Tom Green County, Texas
Tom Green County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 110,224, its county seat is San Angelo. The county was created in 1874 and organized the following year. Tom Green County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was established by the state legislature on March 13, 1874, named after Thomas Green, a Confederate brigadier general. It comprised an area over 60,000 square miles; the original county seat was the town of Ben Ficklin. In 1882, flood waters of the Concho River drowned 65 people; the county seat was moved to San Angela. In 1883, the town's name was changed to San Angelo by the United States Post Office. Tom Green County has a narrow strip of land extending to the west; this unusual feature is because Reagan County to the west used to be part of Tom Green County, the state of Texas required that all counties have a contiguous land route to their county seat. Therefore, the small strip of land served to connect the two main regions.
In 1903, the residents of the western section voted to form their own county, while in the same vote it was decided that the connecting strip would remain as part of Tom Green County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,541 square miles, of which 1,522 square miles are land and 19 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 87 U. S. Highway 277 SH 208 Coke County Runnels County Concho County Schleicher County Irion County Reagan County Sterling County Menard County As of the census of 2000, 104,010 people, 39,503 households, 26,783 families resided in the county; the population density was 68 people per square mile. There were 43,916 housing units at an average density of 29 per mi2; the racial makeup of the county was 50.76% White, 5.13% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.86% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 12.82% from other races, 2.39% from two or more races. About 30.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, 13.2% were of German, 10.7% American, 8.2% English and 7.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.
Of the 39,503 households, 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.20% were not families. About 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population age was distributed as 26.10% under the age of 18, 12.80% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 13.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,148, for a family was $39,482. Males had a median income of $27,949 versus $20,683 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,325. About 11.20% of families and 15.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.20% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over.
These school districts serve Tom Green County: Christoval ISD Grape Creek ISD Miles ISD San Angelo ISD Veribest ISD Wall ISD Water Valley ISD Howard College Angelo State University San Angelo Carlsbad Christoval Grape Creek Ben Ficklin Goodfellow AFB List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Tom Green County, Texas USS Tom Green County Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Tom Green County Tom Green County government's website Tom Green County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas County genealogy links at Rootsweb Entry for Tom Green from the Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas published 1880, hosted by the Portal to Texas History. San Angelo LIVE! News, live events and music in San Angelo, the county seat of Tom Green County
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson was a British poet. He was the Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. In 1829, Tennyson was awarded the Chancellor's Gold Medal at Cambridge for one of his first pieces, "Timbuktu", he published his first solo collection of poems, Poems Chiefly Lyrical in 1830. "Claribel" and "Mariana", which remain some of Tennyson's most celebrated poems, were included in this volume. Although decried by some critics as overly sentimental, his verse soon proved popular and brought Tennyson to the attention of well-known writers of the day, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Tennyson's early poetry, with its medievalism and powerful visual imagery, was a major influence on the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Tennyson excelled at penning short lyrics, such as "Break, Break", "The Charge of the Light Brigade", "Tears, Idle Tears", "Crossing the Bar". Much of his verse was based on classical mythological themes, such as "Ulysses", although "In Memoriam A.
H. H." was written to commemorate his friend Arthur Hallam, a fellow poet and student at Trinity College, after he died of a stroke at the age of 22. Tennyson wrote some notable blank verse including Idylls of the King, "Ulysses", "Tithonus". During his career, Tennyson attempted drama. A number of phrases from Tennyson's work have become commonplaces of the English language, including "Nature, red in tooth and claw", "'Tis better to have loved and lost / Than never to have loved at all", "Theirs not to reason why, / Theirs but to do and die", "My strength is as the strength of ten, / Because my heart is pure", "To strive, to seek, to find, not to yield", "Knowledge comes, but Wisdom lingers", "The old order changeth, yielding place to new", he is the ninth most quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Tennyson was born on 6 August 1809 in Somersby, England, he was born into a middle-class family distantly descended from John Savage, 2nd Earl Rivers. His father, George Clayton Tennyson, was rector of Somersby rector of Benniworth and Bag Enderby, vicar of Grimsby.
Rev. George Clayton Tennyson raised a large family and "was a man of superior abilities and varied attainments, who tried his hand with fair success in architecture, painting and poetry, he was comfortably well off for a country clergyman and his shrewd money management enabled the family to spend summers at Mablethorpe and Skegness on the eastern coast of England". Alfred Tennyson's mother, Elizabeth Fytche, was the daughter of Stephen Fytche, vicar of St. James Church and rector of Withcall, a small village between Horncastle and Louth. Tennyson's father "carefully attended to the education and training of his children". Tennyson and two of his elder brothers were writing poetry in their teens and a collection of poems by all three was published locally when Alfred was only 17. One of those brothers, Charles Tennyson Turner married Louisa Sellwood, the younger sister of Alfred's future wife. Another of Tennyson's brothers, Edward Tennyson, was institutionalised at a private asylum. Tennyson was a student of King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth from 1816 to 1820.
He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1827, where he joined a secret society called the Cambridge Apostles. A portrait of Tennyson by George Frederic Watts is in Trinity's collection. At Cambridge, Tennyson met Arthur Hallam and William Henry Brookfield, who became his closest friends, his first publication was a collection of "his boyish rhymes and those of his elder brother Charles" entitled Poems by Two Brothers, published in 1827. In 1829, Tennyson was awarded the Chancellor's Gold Medal at Cambridge for one of his first pieces, "Timbuktu". "it was thought to be no slight honour for a young man of twenty to win the chancellor's gold medal". He published his first solo collection of poems, Poems Chiefly Lyrical in 1830. "Claribel" and "Mariana", which took their place among Tennyson's most celebrated poems, were included in this volume. Although decried by some critics as overly sentimental, his verse soon proved popular and brought Tennyson to the attention of well-known writers of the day, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
In the spring of 1831, Tennyson's father died, requiring him to leave Cambridge before taking his degree. He returned to the rectory, where he was permitted to live for another six years and shared responsibility for his widowed mother and the family. Arthur Hallam came to stay with his family during the summer and became engaged to Tennyson's sister, Emilia Tennyson. In 1833 Tennyson published his second book of poetry, which notably included the first version of The Lady of Shalott; the volume met heavy criticism, which so discouraged Tennyson that he did not publish again for ten years, although he did continue to write. That same year, Hallam died and unexpectedly after suffering a cerebral haemorrhage while on a holiday in Vienna. Hallam's death had a profound effect on Tennyson and inspired several poems, including "In the Valley of Cauteretz" and In Memoriam A. H. H. A long poem detailing the "Way of the Soul". Tennyson and his family were allowed to stay in the rectory for some time, but moved to Beech Hill Park, High Beach, deep within Epping Forest, about 1837.
Tennyson’s son recalled: “there was a pond in the park on which in winter my father might be seen skating, sailing about on the ice in his long blue cloak. He liked the nearness of London, whither he resorted to see his friends, but he could not stay in town for a
Fort Chadbourne was a fort established by the United States Army on October 28, 1852, in what is now Coke County, Texas, to protect the western frontier and the Butterfield Overland Mail route. It was named after Lt. T. L. Chadbourne, killed in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, it was manned by Companies A and K of the 8th U. S. Infantry. During the early days of the American Civil War, the fort surrendered to the Confederates on February 28, 1861 before the Confederate shelling of Fort Sumter, South Carolina, but was reoccupied by federal troops from 1865 to 1867. Other forts in the frontier fort system were Forts Griffin, Belknap, Stockton, Bliss, Mason, McKavett, Clark, McIntosh and Phantom Hill in Texas, Fort Sill in Oklahoma. "Sub posts or intermediate stations" were used, including Bothwick's Station on Salt Creek between Fort Richardson and Fort Belknap, Camp Wichita near Buffalo Springs between Fort Richardson and Red River Station, Mountain Pass between Fort Concho and Fort Griffin. Robert Neighbors met with the southern band of Comanches and their chiefs Sanaco, Buffalo Hump and Yellow Wolf near the fort over 10 days starting on 24 August 1853.
"All topics of interest to the Comanches were discussed". Neighbors communicated with Seth Eastman, while Seth was a captain at the fort in 1856 and was responsible for the Brazos Indian Reservation, about Comanche depredations in the area. Fort Chadbourne, a Texas state historical site, was added in 1973 to the National Register of Historic Places; the small community of Fort Chadbourne, Texas, is located a few miles to the southwest of the original fort. Fort Chadbourne has received $1 million to build a visitor's center in memory of Roberta Cole Johnson of Brenham, Texas, by the executors of her estate and Joy Blake; the Blakes are members of the Concho Valley Archaeological Society in San Angelo. They matched another $125,000-allocation to restore the Butterfield stage stop. On September 20, 2009, Garland H. Richards, current owner of the Chadbourne Ranch, which covers parts of Coke, Runnels and Nolan Counties, was presented with the prestigious Harry Holt Award because of Richards' assistance to the West Texas Rehabilitation Center in Abilene.
Richards presided over the annual "Round-Up for Rehab Supper" fund-raiser held at Fort Chadbourne. The award was presented by chief executive officer of the rehab center, it honors those in the agricultural community who support the mission of the center, which serves adults and children regardless of financial circumstance. Texas State Senator Grady Hazlewood, father of the farm-to-market road program, was born at Old Fort Chadbourne in 1902. Texas Forts Trail Forts of Texas U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Fort Chadbourne Fort Chadbourne Official Web Site
Nolan County, Texas
Nolan County is a county located in the west central region of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 15,216, its county seat is Sweetwater. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1881, it is named for one of the first American traders to visit Texas. Nolan County comprises TX Micropolitan Statistical Area. Susan King has been since 2007 the Republican state representative from Nolan as well as Jones and Taylor Counties. From 1921 to 1925, the Democrat Richard M. Chitwood of Sweetwater represented Nolan County in the state House; as chairman of the House Education Committee, he worked in 1923 to establish what became Texas Tech University in Lubbock. He had first tried to obtain the institution for Sweetwater as the central location of West Texas. After the institution was established, he resigned from the House to move to Lubbock to become the first Texas Tech business manager, he served in that capacity for just 15 months. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 914 square miles, of which 912 square miles are land and 2.0 square miles are covered by water.
Nolan County is in the Cross Timbers region for wildlife management. Geologically Nolan County occupies part of the Rolling Plains in the North and South, separated by an isolated part of the Edwards Plateau in much of the center; the uplifted plateau, rising up to 500 feet above the surrounding plains, gives Nolan county an advantage on production of wind energy. Plateau areas of the Cretaceous Period and much of the county are underlain by petroleum deposits from the Pennsylvanian Period. Interstate 20 U. S. Highway 84 State Highway 70 State Highway 153 Fisher County Taylor County Runnels County Coke County Mitchell County As of the census of 2000, 15,802 people, 6,170 households, 4,288 families resided in the county; the population density was 17 people per square mile. The 7,112 housing units averaged 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.45% White, 4.68% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 14.02% from other races, 2.07% from two or more races.
About 28.04% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 6,170 households, 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 12.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were not families. Around 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was distributed as 27.10% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,209, for a family was $32,004. Males had a median income of $28,674 versus $19,335 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,077. About 18.30% of families and 21.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.50% of those under age 18 and 18.50% of those age 65 or over.
Nolan County has established itself as a center for wind power generation. As of July 2008, Nolan County generated more wind energy than the entire state of California, would have ranked sixth in the world for wind power generation if it were counted as its own country. A branch of Texas State Technical College operates near Sweetwater offering the first community college program for wind energy in Texas beginning in 2007. Wind energy investments in the county of about $3 billion US dollars since 1999 have resulted in about 1,330 direct wind-related jobs which were created in Nolan County alone, with $18,000,000 in annual landowner royalties and over $12,000,000 in annual local school taxes, about $1.7 million more in county property taxes. Nolan county is a hub of the Public Utility Commission’s $5 Billion CREZ wind energy transmission line expansion project in Texas. Blackwell Roscoe Sweetwater Maryneal Nolan Bitter Creek Wastella Decker List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Nolan County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Nolan County Nolan County Official Site Nolan County from the Handbook of Texas Online Nolan County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties The National WASP WWII Museum
The Kickapoo People are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe. Anishinaabeg say the name "Kickapoo" means "Stands here and there," which may have referred to the tribe's migratory patterns; the name can mean "wanderer". This interpretation is contested and believed to be a folk etymology. Today there are three federally recognized Kickapoo tribes in the United States: Kickapoo Tribe of Indians of the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas, the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas; the Oklahoma and Texas bands are politically associated with each other. The Kickapoo in Kansas came from a relocation from southern Missouri in 1832 as a land exchange from their reserve there. Around 3,000 people are enrolled tribal members. Another band, the Tribu Kikapú, resides in Múzquiz Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. Smaller bands live in Durango; the Kickapoo were an Algonquian-language people who migrated to or developed as a people in a large territory along the Wabash River in the area of modern Terre Haute, Indiana.
They were confederated with the larger Wabash Confederacy, which included the Piankeshaw to their south, the Wea to their north, the powerful Miami Tribe, to their east. A subgroup occupied the Upper Iowa River region in what was known as northeast Iowa and the Root River region in southeast Minnesota in the late 1600s and early 1700s; this group was known by the clan name "Mahouea", derived from the Illinoian word for wolf, m'hwea. The earliest European contact with the Kickapoo tribe occurred during the La Salle Expeditions into Illinois Country in the late 17th century; the French colonists set up remote fur trading posts throughout the region, including on the Wabash River. They would set up posts at or near Native American villages, Terre Haute was founded as a French village; the Kickapoo had to contend with a changing cast of Europeans. They increased their own trading with the Kickapoo; the United States acquired this territory east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River after it gained independence from the United Kingdom.
As white settlers moved into the region from the United States eastern areas, beginning in the early 19th century, the Kickapoo were under pressure. They negotiated with the United States over their territory in several treaties, including the Treaty of Vincennes, the Treaty of Grouseland, the Treaty of Fort Wayne, they moved north to settle among the Wea. Rising tensions between the regional tribes and the United States led to Tecumseh's War in 1811; the Kickapoo were one of Tecumseh's closest allies. Many Kickapoo warriors participated in the Battle of Tippecanoe and the subsequent War of 1812 on the side of the British, hoping to expel the American settlers from the region. A prominent, nonviolent spiritual leader among the Kickapoo was Kennekuk, who led his followers during Indian Removal in the 1830s to their current tribal lands in Kansas, he died there in 1852. The close of the war led to a change of federal Indian policy in the Indiana Territory, the state of Indiana. American leaders began to advocate the removal of tribes to lands west of the Mississippi River, to extinguish their claims to lands wanted by American settlers.
The Kickapoo were among the first tribes to leave Indiana under this program. They accepted an annual subsidy in exchange for leaving the state. Kickapoo speak an Algonquian language related to that of the Sauk and Fox, they are classified with the Central Algonquians, are related to the Illinois Confederation. In 1985 the Kickapoo Nation's School in Horton, Kansas began a language immersion program for elementary school grades to revive teaching and use of the Kickapoo language in grades K-6. Efforts in language education continue at most Kickapoo sites. In 2010, the Head Start Program at the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas reservation, which teaches the Kickapoo language, became "the first Native American school to earn Texas School Ready! Project certification."Also in 2010, Mexico's "Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia participated in the elaboration of a Kickapoo alphabet that may be used by more than 700 members of the group that dwell in Mexico and the United States, in the states of Coahuila and Texas.
No Kickapoo alphabet was used in Mexico. The Kickapoo in Mexico are known for their whistled speech. Texts, a vocabulary of the language are available; the Kickapoo language and members of the Kickapoo tribe were featured in the movie The Only Good Indian, directed by Greg Wilmott and starring Wes Studi. This was a fictionalized account of Native American children forced to attend an Indian boarding school, where they were forced to speak English and give up their cultures; the consonant sounds of the Kickapoo language are given below. The sounds can range to sounding voiced, but only infrequently; the eight vowel sounds in Kickapoo are as followed: short /a, ɛ, i, o/ and long /aː, ɛː, iː, oː/. Three of the vowels /a, ɛ, o/, have allophones /ə, ɪ, ɤ~u/. There are three federally recognized Kickapoo communities in the United States: one in Kansas, one in Texas, the third in Oklahoma; the Mexican Kickapoo are tied to the Texas and Oklahoma communities. These groups migrate annually among the three locations to maintain connections.
Indeed, the Texas and Mexican bran
Texas's 11th congressional district
Texas District 11 of the United States House of Representatives is a congressional district that serves the midwestern portion of the state of Texas. The current Representative from District 11 is Mike Conaway. Texas has had at least 11 districts since 1883. Major cities in the district are Lamesa, Odessa, San Angelo and Brownwood; the district is one of the most Republican districts in the nation. Much of the territory now in the district began shaking off its Democratic roots far sooner than the rest of Texas. For instance, Barry Goldwater did well in much of this area in 1964, Midland itself last supported a Democrat for president in 1948, it was President George W. Bush's strongest district in the entire nation in the 2004 election. While Democrats continued to hold most local offices here well into the 1980s and continued to represent parts of the region through the 1990s, today Republicans dominate every level of government winning by well over 70 percent of the vote. From 1903-2005 the district was contained Waco.
List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present