Coke R. Stevenson
Coke Robert Stevenson was the 35th Governor of Texas from 1941 to 1947. He was the only 20th century Texan politician to serve as Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives, as lieutenant governor, as governor. In 1966, Recorded Texas Historic Landmark marker number 5118, honoring Stevenson, was placed on the Kimble County Courthouse grounds in Junction, Texas. Stevenson was born near the geographic center of Texas, in Mason County, to Robert Milton and Virginia Hurley Stevenson, his parents named him for Governor Richard Coke. As a teenager, Stevenson went into the business of hauling freight with a six-horse wagon. While hauling freight, he studied bookkeeping by the light of his nighttime campfires as part of a plan to begin a business or banking career. Offered a position as a janitor for the Junction State Bank, Stevenson accepted and sold his freight hauling business, he was soon promoted to bookkeeper, he became the bank's cashier when he was twenty. Stevenson studied law at night in the office of attorney and judge Marvin Ellis Blackburn while working at the bank, attained admission to the bar in 1913.
In 1913, Stevenson organized and became president of the First National Bank in Junction, the seat of Kimble County. He became active in several other business ventures, including a warehouse, movie theater, hardware store, automobile dealership, drug store, hotel. Stevenson was Kimble County Attorney from 1914 to 1918 and Kimble County Judge, the county's chief administrative and executive position, from 1919 to 1921. In 1928, Stevenson was elected to the Texas House of Representatives as a Democrat, served there from 1929 until 1939. In 1933, he was elected Speaker of the House. After five terms in the House, Stevenson was elected lieutenant governor in 1938, serving under Governor W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel. Stevenson succeeded to the governorship on August 4, 1941, when O'Daniel resigned to take a seat in the U. S. Senate, which he won in a special election. In dramatic contrast to the flamboyant and unpredictable O'Daniel, Stevenson's approach was so conservative and taciturn that his critics accused him of doing nothing.
Stevenson was elected to a full term in 1942, winning the Democratic primary with 69% of the vote and being unopposed in the general election. He was elected to a second term in 1944 unopposed; when Stevenson left the governorship in January 1947, he was the longest-serving governor in the history of Texas and had presided over a broad and deep economic recovery during the years of World War II. In 1948, Stevenson filed his candidacy for the U. S. Senate, he led the Democratic primary with 39.7% to 33.7% against U. S. Representative Lyndon B. Johnson of Austin. A third candidate was George Peddy of Houston from Shelby County in East Texas, an Independent write-in candidate for the Senate in 1922 but was defeated by Democratic nominee Earle Bradford Mayfield; as the lowest finisher in the primary, Peddy was eliminated from the runoff election. In the hotly contested runoff between Stevenson and Johnson, Johnson won by only 87 votes out of 988,295 cast – one of the closest results in a senatorial election in U.
S. history. Stevenson challenged the result on the grounds of ballot stuffing alleged to have occurred in a single Texas county, which involved 203 disputed votes from Jim Wells County; the Democratic State Central Committee sustained Johnson's apparent victory by a 29–28 vote. Stevenson was granted an injunction by the federal district court, which barred Johnson from the general election ballot. However, Supreme Court Associate Justice Hugo Black, sitting as a circuit justice, ruled that the federal district court lacked jurisdiction, that the question was for the Central Committee to decide, he ordered the injunction stayed, his ruling was upheld by the Supreme Court. After the loss to Johnson, Stevenson retired to Junction. Disenchanted with the Democratic Party, he supported Republicans for the rest of his life, including John G. Tower for the Senate and Richard M. Nixon and Barry Goldwater for the presidency. In 1964, Stevenson met at his ranch with the Republican gubernatorial nominee Jack Crichton of Dallas.
He did not endorse Crichton over John B. Connally, who had worked for Johnson against Stevenson in the disputed 1948 Democratic primary, but meeting with Crichton was seen as a sign of Stevenson's support. On December 24, 1912, Stevenson married Fay Wright; the couple had one son, Coke Stevenson Jr. Fay died on January 3, 1942. On January 16, 1954, Stevenson married Marguerite King Heap. Marguerite had one son, from her marriage to Gordon Marshall Heap, who died in action during World War II. Coke and Marguerite had Jane Stevenson Murr Chandler. Marguerite died March 2010 in Ozona, Texas. Stevenson died on June 1975, at Shannon Memorial Hospital in San Angelo, Texas. Stevenson's character became a subject of historical discussion after the publication of Means of Ascent, the second volume of Robert Caro's best-selling biography of Lyndon Johnson, which covers the disputed 1948 election. Caro portrayed Stevenson as an honorable statesman and reluctant office-seeker, in contrast to the venal and intensely ambitious Johnson.
Caro's editor, Robert Gottlieb, argued that Caro idealized Stevenson because of distaste for Johnson. As an example of Stevenson's place as a traditional, conservative Texas Democratic politician of the early to mid-1900s, when a black man was lynched in Texarkana, Texas in 1943, Stevenson did little in response. In private he is alleged
The Antonov An-24 is a 44-seat twin turboprop transport/passenger aircraft designed in 1957 in the Soviet Union by the Antonov Design Bureau and manufactured by Kiev and Ulan-Ude Aviation Factories. First flown in 1959, the An-24 was produced in some 1,000 units of various versions, it was designed to replace the veteran piston Ilyushin Il-14 transport on short to medium haul trips, optimised for operating from rough strips and unprepared airports in remote locations. The high-wing layout protects engines and blades from debris, the power-to-weight ratio is higher than that of many comparable aircraft and the machine is rugged, requiring minimal ground support equipment. Due to its rugged airframe and good performance, the An-24 was adapted to perform many secondary missions such as ice reconnaissance and engine/propeller test-bed, as well as further development to produce the An-26 tactical transport, An-30 photo-mapping/survey aircraft and An-32 tactical transport with more powerful engines.
Various projects were envisaged such as a four jet short/medium haul airliner and various iterations of powerplant. The main production line was at the Kiev-Svyatoshino aircraft production plant which built 985, with 180 built at Ulan Ude and a further 197 An-24T tactical transport/freighters at Irkutsk. Production in the USSR was shut down by 1978. Production continues at China's Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation which makes licensed, reverse-engineered and redesigned aircraft as the Xian Y-7, its derivatives. Manufacture of the Y-7, in civil form, has now been supplanted by the MA60 derivative with western engines and avionics, to improve performance and economy, widen the export appeal. An-24 Original design and prototypes. Twin-engined 44-seat transport aircraft. An-24A Airliner project powered by Kuznetsov NK-4 turboprops, discontinued when the NK-4 was cancelled. An-24A Production 50-seat airliners built at Kiev with the APU exhaust moved to the tip of the starboard nacelle. An-24ALK Several An-24s were converted for navaids calibration tasks, with one An-24LR'Toros' re-designated An-24ALK after conversion.
This aircraft was fitted with a powerful light sources for the optical sensors. An-24AT A 1962 project for a Tactical transport with rear loading ramp and powered by Isotov TV2-117DS coupled turboprops. An-24AT-RD The An-24AT tactical transport project with two turbojet boosters pod-mounted under the outer wings and a wider loading ramp. An-24AT-U A projected Tactical transport from 1966 with three or five PRD-63 JATO bottles, wider cargo ramp and provision for up to three brake parachutes. An-24B The second 50-seat airliner version with one extra window each side, single-slotted flaps replacing the double-slotted flaps and extended chord of the centre-section to compensate for the lower performance flaps; some aircraft were delivered with four extra fuel bladders in the wing centre-section. An-24D A projected long-range airliner version of the An-24B with a single RU-19 booster jet engine in the starboard nacelle, stretched fuselage with seating for 60, strengthened structure and increased fuel capacity.
An-24LL The generic suffix LL can be applied to any test-bed, but in the An-24's case seems to refer to a single aircraft equipped for metrology, to be used for checking the airworthiness of production aircraft. An-24LP Three An-24RV aircraft converted into fire bombers/cloud seeders by installing a tank in the cabin, optical smoke and flame detectors, provision for a thermal imager, racks for carrying flare dispensers and the ability to carry firefighters for para-dropping. An-24LR'Toros' At least two An-24Bs converted to carry the'Toros' SLAR either side of the lower fuselage, for ice reconnaissance, guiding icebreakers and other shipping. An-24LR'Nit' One An-24B was converted to with'Nit' SLAR in large pods along the lower fuselage sides. An-24PRT The production search and rescue aircraft based on the An-24RT, eleven built. An-24PS A single An-24B aircraft converted for search and rescue duties, rejected after acceptance trials in favour of a derivative of the An-24RT. An-24RR Four aircraft converted as Nuclear and chemical warfare reconnaissance versions of the An-24B, carrying RR8311-100 air sampling pods low on the forward fuselage and a sensor pod on a pylon on the port fuselage side.
An-24RT Similar to the AN-24T, fitted with an auxiliary turbojet engine. An-24RT A few An-24T and An-24RT aircraft converted to Communications relay aircraft. Sometimes referred to as An-24Rt to differentiate from the An-24RT. An-24RV Turbojet boosted export version, similar to the An-24V but fitted with a 1,985-lb thrust auxiliary turbojet engine in the starboard nacelle. An-24ShT A tactical Airborne Command Post for use by commanders capable of forming ground-based communications and HQ. An-24T Tactical transport version, re
Names for soft drinks in the United States
Names for soft drinks in the United States vary regionally. "Soda" and "pop" are the most common terms for soft drinks nationally, although other terms are used "coke" in the South. Since individual names tend to dominate regionally, the use of a particular term can be an act of geographic identity; the choice of terminology is most associated with geographic origin, rather than other factors such as race, age, or income. The differences in naming have been the subject of scholarly studies. Cambridge linguist Bert Vaux, in particular, has studied the "pop vs. soda debate" in conjunction with other regional vocabularies of American English. According to writer piet, "soda" derives from sodium, a common mineral in natural springs, was first used to describe carbonation in 1802; the earliest known usage of "pop" is from 1812. The two words were combined into "soda pop" in 1863. Schloss gives the following years as the first attestations of the various terms for these beverages: In the Southern United States, "coke" is used as a generic term for any type of soft drink—not just a Coca-Cola product or another cola.
This terminology is used in areas adjacent to the traditional southern states, such as New Mexico and Southern Indiana. Several other locations have been found to use the generic "coke", such as Trinity County and White Pine County, although the small populations of these counties may skew survey results. A Twitter data scientist, found that while "soda" and "pop" dominate in the United States, "coke" is a generic soft drink name in other countries in Europe. "Pop" is most associated with the Midwest, in states like Ohio, Michigan, Oklahoma and Iowa. The term is more common in the Pacific Northwest and Mountain West. "Soda" is most common on the East and West Coasts, as well as Hawaii, St. Louis and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, it is known as a fizzy. The "soda/pop" dialect line runs through Western New York State through the Rochester, New York area; those west of the line say "pop" while those east of the line use "soda." "Tonic" has been used in eastern Massachusetts and parts of Maine and New Hampshire since at least 1888.
Its usage has been declining in favor of "soda." In some areas, "tonic" is still understood to mean "soft drink", but many regard it as an antiquated term. "Soda pop" is used by some speakers in the Mountain West. "Soda" or "drinks" is common in Utah. "Drink", "cold drink", "carbo", "soda" are locally common in southern Virginia and the Carolinas, spreading from there as far as Louisiana. "Soda water" is used in more rural parts of the US. "Soft drink" or "cold drink" is the phrase of choice in New Orleans and most of east Texas as far west as the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. At many restaurants in the U. S. the products of only a single major beverage producer, such as The Coca-Cola Company or PepsiCo, are available. While most patrons requesting a "coke" may be indifferent as to which cola brand they receive, the careful server will confirm intent with a question like "Is Pepsi OK?" 7 Up or Sprite or Sierra Mist may indicate any clear, citrus-flavoured drink at hand. The generic uses of these brand names does not affect the local usage of the words "pop" or "soda" to mean any carbonated beverage.
List of soft drinks by country#United States Pop vs. Soda, a web project tracking soft drink naming
Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century; the drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients: coca leaves, kola nuts. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published; the Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce can contains 38 grams of sugar; the bottlers sell and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines throughout the world.
The Coca-Cola Company sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name; the most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, special versions with lemon and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. In 1885 at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, he registered Pemberton's French Wine Coca nerve tonic.
Pemberton's tonic may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French-Corsican coca wine, but his recipe additionally included the African kola nut, the beverage's source of caffeine. It is worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-Cola; the rights for this Spanish drink were bought by Coca-Cola in 1953. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of Pemberton's French Wine Coca; the first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886, where it sold for five cents a glass. Drugstore soda fountains were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health, Pemberton's new drink was marketed and sold as a patent medicine, Pemberton claiming it a cure for many diseases, including morphine addiction, nerve disorders and impotence.
Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J. C. Mayfield, A. O. Murphey, C. O. Mullahy, E. H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side.
Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler states: "... on April 14, 1888, the young druggist Asa Griggs Candler purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." The deal was between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750. In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; when Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" destroyed in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.
After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious t
Coke is a grey and porous fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, made by heating coal or oil in the absence of air — a destructive distillation process. It is an important industrial product, used in iron ore smelting, but as a fuel in stoves and forges when air pollution is a concern; the unqualified term "coke" refers to the product derived from low-ash and low-sulfur bituminous coal by a process called coking. A similar product called pet coke, is obtained from crude oil in oil refineries. Coke may be formed by geologic processes. Historical sources dating to the 4th century describe the production of coke in ancient China; the Chinese first used coke for heating and cooking no than the ninth century. By the first decades of the eleventh century, Chinese ironworkers in the Yellow River valley began to fuel their furnaces with coke, solving their fuel problem in that tree-sparse region. In 1589, a patent was granted to Thomas Proctor and William Peterson for making iron and steel and melting lead with "earth-coal, sea-coal and peat".
The patent contains a distinct allusion to the preparation of coal by "cooking". In 1590, a patent was granted to the Dean of York to "purify pit-coal and free it from its offensive smell". In 1620, a patent was granted to a company composed of William St. John and other knights, mentioning the use of coke in smelting ores and manufacturing metals. In 1627, a patent was granted to Sir John Hacket and Octavius de Strada for a method of rendering sea-coal and pit-coal as useful as charcoal for burning in houses, without offense by smell or smoke. In 1603, Hugh Plat suggested that coal might be charred in a manner analogous to the way charcoal is produced from wood; this process was not employed until 1642. It was considered an improvement in quality, brought about an "alteration which all England admired"—the coke process allowed for a lighter roast of the malt, leading to the creation of what by the end of the 17th century was called pale ale. In 1709, Abraham Darby I established a coke-fired blast furnace to produce cast iron.
Coke's superior crushing strength allowed blast furnaces to become larger. The ensuing availability of inexpensive iron was one of the factors leading to the Industrial Revolution. Before this time, iron-making used large quantities of charcoal, produced by burning wood; as the coppicing of forests became unable to meet the demand, the substitution of coke for charcoal became common in Great Britain, coke was manufactured by burning coal in heaps on the ground so that only the outer layer burned, leaving the interior of the pile in a carbonized state. In the late 18th century, brick beehive ovens were developed, which allowed more control over the burning process. In 1768, John Wilkinson built a more practical oven for converting coal into coke. Wilkinson improved the process by building the coal heaps around a low central chimney built of loose bricks and with openings for the combustion gases to enter, resulting in a higher yield of better coke. With greater skill in the firing and quenching of the heaps, yields were increased from about 33% to 65% by the middle of the 19th century.
The Scottish iron industry expanded in the second quarter of the 19th century, through the adoption of the hot-blast process in its coalfields. In 1802, a battery of beehives was set up near Sheffield, to coke the Silkstone seam for use in crucible steel melting. By 1870, there were 14,000 beehive ovens in operation on the West Durham coalfields, capable of producing 4,000,000 long tons of coke; as a measure of the extent of the expansion of coke making, it has been estimated that the requirements of the iron industry were about 1,000,000 long tons a year in the early 1850s, whereas by 1880 the figure had risen to 7,000,000 long tons, of which about 5,000,000 long tons were produced in Durham county, 1,000,000 long tons in the South Wales coalfield, 1,000,000 long tons in Yorkshire and Derbyshire. In the first years of steam railway locomotives, coke was the normal fuel; this resulted from an early piece of environmental legislation. This was not technically possible to achieve until the firebox arch came into use, but burning coke, with its low smoke emissions, was considered to meet the requirement.
This rule was dropped, cheaper coal became the normal fuel, as railways gained acceptance among the public. In the US, the first use of coke in an iron furnace occurred around 1817 at Isaac Meason's Plumsock puddling furnace and rolling mill in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. In the late 19th century, the coalfields of western Pennsylvania provided a rich source of raw material for coking. In 1885, the Rochester and Pittsburgh Coal and Iron Company constructed the world's longest string of coke ovens in Walston, with 475 ovens over a length of 2 km, their output reached 22,000 tons per month. The Minersville Coke Ovens in Huntingdon County, were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. Between 1870 and 1905, the number of beehive ovens in the US skyrocketed from about 200 to 31,000, which produced nearly 18,000,000 tons of coke in the Pittsburgh area alone. One observer boasted that if loaded into a train, “the year's production would make up a train so long that the engine in front of it would go to
Cocaine known as coke, is a strong stimulant used as a recreational drug. It is snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate and large pupils. High doses can result in high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a high risk, its use increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, sudden cardiac death. Cocaine sold on the street is mixed with local anesthetics, quinine, or sugar, which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure and be physically tired.
Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine. This results in greater concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain, it can cross the blood–brain barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine is a occurring substance found in the coca plant, grown in South America. In 2013, 419 kilograms were produced legally, it is estimated. With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine. Cocaine is the second most used illegal drug globally, after cannabis. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year. Use is highest in North America followed by South America. Between one and three percent of people in the developed world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013, cocaine use directly resulted in 4,300 deaths, up from 2,400 in 1990; the leaves of the coca plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Since 1961, the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime.
Topical cocaine can be used as a local numbing agent to help with painful procedures in the mouth or nose. Cocaine is now predominantly used for lacrimal duct surgery; the major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's potential for cardiovascular toxicity and pupil dilation. Medicinal use of cocaine has decreased as other synthetic local anesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine and tetracaine are now used more often. If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure, the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine; some ENT specialists use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization. In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool, placed in the nostril for the 10–15 minutes before the procedure, thus performing the dual role of both numbing the area to be cauterized, vasoconstriction; when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects.
An alternative method of administration for ENT surgery is mixed with adrenaline and sodium bicarbonate, as Moffett's solution. Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant, its effects can last from 30 minutes to an hour. The duration of cocaine's effects depends on the route of administration. Cocaine can be in the form of fine white powder, bitter to the taste; when inhaled or injected, it causes a numbing effect. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate and water. Crack cocaine is referred to. Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, increased energy and motor activity, increased feelings of competence and sexuality. Coca leaves are mixed with an alkaline substance and chewed into a wad, retained in the mouth between gum and cheek and sucked of its juices; the juices are absorbed by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be consumed like tea.
Ingesting coca leaves is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a alkaline substance can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach; the efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed. Cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped one cup of coca leaf infusion. Orally administered cocaine takes 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream. Only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled settings. Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion.
While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approxima
Petroleum coke, abbreviated coke or petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining, is one type of the group of fuels referred to as cokes. Petcoke is the coke that, in particular, derives from a final cracking process—a thermo-based chemical engineering process that splits long chain hydrocarbons of petroleum into shorter chains—that takes place in units termed coker units. Stated succinctly, coke is the "carbonization product of high-boiling hydrocarbon fractions obtained in petroleum processing." Petcoke is produced in the production of synthetic crude oil from bitumen extracted from Canada’s oil sands and from Venezuela's Orinoco oil sands. In petroleum coker units, residual oils from other distillation processes used in petroleum refining are treated at a high temperature and pressure leaving the petcoke after driving off gases and volatiles, separating off remaining light and heavy oils; these processes are termed "coking processes", most employ chemical engineering plant operations for the specific process of delayed coking.
This coke can either be anode grade. The raw coke directly out of the coker is referred to as green coke. In this context, "green" means unprocessed; the further processing of green coke by calcining in a rotary kiln removes residual volatile hydrocarbons from the coke. The calcined petroleum coke can be further processed in an anode baking oven to produce anode coke of the desired shape and physical properties; the anodes are used in the aluminium and steel industry. Petcoke is over 90% carbon and emits 5% to 10% more carbon dioxide than coal on a per-unit-of-energy basis when it is burned; as petcoke has a higher energy content, petcoke emits between 30 and 80 percent more CO2 than coal per unit of weight. The difference between coal and coke in CO2 production per unit of energy produced depends upon the moisture in the coal, which increases the CO2 per unit of energy – heat of combustion – and on the volatile hydrocarbons in coal and coke, which decrease the CO2 per unit of energy. There are at least four basic types of petroleum coke, needle coke, honeycomb coke, sponge coke and shot coke.
Different types of petroleum coke have different microstructures due to differences in operating variables and nature of feedstock. Significant differences are to be observed in the properties of the different types of coke ash and volatile matter contents. Needle coke called acicular coke, is a crystalline petroleum coke used in the production of electrodes for the steel and aluminium industries and is valuable because the electrodes must be replaced regularly. Needle coke is produced from either FCC decant oil or coal tar pitch. Honeycomb coke is an intermediate coke, with ellipsoidal pores. Compared to needle coke, honeycomb coke has a lower coefficient of thermal expansion and a lower electrical conductivity. Petcoke, altered through the process of calcined which it is heated or refined Raw coke eliminates much of the component of the resource. Petcoke when refined does not release the heavy metals as volatiles or emissions. Depending on the petroleum feed stock used, the composition of petcoke may vary but the main thing is that it is carbon.
Petcoke is made up of carbon, when in pure form petcoke can weigh 98-99% which creates a carbon based compound with the hydrogen filling in. In raw form hydrogen can have a weight range of 3.0- 4.0%. Petcoke in its raw nitrogen at 0.1- 0.5% and sulfur 0.2- 6.0% become emissions after the coke calcined. Source petroleum-coke-petcoke-and-refinery-residuesThrough process of thermal processing the composition in weight is reduced with the volatile matter and sulfur being emitted; this process ends in the honeycomb petcoke which according to the name giving is a solid carbon structure with holes in it. Source petroleum-coke-petcoke-and-refinery-residuesDepending on the petroleum feed stock used, the composition of petcoke may vary but the main thing is that it is carbon. Petcoke is made up of carbon, when in pure form petcoke can weigh 98-99% which creates a carbon based compound with the hydrogen filling in. In raw form hydrogen can have a weight range of 3.0- 4.0%. Petcoke in its raw nitrogen at 0.1- 0.5% and sulfur 0.2- 6.0% become emissions after the coke calcined.
Other heavy metals found can be found with in petcoke as impurities due to that some of these metals come in after processing as volatile. Fuel-grade coke is classified as either sponge shot coke morphology. While oil refiners have been producing coke for over 100 years, the mechanisms that cause sponge coke or shot coke to form are not well understood and cannot be predicted. In general, lower temperatures and higher pressures promote sponge coke formation. Additionally, the amount of heptane insolubles present and the fraction of light components in the coker feed contribute. While its high heat and low ash content make it a decent fuel for power generation in coal-fired boilers, petroleum coke is high in sulfur and low in volatile content, this poses environmental problems with its combustion, its gross calorific value is nearly 8000 Kcal/kg, twice the value of average coal used in electricity generation.. A common choice of sulfur recovering unit for burning petroleum coke is the SNOX Flue gas desulfurisation technology, based on the well-known WSA Process.
Fluidized bed combustion is used to burn petroleum coke. Gasification is used with this feedstock (often using gasifiers placed in the refinerie