The cistophorus was a coin of ancient Pergamum. It was introduced sometime in the years 175-160 BC at that city to provide the Attalid kingdom with a substitute for Seleucid coins and it was used by a number of other cities that were under Attalid control. It continued to be minted and circulated down to the time of Hadrian and it owes its name to a figure, on the obverse, of the sacred chest of Dionysus. It was tariffed at four drachmas, but weighed only as much as three Attic drachmas,12.75 grams, in addition, the evidence of hoards suggests that it did not travel outside the area which Pergamum controlled. It is therefore suspected that it was overvalued in this area, article in Smiths Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities
Side is an ancient Greek city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, a resort town and one of the best-known classical sites in the country. It lies near Manavgat and the village of Selimiye,78 km from Antalya in the province of Antalya and it is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the Eurymedon River. Today, as in antiquity, the ancient city is situated on a small peninsula about 1 km long and 400 m across. Strabo and Arrian both record that Side was founded by Greek settlers from Cyme in Aeolis, a region of western Anatolia and this most likely occurred in the 7th century BC. Its tutelary deity was Athena, whose head adorned its coinage, dating from the tenth century B. C. its coinage bore the head of Athena, the patroness of the city, with a legend. Its people, a horde, quickly forgot their own language to adopt that of the aborigines. Possessing a good harbour for boats, Sides natural geography made it one of the most important places in Pamphylia.
According to Arrian, when settlers from Cyme came to Side, after a short while, the influence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot their native Greek and started using the language of Side. Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in this language, the inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, remain undeciphered, but testify that the local language was still in use several centuries after colonisation. Another object found in the excavations at Side, a column base from the 7th century BC. The name Side may be Anatolian in origin, meaning pomegranate, next to no information exists concerning Side under Lydian and Persian sovereignty. Alexander the Great occupied Side without a struggle in 333 BC, alexander left only a single garrison behind to occupy the city. This occupation, in turn, introduced the people of Side to Hellenistic culture, after Alexanders death, Side fell under the control of one of Alexanders generals, Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself king of Egypt in 305 BC.
The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Side until it was captured by the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd century BC, despite these occupations, Side managed to preserve some autonomy, grew prosperous, and became an important cultural centre. The defeat of Hannibal and Antiochus the Great meant that Side freed itself from the overlord-ship of the Seleucid Empire, the Treaty of Apamea forced Antiochus to abandon all European territories and to cede all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum. However, the dominion of Pergamum only reached de facto as far as Perga and this led Attalus II Philadelphus to construct a new harbour in the city of Attalia, although Side already possessed an important harbour of its own. Between 188 and 36 BC Side minted its own money, tetradrachms showing Nike, in the 1st century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cilician pirates established their chief naval base and a centre for their slave-trade. Emperor Augustus reformed the administration and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatia in 25 BC
Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros, Apollo has been recognized as a god of music and prophecy, the sun and light, poetry. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. As the patron of Delphi, Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Amongst the gods custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists, as the leader of the Muses and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became an attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE.
The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is generally not found in the Linear B texts, the etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era and it probably is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios, and the offerings apellaia at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai. According to some scholars the words are derived from the Doric word apella, apella is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta, corresponding to the ecclesia. R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai, several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollos name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι, in the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα means stone, and some toponyms may be derived from this word, Πέλλα and Πελλήνη. The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus by Chryses, the Hittite testimony reflects an early form *Apeljōn, which may be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Ἀπείλων with Doric Ἀπέλλων.
A Luwian etymology suggested for Apaliunas makes Apollo The One of Entrapment, Apollos chief epithet was Phoebus, literally bright. It was very commonly used by both the Greeks and Romans for Apollos role as the god of light, like other Greek deities, he had a number of others applied to him, reflecting the variety of roles and aspects ascribed to the god. However, while Apollo has a number of appellations in Greek myth. Aegletes, from αἴγλη, light of the sun Helius, literally sun Lyceus light, the meaning of the epithet Lyceus became associated with Apollos mother Leto, who was the patron goddess of Lycia and who was identified with the wolf
Philippeioi, called Alexanders, were the gold coins used in the ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedonia. They had the value of one gold stater each, in the first issuing, Apollo was depicted with long hair, but after that the design was altered permanently to one in which Apollos hair was shorter. The coins were intended primarily for large purchases outside of Macedonia, the vast majority of these were actually struck by Philips successor, Alexander the Great. The philippeioi issued by Alexander after Philips death continued to use that name officially, considered the most famous coins to be struck by king Philip II, the philippeioi continued to be highly influential even after they were no longer in circulation. Their design was widely mimicked or replicated by currencies outside of Greece, the Gaulish gold staters, whose design closely mimicked that of the philippeioi, continued to be minted up until the end of the Gallic Wars three centuries later. The coins were so widespread that in many ancient Roman texts, ancient Macedonian coins, Numismatic Museum of Athens
In the coinage of the North Indian and Central Asian Kushan Empire the main coins issued were gold, weighing 7. 9g. and base metal issues of various weights between 12g and 1. 5g. Little silver coinage was issued, but in periods the gold used was debased with silver. The coin designs usually follow the styles of the preceding Greco-Bactrian rulers in using Hellenistic styles of image, with a deity on one side. Kings may be shown as a head, a standing figure, typically officiating at a fire altar in Zoroastrian style. The artistry of the dies is generally lower than the high standards of the best coins of Greco-Bactrian rulers. Iranian influence, especially in the figures and the pantheon of deities used, is even stronger. Under Kanishka the royal title of King of kings changed from the Greek ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ to the Persian form ϷAONANOϷAO, much of what little information we have of Kushan political history derives from coins. The language of inscriptions is typically the Bactrian language, written in a derived from Greek.
Many coins show the tamga symbols as a kind of monogram for the ruler, there were several regional mints, and the evidence from coins suggests that much of the empire was semi-independent. Greek deities, with Greek names are represented on early coins, during Kanishkas reign, the language of the coinage changes to Bactrian. After Huvishka, only two appear on the coins and Oesho. Representation of entities from Greek mythology and Hellenistic syncretism are, Ηλιος, Ηφαηστος, Σαληνη, the coins of Huvishka portray the demi-god erakilo Heracles, and the Egyptian god sarapo Sarapis. This is typically a depiction of Rudra, but in the case of two coins is generally assumed to represent Shiva. The northern area, Bactria which had the largest sized coins of 12g and 1. 5g, Gandhara whose coinage weighed 9-10g for large and 2g for small, and the Indian area, where coins are 4g each. MacDowell proposed a reduction of all three issues starting with Huvishka, while Chattopadhyay proposes a rapid devaluation of the issue by Kanishka.
It seems that there were two reductions based on the coinage of the rulers just named, issues were unified into a central coinage system of weights. Vima Kadphises issued three denominations of for this metal, a two of 15.75 grammes, a one of 7.8 grammes and a quarter piece of 1.95 grammes. MacDowell, David W. Mithra, Mithras Planetary Setting in the Coinage of the Great Kushans, in Études Mithriaques, Actes Du 2e Congrès International, Téhéran, Du 1er Au 8 Septembre,1975, ed
Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is the goddess of wisdom and war in ancient Greek religion and mythology. Minerva is the Roman goddess identified with Athena, Athena is known for her calm temperament, as she moves slowly to anger. She is noted to have fought for just reasons. Athena is portrayed as a companion of heroes and is the patron goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the patroness of Athens. The Athenians founded the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her city, Athens. Veneration of Athena was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes, in her role as a protector of the city, many people throughout the Greek world worshipped Athena as Athena Polias. While the city of Athens and the goddess Athena essentially bear the same name, Athena is associated with Athens, a plural name, because it was the place where she presided over her sisterhood, the Athenai, in earliest times. Mycenae was the city where the Goddess was called Mykene, at Thebes she was called Thebe, and the city again a plural, Thebae.
Similarly, at Athens she was called Athena, and the city Athenae, Athena had a special relationship with Athens, as is shown by the etymological connection of the names of the goddess and the city. According to mythical lore, she competed with Poseidon and she won by creating the olive tree, the Athenians would accept her gift and name the city after her. In history, the citizens of Athens built a statue of Athena as a temple to the goddess, which had piercing eyes, a helmet on her head, attired with an aegis or cuirass, and an extremely long spear. It had a shield with the head of the Gorgon on it. A large snake accompanied her and she held Nike, the goddess of victory, Mylonas believes that Athena was a Mycenaean creation. On the other hand, Nilsson claims that she was the goddess of the palace who protected the king, a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja is found in Linear A Minoan, the final part being regarded as the Linear A Minoan equivalent of the Linear B Mycenaean di-u-ja or di-wi-ja. Divine Athena was a weaver and the deity of crafts, whether her name is attested in Eteocretan or not will have to wait for decipherment of Linear A.
Perhaps, the name Theonoe may mean she who knows divine things better than others. Thus for Plato her name was to be derived from Greek Ἀθεονόα, Plato noted that the citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped a goddess whose Egyptian name was Neith, and which was identified with Athena. Neith was the war goddess and huntress deity of the Egyptians since the ancient Pre-Dynastic period, in addition, ancient Greek myths reported that Athena had visited many mythological places such as Libyas Triton River in North Africa and the Phlegraean plain
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth. It was a made of bronze which in its styles covered the entire head and neck, with slits for the eyes. A large curved projection protected the nape of the neck, out of combat, a Greek hoplite would wear the helmet tipped upward for comfort. This practice gave rise to a series of variant forms in Italy, numerous examples of Corinthian helmets have been excavated, and they are frequently depicted on pottery. The Corinthian helmet was depicted on more sculpture than any other helmet, it seems the Greeks romantically associated it with glory, the Romans revered it, from copies of Greek originals to sculpture of their own. Given many Roman appropriations of ancient Greek ideas, this change was inspired by the over the forehead position common in Greek art. This helmet remained in use well into the 1st century AD, herodotus mentions the Corinthian helmet in his Histories when writing of the Machlyes and Auseans, two tribes living along the River Triton in ancient Libya.
The tribes chose annually two teams of the fairest maidens who fought each other ceremonially with sticks and stones and they were dressed in the finest Greek panoply topped off with a Corinthian helmet. The ritual fight was part of a festival honoring the virgin goddess Athena, young women who succumbed to their wounds during the ordeal were thought to have been punished by the goddess for lying about their virginity. An earlier version of the Corinthian helmet is worn by the Marvel Comics super villain Magneto
The Attic talent, known as the Athenian talent or Greek talent, is an ancient unit of mass equal to 26 kg, as well as a unit of value equal to this amount of pure silver. A talent was originally intended to be the mass of water required to fill an amphora At the 2012 price of $1001/kg and it was equivalent to 60 minae,6,000 drachmae or 36,000 oboloi. During the Peloponnesian War, a crew of 200 rowers was paid a talent for a months worth of work, one drachma. According to wage rates from 377 BC, a talent was the value of nine man-years of skilled work and this corresponds to 2340 work days or 11.1 grams of silver per worker per workday. A modern carpenter gets about $25, 060/year or $226,000 for nine years of work, in 1800, a building craftsman in urban Europe got an average wage of 11.9 grams of silver a day, or about $0.49 a day. Adjusted for inflation, this corresponds to $6 a day in 2007 money, assuming a European worker in 1800 to be as productive as a worker in ancient Greece, the purchasing power of a talent in ancient times was about $20,000 of early 21st century money.
The plausibility of this calculation is confirmed by the fact that a talent of silver was worth $1081 in 1800, equivalent to $13,000 after adjusting for inflation
Ancient Greek coinage
The history of Ancient Greek coinage can be divided into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman. The Archaic period extends from the introduction of coinage to the Greek world during the 7th century BC until the Persian Wars in about 480 BC, the Greek cities continued to produce their own coins for several more centuries under Roman rule. The coins produced during this period are called Roman provincial coins or Greek Imperial Coins, the word drachm means a handful, literally a grasp. Drachmae were divided into six obols, and six spits made a handful and this suggests that before coinage came to be used in Greece, spits in prehistoric times were used as measures in daily transactions. Because of this aspect, Spartan legislation famously forbade issuance of Spartan coin, and enforced the continued use of iron spits so as to discourage avarice. In addition to its meaning, the word obol was retained as a Greek word for coins of small value. The obol was further subdivided into tetartemorioi which represented 1/4 of an obol and this coin is mentioned by Aristotle as the smallest silver coin.
Various multiples of this denomination were struck, including the trihemitetartemorion valued at 3/8 of an obol and these coins were made of electrum, an alloy of gold and silver that was highly prized and abundant in that area. By the middle of the 6th century BC, technology had advanced, making the production of pure gold, King Croesus introduced a bi-metallic standard that allowed for coins of pure gold and pure silver to be struck and traded in the marketplace. The Greek world was divided more than two thousand self-governing city-states, and more than half of them issued their own coins. As such coins circulated widely, other cities began to mint coins to this Aeginetan weight standard of. Athenian coins, were struck on the Attic standard, over time, Athens plentiful supply of silver from the mines at Laurion and its increasing dominance in trade made this the pre-eminent standard. These coins, known as owls because of their central design feature, were minted to an extremely tight standard of purity.
This contributed to their success as the premier trade coin of their era, tetradrachms on this weight standard continued to be a widely used coin through the classical period. By the time of Alexander the Great and his Hellenistic successors, the Classical period saw Greek coinage reach a high level of technical and aesthetic quality. Larger cities now produced a range of silver and gold coins, most bearing a portrait of their patron god or goddess or a legendary hero on one side. Some coins employed a visual pun, some coins from Rhodes featured a rose, the use of inscriptions on coins began, usually the name of the issuing city. The wealthy cities of Sicily produced some especially fine coins, the large silver decadrachm coin from Syracuse is regarded by many collectors as the finest coin produced in the ancient world, perhaps ever
The coinage of the Seleucid Empire is based on the coins of Alexander the Great, which in turn were based on Athenian coinage of the Attic weight. Many mints and different issues are defined, with mainly base, the symbol of Seleucid power was the anchor, which was placed on the obverse of coins depicting Alexander posthumously but prior to the issue of coins portraying Seleukos I around 306 BCE. Bronze coinage was issued in five denominations, the weight and size varies greatly and most likely no effort was made to conform to a set standard,1 Obol and Bow and Quiver. 2 Diobol and Quiver 3 Hemidrachm,6 Drachm, Anchor 24 Tetradrachm, Elephant walking Coins with the head of Zeus on the reverse and these coins are of a lighter Phoenician standard, which were circulated in India prior to Alexander the Greats conquest. Starting from Seleukos I, these mints were most likely a continuation from before his reign, Ecbatana, Apamaea mint, Babylon, Aï Khanoum, Seleucia in Pieria, Bactria, Cyzicus, Abydus.
Coins of the Selucid Empire had many images including the King with a head dress, or Zeus on a throne with a sceptre. Bronze coins usually didnt feature the Kings image, and usually had a god or goddess or in some cases a charging bull, under Seleukos I Nicator, the first Selucid king, the coinage varieties are similar to Alexander the Greats with the kings head wearing a lion skin. After 300 BCE the head of this King is portrayed in a style to other Greek coinage. Obverses 1, Seleucos or Dionysos in helmet covered with a panther skin & adorned with bulls ears & horns,2, Head of Herakles wearing lions skin headdress. 3, Head of Apollo facing right 4, Young Heracles,5, A naked male figure seated facing left on a rock, holding an ankh in his right hand. 6, Dioskouros 7, Athena wearing an Attic helmet,8, Winged head of Medusa facing right. Reverses 1, Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and sceptre 2, Athena advancing right, brandishing a spear & holding a shield 3, on bronze coins 4, Athena over elephant.
5, Boeotian shield between Nike & trophy 6, Forepart of a horse facing right with an anchor above. Antiochus I Soter Coins Designs are much the same as the ruler, in featuring the many Greek gods and the Kings head. Syria The Seleucid Kings SELEUCID KINGDOM - COINS Seleucos I Antiochos 1 Zeno. ru