Main chain of the Alps
The main chain of the Alps called the Alpine divide is the central line of mountains that forms the water divide of the range. Main chains of mountain ranges are traditionally designated in this way, include the highest peaks of a range. Among these groups are the Dauphine Alps, the Eastern and Western Graians, the entire Bernese Alps, the Tödi, Albula and Silvretta groups, the Ortler and Adamello ranges, the Dolomites of South Tyrol, as well as the lower Alps of Vorarlberg and Salzburg; the Alps are divided into Western Alps and Eastern Alps, cut along a line between Lake Constance and Lake Como, following the Rhine valley. The Western Alps are higher; the Eastern Alps belong to Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest peak of the Western Alps is Mont Blanc, in 4,049 meters. Starting from the Bocchetta di Altare or di Colle di Cadibona, the main chain extends first south-west north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees. Beyond the Col de Tenda the direction is first west north-west to the Rocca dei Tre Vescovi, just south of the Enciastraia, several peaks of about 3,000 metres rising on the watershed, though the highest of all, the Punta dell'Argentera stands a little way to its north.
From the Rocher des Trois Eveques the water divide runs due north for a long distance, though of the two loftiest peaks of this region one, the Aiguille de Chambeyron, is just to the west, the other, the Monviso, is just to the east of the divide. From the head of the Val Pellice the main chain runs north-west, diminishes much in average height until it reaches the Mont Thabor, which forms the apex of a salient angle which the main chain here presents towards.the west. From here the divide extends eastwards, culminating in the Aiguille de Scolette, but makes a great curve to the north-west and back to the south-east before rising in the Rocciamelone. From there the direction taken is north as far as the eastern summit of the Levanna, the divide rising in a series of snowy peaks, though the loftiest point of the region, the Pointe de Charbonnel, stands a little to the west. Once more the chain bends to the north-west, rising in several lofty peaks, before attaining the considerable depression of the Little St Bernard Pass.
The divide briefly turns north to the Col de la Soigne, north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc, the loftiest in the Alps. A number of high peaks line the divide. From there, after a short dip to the south-east, the chain takes, near the Great St. Bernard Pass, the eastern direction that it maintains until it reaches Monte Rosa, whence it bends northwards, making one small dip to the east as far as the Simplon Pass, it is in the portion of the watershed between the Grande St Bernard Pass and the Simplon that the main chain maintains a greater average height than in any other part. But, though it rises in a number of lofty peaks, such as the Mont Vélan, the Matterhorn, the Lyskamm, the Nord End of Monte Rosa, the Weissmies, many of the highest points of the region, such as the Grand Combin, the Dent Blanche, the Weisshorn, the true summit or Dufourspitze of Monte Rosa itself, the Dom, all rise on its northern slope and not on the main chain.
On the other hand the chain between the Grande St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at half a dozen points below a level of 3,000 metres. The Simplon Pass corresponds to. From there to the St. Gotthard the divide runs north-east, all the higher summits rising on it, a curious contrast to the long stretch just described. From the St. Gotthard to the Maloja the watershed between the basins of the Rhine and Po runs in an easterly direction as a whole, though making two great dips towards the south, first to near the Vogelberg and again to near the Pizz Gallagiun, so that it presents a broken and irregular appearance, but all the loftiest peaks rise on it: Scopi, Piz Medel, the Rheinwaldhorn, the Pizzo Tambo and Piz Timun. From the Maloja Pass the main watershed dips to the south-east for a short distance, runs eastwards and nearly over the highest summit of the Bernina Range, Piz Bernina, to the Bernina Pass. To the Reschen Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo, beyond which it runs north-east past the sources of the Adda and the Fraele Pass, sinks to form the depression of the Ofen Pass, soon heads north and rises once more in the Piz Sesvenna.
The break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vinschgau, of the upper Adige is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps. The little Reschen Lake, which forms the chief source of the Adige is only 4 metres below the Reschen Pass, by it is 8 km from the Inn valley. Eastward of this pass, the main chain runs north-east to the Brenner Pass along the snowy crest of the Ötztal and Stubai Alps
Cuneo is a city and comune in Piedmont, Northern Italy, the capital of the province of Cuneo, the third largest of Italy’s provinces by area. It is located at 550 metres in the south-west of Piedmont, at the confluence of the rivers Stura and Gesso. Cuneo is bounded by the municipalities of Beinette, Borgo San Dalmazzo, Busca, Castelletto Stura, Cervasca, Peveragno and Vignolo, it is located near six mountain passes: Colle della Maddalena at 1,996 metres Colle di Tenda at 1,871 metres - Tunnel of Tenda at 1,300 metres, 3 kilometres long Colle del Melogno at 1,027 metres Colle San Bernardo at 957 metres Colle di Nava at 934 metres Colle di Cadibona at 459 metres. Cuneo was founded in 1198 by the local population, who declared it an independent commune, freeing themselves from the authority of the bishops of Asti and the marquisses of Montferrat and Saluzzo. In 1210 the latter occupied it, in 1231 the Cuneesi rebelled. In 1238 they were recognized as free commune by Emperor Frederick II. In 1259 the independence of Cuneo ceased forever, as it gave itself to take protection against its more powerful neighbours, to Charles I of Anjou, King of Naples and Count of Provence.
Together with Alba, it was the main Angevine possession in Northern Italy. Cuneo became an important stronghold of the expanding Savoy state, was thus besieged by France several times: first in 1515 by Swiss troops of Francis I of France again in 1542, 1557, 1639, 1641, 1691 and, during the War of Austrian Succession, in 1741. In all the sieges Cuneo resisted successfully. Cuneo was conquered by France only during the Napoleonic Wars, when it was made the capital of the Stura department. After the restoration of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the unification of Italy, Cuneo became the capital of its namesake province in 1859. During World War II, from 1943 to 1945, it was one of the main centres of partisan resistance against the German occupation of Italy. Villa Oldofredi Tadini, built in the 14th and 15th centuries as a watchtower, it is now a museum housing collections of the Mocchia and Oldofredi Tadini families. Villa Tornaforte, surrounded by an English-style park. Civic Museum Railway Museum Churches of Santa Croce, San Giovanni Decollato and Santissima Annunziata, housing paintings by Giovan Francesco Gaggini.
Panoramic funicular. Monument of Stura and Gesso in Torino Square The median way of the plateau: the commercial heart of Cuneo. New Bridge between the center of the city and Madonna dell' Olmo Monument at Peano's curve Palazzo Uffici Finanziari, highest edifice in the city at about 50 metres Most important and populated: Centro storico, Cuneo centro, Cuneo nuova, San Paolo, Gramsci, San Rocco, Cerialdo and Borgo San Giuseppe. Cuneo has a temperate sub-continental climate, with hot, dry summers. However, it is situated more than 500 metres above sea level, which helps to make summers more bearable: the hottest month, has an average temperature of 21.6 °C. The coldest, averages 1.7 °C. Annual precipitation is about 962 mm, distributed over 81 days; the rainfall pattern is similar to that of Turin, with two maxima—one primary and one secondary and two minima. The driest month is 44 millimetres. Snowfalls are frequent owing to high wind patterns. Cuneo's specialty is Cuneesi al rhum, small meringues with dark chocolate coating and a rum-based chocolate filling.
They are a creation of Andrea Arione, who registered the name, sold them in the bar still located in the central square, Piazza Galimberti. Another specialty is "raviolini al plin", a small ravioli pasta made with meat and vegetables; the most famous brand there is Pastificio Boetti located close to the central square. There is an important volleyball club, Piemonte Volley who won 1 Italian Volleyball League, 3 CEV Cup, 2 CEV SuperCup, 4 Italian Volleyball Cup and 3 Italian Volleyball SuperCup. Associazione Calcio Cuneo 1905 who plays in the 3rd level of Italian football. Many times stage of Giro d'Italia. In 2016, for the first time in the Giro history, the race arrived in Sant'Anna di Vinadio sanctuary, the highest sanctuary in Europe, 2035 m, the day after, on May 29, the race started from Cuneo. Since 1987 Cuneo has been the start and arrival point of the amateur international race "La Fausto Coppi". Venchi Ferrero SpA Annibale Santorre di Rossi de Pomarolo, Count of Santarosa, early Risorgimento leader.
Franco Andrea Bonelli, ornithologist and collector. Giuseppe Peano, mathematician. Giovanni Battista Ceirano 1860 - automobile pioneer, joint founder of Ceirano, Well-Eyes bicycles, Well-Eyes cars - the first F. I. A. T. SCAT Matteo Ceirano 1870 - automobile pioneer, joint founder of Itala Fabrica Automobile and S. P. A. Ernesto Ceirano 1875 - Winner of 1911 and 1914 Targa Florio in SCAT automobiles. Giorgio Federico Ghedini, composer. Tancredi "Duccio" Galimberti, a lawyer, against fascists, Italian National Hero. Nuto Revelli and writer. Cesare Damiano, politicia
Piedmont is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country. It borders the Liguria region to the south, the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions to the east and the Aosta Valley region to the northwest, it has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of 4,377,941 as of 30 November 2017. The capital of Piedmont is Turin; the name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i.e. ad pedem montium, meaning “at the foot of the mountains” attested in documents of the end of the 12th century. Other towns of Piedmont with more than 20,000 inhabitants sorted by population: Piedmont is surrounded on three sides by the Alps, including Monviso, where the Po rises, Monte Rosa, it borders with France and the Italian regions of Lombardy, Aosta Valley and for a small fragment with Emilia Romagna. The geography of Piedmont is 43.3 % mountainous, along with extensive areas of plains. Piedmont is the second largest of Italy's 20 regions, after Sicily, it is broadly coincident with the upper part of the drainage basin of the river Po, which rises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and is Italy's largest river.
The Po drains the semicircle formed by the. From the highest peaks, the land slopes down to hilly areas, to the upper, to the lower great Padan Plain; the boundary between the two is characterised by resurgent springs—typical of the Padan Plain—which supply fresh water to the rivers and a dense network of irrigation canals. The countryside is diverse: from the rugged peaks of the massifs of Monte Rosa and of Gran Paradiso, to the damp rice paddies of Vercelli and Novara, from the gentle hillsides of the Langhe and of Montferrat to the plains. 7.6% of the entire territory is considered protected area. There are 56 different national or regional parks, one of the most famous is the Gran Paradiso National Park located between Piedmont and the Aosta Valley. Piedmont was inhabited in early historic times by Celtic-Ligurian tribes such as the Taurini and the Salassi, they were subdued by the Romans, who founded several colonies there including Augusta Taurinorum and Eporedia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was successively invaded by the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, East Romans and Franks.
In the 9th -- 10th centuries there were further incursions by the Saracens. At the time Piedmont, as part of the Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire, was subdivided into several marches and counties. In 1046, Oddo of Savoy added Piedmont with a capital at Chambéry. Other areas remained independent, such as the powerful comuni of Asti and Alessandria and the marquisates of Saluzzo and Montferrat; the County of Savoy was elevated to a duchy in 1416, Duke Emanuele Filiberto moved the seat to Turin in 1563. In 1720, the Duke of Savoy became King of Sardinia, founding what evolved into the Kingdom of Sardinia and increasing Turin's importance as a European capital; the Republic of Alba was created in 1796 as a French client republic in Piedmont. A new client republic, the Piedmontese Republic, existed between 1798 and 1799 before it was reoccupied by Austrian and Russian troops. In June 1800 a third client republic, the Subalpine Republic, was established in Piedmont, it fell under full French control in 1801 and it was annexed by France in September 1802.
In the congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Sardinia was restored, furthermore received the Republic of Genoa to strengthen it as a barrier against France. Piedmont was a springboard for Italy's unification in 1859–1861, following earlier unsuccessful wars against the Austrian Empire in 1820–1821 and 1848–1849; this process is sometimes referred to as Piedmontisation. However, the efforts were countered by the efforts of rural farmers; the House of Savoy became Kings of Italy, Turin became the capital of Italy. However, when the Italian capital was moved to Florence, to Rome, the administrative and institutional importance of Piedmont was reduced and the only remaining recognition to Piedmont's historical role was that the crown prince of Italy was known as the Prince of Piedmont. After Italian unification, Piedmont was one of the most important regions in the first Italian industrialization. Lowland Piedmont is a fertile agricultural region; the main agricultural products in Piedmont are cereals, including rice, representing more than 10% of national production, grapes for wine-making and milk.
With more than 800,000 head of cattle in 2000, livestock production accounts for half of final agricultural production in Piedmont. Piedmont is one of the great winegrowing regions in Italy. More than half of its 700 square kilometres of vineyards are registered with DOC designations, it produces prestigious wines as Barolo, from the Langhe near Alba, the Moscato d'Asti as well as the sparkling Asti from the vineyards around Asti. Indigenous grape varieties include Nebbiolo, Dolcetto, Freisa and Brachetto; the region contains major industrial centres, the main of, Turin, home to the FIAT automobile works. Olivetti, once a major electronics industry whose plant was in Scarmagno, near Ivrea, has now turned into a small-sc
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major
The France–Italy border is the international boundary between France and Italy. The Franco-Italian border is 515 kilometres long, southeast of northwest Italy, it begins at the west tripoint France–Italy–Switzerland at the top of Mont Dolent, in the French commune of Chamonix, the Italian city of Courmayeur, the Swiss commune of Orsières. The boundary follows a general direction towards south, to the Mediterranean, it reaches the sea at Menton in France and Ventimiglia in Italy; the border separates three regions and four Provinces of Italy of Italy from two regions and five departments of France. The Franco-Italian border is mountainous; the points of paved road crossings between the two countries are, from north to south, quoted in this exhaustive list: Mont Blanc Tunnel Little St Bernard Pass The Saint Nicolas plateau below the Mont Cenis pass Fréjus Road Tunnel Pian del Colle Col de Montgenèvre Col Agnel Maddalena Pass Col de la Lombarde Tende Tunnel Fanghetto, one of two villages in the municipality of Olivetta San Michele Olivetta San Michele Menton and Ventimiglia The border between the two countries dates back to that separating the Kingdom of Sardinia and France during the 19th century.
In 1860, the Treaty of Turin links the County of Nice to France. When World War II came out, Italy claims and administrates a territory in the date of armistice of 24 June 1940 and extended from 11 November 1942; the Germans occupied the Italian zone from 1943, the territory was liberated by France in 1944. The border is changed by the Treaty of Paris in 1947, when France Schedule including Tende, La Brigue, Mont Chaberton and the Lake of Mont Cenis. From the perspective of the Italian diplomacy, in the early 21st century a point still to be solved concerning the demarcation of the border at the top of Mont Blanc
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Nice is the seventh most populous urban area in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département. The metropolitan area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km2. Located in the French Riviera, on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Alps, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast and the second-largest city in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region after Marseille. Nice is 13 kilometres from the principality of Monaco and 30 kilometres from the French-Italian border. Nice's airport serves as a gateway to the region; the city is nicknamed Nice la Belle, which means Nice the Beautiful, the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice, written by Menica Rondelly in 1912. The area of today's Nice contains Terra Amata, an archaeological site which displays evidence of a early use of fire. Around 350 BC, Greeks of Marseille founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia, after Nike, the goddess of victory.
Through the ages, the town has changed hands many times. Its strategic location and port contributed to its maritime strength. For centuries it was a dominion of Savoy, was part of France between 1792 and 1815, when it was returned to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia until its re-annexation by France in 1860; the natural environment of the Nice area and its mild Mediterranean climate came to the attention of the English upper classes in the second half of the 18th century, when an increasing number of aristocratic families took to spending their winters there. The city's main seaside promenade, the Promenade des Anglais owes its name to visitors to the resort; the clear air and soft light have appealed to notable painters, such as Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse, Niki de Saint Phalle and Arman. Their work is commemorated in many of the city's museums, including Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse and Musée des Beaux-Arts. Nice has the second largest hotel capacity in the country and it is one of its most visited cities, receiving 4 million tourists every year.
It has the third busiest airport in France, after the two main Parisian ones. It is the historical capital city of the County of Nice; the first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about 400,000 years. Nice was founded around 350 BC by the Greeks Phoceans of Massalia, was given the name of Nikaia in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians; the city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast. The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice. In the 7th century, Nice joined. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens. During the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy; as an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, both the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it. During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, but it regained its independence though related to Genoa; the medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town. The landward side was protected by the River Paillon, covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis.
The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill. Another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the port area was defended by walls. Under Monoprix in Place de Garibaldi are excavated remains of a well-defended city gate on the main road from Turin. In 1388 the commune placed itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy. Nice participated – directly or indirectly – in the history of Savoy until 1860; the maritime strength of Nice now increased until it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates. In 1561 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy abolished the use of Latin as an administrative language and established the Italian language as the official language of government affairs in Nice. During the struggle between Francis I and Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence. In 1538, in the nearby town of Villeneuve-Loubet, through the mediation of Pope Paul III, the two monarchs concluded a ten years' truce.
In 1543, Nice was attacked by the united Franco-Ottoman forces of Francis I and Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, in the Siege of Nice. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580. In 1600, Nice was taken by the Duke of Guise. By opening the ports of the county to all nations, proclaiming full freedom of trade, the commerce of the city was given great stimulu