road in a barangay in Quezon City named in honor of her is her birthplace. After her death, her remains were buried at the Mausoleum of the Veterans of the Revolution at the Manila North Cemetery before being transferred to the Himlayang Pilipino. In 2012, her remains were transferred to the Tandang Sora Shrine; the Tandang Sora Shrine was "restored" by the Quezon City government in 2005 as a tribute to Melchora Aquino and the shrine was built in 2008 during the tenure of then-Quezon City Mayor Feliciano Belmonte Jr..

Prior to the shrine's construction, a marker is present near the site of the shrine although it is hidden from view from the public by houses. The Quezon City Council declared 2012 as Tandang Sora Year, a year-long celebration to mark the 200th birth anniversary of Melchora Auino. In line of the commemoration, there were efforts by the city government to have Aquino's remains which were then-located at the nearby Himlayang Pilipino exhumed and re-interred in the shrine; such moves required approval from the Congress and their bid was helped by the approval of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines of the plan in 2011. The Himlayang Pilipino gave consent for the exhumation of Aquino's remains. Melchora Aquino's remains were re-interred at the Tandang Sora Shrine on January 6, 2012, on her birth day; the re-interment ceremony was led by Novaliches Bishop Antonio Tobias. The memorial was declared a national shrine on March 2, 2012 by the NHCP through a resolution; the shrine is situated along Banlat Road in Quezon City.

It features a 10.67 m bronze sculpture. The remains of Melchora Aquino, which consists of three small bones and ash at the time of her re-interment in the shrine, is housed inside a small wooden casket, which in turn is placed inside a square space at the foot of the bronze sculpture designed by the Toym Imao. An art gallery is hosted within shrine grounds which features paintings and other sculptures dedicated to Tandang Sora made by local artists from Quezon City, it has a pavilion and stage for events, a mini-museum dedicated to Melchora Aquino