Ménage à trois
A ménage à trois is a domestic arrangement in which three people have romantic and/or sexual relations with one other occupying the same household. A form of polyamory, contemporary arrangements are sometimes identified as a thruple. History has a number of examples of ménages à trois relationships. Speculation exists that, in 1547–48, Queen Catherine Parr, widow of Henry VIII, her fourth husband Thomas Seymour were involved in a ménage with the future Queen Elizabeth; this is exaggerated, although episodes of sexually charged horseplay involving the three were well attested. In his youth, thirteen years her junior, the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a protégé of the French noblewoman Françoise-Louise de Warens, who would become his first lover, he lived with her at her estate on and off since his teenage years, in 1732, after he reached the age of 20, she initiated a sexual relationship with him while being open about her sexual involvement with the steward of her house. The German intellectual Dorothea von Rodde-Schlözer, her husband Mattheus Rodde and the French philosopher Charles de Villers had a ménage à trois from 1794 until her husband's death in 1810.
Sir William Hamilton, his wife Emma Hamilton, her lover, the naval hero Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, were in a ménage à trois from 1799 until Nelson's death in 1805. At the age of 16, in 1813, the future author of Frankenstein, Mary Godwin, eloped with her to-be husband Percy Bysshe Shelley and engaged in a ménage with Claire Clairmont, future lover of Lord Byron, with whom the Shelleys would have an extensive relationship; the political philosopher Friedrich Engels lived in a ménage à trois with his mistress Mary Burns and her sister Lizzie. In 1882 the Russian-born psychoanalyst and author Lou Andreas-Salomé invited the German philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche and Paul Rée to live with her, both of whom were in love with her, she kept her relationship with the two men celibate. She married a third man, Friedrich Carl Andreas, with whom she was celibate; the author E. Nesbit lived with her husband Hubert Bland and his mistress Alice Hoatson, raised their children as her own. In 1913, psychoanalyst Carl Jung began a relationship with a young patient, Toni Wolff, which lasted for some decades.
Deirdre Bair, in her biography of Carl Jung, describes his wife Emma Jung as bearing up nobly as her husband insisted that Toni Wolff become part of their household, saying that Wolff was "his other wife". The Russian and Soviet poet Vladimir Mayakovsky lived with Lilya Brik, considered his muse, her husband Osip Brik, an avant garde writer and critic; the writer Aldous Huxley and his first wife Maria engaged in a ménage with Mary Hutchinson, a friend of Clive Bell. From 1939, Erwin Schrödinger, his wife Annemarie Bertel, his mistress Hilde March had a ménage à trois. In 1963 the actress Hattie Jacques lived with her husband John Le Mesurier and her lover John Schofield. Bigamy Gang bang Group sex Polyandry Polygamy Polygyny Swinging Troilism Birbara Finocster, Michael Foster, Letha Friehakd. Three in Love: Ménages à trois from Ancient to Modern Times. ISBN 0-595-00807-0. Vicki Vantoch; the Threesome Handbook: A Practical Guide to sleeping with three. ISBN 9781568583334; the dictionary definition of ménage à trois at Wiktionary How this Brit wooed two gorgeous women into his ‘throuple’ New York Daily News April 2015 David meets: the cutest throuple Bear World Magazine July 2016
Judo was created in 1882 by Jigoro Kano as a physical and moral pedagogy in Japan. It is categorized as a modern martial art, which evolved into a combat and Olympic sport, its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice. A judo practitioner is called a judoka; the philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from koryū. The early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese polymath and educator Kanō Jigorō, born Shinnosuke Jigorō. Kano was born into a affluent family, his father, was the second son of the head priest of the Shinto Hiyoshi shrine in Shiga Prefecture.
He married Sadako Kano, daughter of the owner of Kiku-Masamune sake brewing company and was adopted by the family, changing his name to Kano. He became an official in the Shogunal government. Jigoro Kano had an academic upbringing and, from the age of seven, he studied English, shodō and the Four Confucian Texts under a number of tutors; when he was fourteen, Kano began boarding at Ikuei-Gijuku in Shiba, Tokyo. The culture of bullying endemic at this school was the catalyst that caused Kano to seek out a Jūjutsu dōjō at which to train. Early attempts to find a jujutsu teacher, willing to take him on met with little success. With the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Meiji Restoration of 1868, jujutsu had become unfashionable in an westernized Japan. Many of those who had once taught the art had been forced out of teaching or become so disillusioned with it that they had given up. Nakai Umenari, an acquaintance of Kanō's father and a former soldier, agreed to show him kata, but not to teach him.
The caretaker of Jirosaku's second house, Katagiri Ryuji knew jujutsu, but would not teach it as he believed it was no longer of practical use. Another frequent visitor, Imai Genshiro of Kyūshin-ryū school of jujutsu refused. Several years passed before he found a willing teacher. In 1877, as a student at the Tokyo-Kaisei school, Kano learned that many jujutsu teachers had been forced to pursue alternative careers opening Seikotsu-in. After inquiring at a number of these, Kano was referred to Fukuda Hachinosuke, a teacher of the Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū of jujutsu, who had a small nine mat dojo where he taught five students. Fukuda is said to have emphasized technique over formal exercise, sowing the seeds of Kano's emphasis on randori in judo. On Fukuda's death in 1880, who had become his keenest and most able student in both randori and kata, was given the densho of the Fukuda dojo. Kano chose to continue his studies at that of Iso Masatomo. Iso placed more emphasis on the practice of "kata", entrusted randori instruction to assistants to Kano.
Iso died in June 1881 and Kano went on to study at the dojo of Iikubo Tsunetoshi of Kitō-ryū. Like Fukuda, Iikubo placed much emphasis on randori, with Kitō-ryū having a greater focus on nage-waza. In February 1882, Kano founded a school and dojo at the Eisho-ji, a Buddhist temple in what was the Shitaya ward of Tokyo. Iikubo, Kano's Kitō-ryū instructor, attended the dojo three days a week to help teach and, although two years would pass before the temple would be called by the name Kōdōkan, Kano had not yet received his Menkyo in Kitō-ryū, this is now regarded as the Kodokan founding; the Eisho-ji dojo was shoin. It was a small affair, consisting of a 12 jo training area. Kano took in resident and non-resident students, the first two being Tomita Tsunejirō and Shiro Saigo. In August, the following year, the pair were granted shodan grades, the first, awarded in any martial art. Central to Kano's vision for judo were the principles of seiryoku zen ` jita kyōei, he illustrated the application of seiryoku zen'yō with the concept of jū yoku gō o seisu: In short, resisting a more powerful opponent will result in your defeat, whilst adjusting to and evading your opponent's attack will cause him to lose his balance, his power will be reduced, you will defeat him.
This can apply whatever the relative values of power, thus making it possible for weaker opponents to beat stronger ones. This is the theory of ju yoku go o seisu. Kano realised that seiryoku zen'yō conceived as a jujutsu concept, had a wider philosophical application. Coupled with the Confucianist-influenced jita kyōei, the wider application shaped the development of judo from a bujutsu to a budō. Kano rejected techniques that did not conform to these principles and emphasised the importan
Johan Libéreau is a French actor. He was server, before being spotted by an agent. 2003: Tai-toi! as Adolescent 2 2004: Julie Lescaut episode "Sans pardon" as Michel 2005: Cold showers as Mickael 2006: In the forefront 2007: The Witnesses as Manu 2008: Un coeur simple 2008: Stella 2009: Je te mangerais 2009: Vertigo 2011: Q 2011: 18 Years Old and Rising 2011: Twiggy 2012: Sister 2013: Grand Central 2013: 11.6 2015: Cosmos 2017: The Faithful Son Johan Libéreau on IMDb Unifrance
Florence Thomassin is a French actress and sculptor. In 2001, Thomassin was nominated for a César Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role of Beatrice in Bernard Rapp's A Question of Taste. Florence Thomassin on IMDb
The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income upon their earnings from wage labour. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production; as with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in many different ways. The most general definition, used by Marxists and many socialists, is that the working class includes all those who have nothing to sell but their labour power and skills. In that sense it includes both white and blue-collar workers and mental workers of all types, excluding only individuals who derive their income from business ownership and the labour of others.
When used non-academically in the United States, however, it refers to a section of society dependent on physical labour when compensated with an hourly wage. For certain types of science, as well as less scientific or journalistic political analysis, for example, the working class is loosely defined as those without college degrees. Working-class occupations are categorized into four groups: unskilled labourers, artisans and factory workers. A common alternative, sometimes used in sociology, is to define class by income levels; when this approach is used, the working class can be contrasted with a so-called middle class on the basis of differential terms of access to economic resources, cultural interests, other goods and services. The cut-off between working class and middle class here might mean the line where a population has discretionary income, rather than sustenance; some researchers have suggested that working-class status should be defined subjectively as self-identification with the working-class group.
This subjective approach allows people, rather than researchers. In feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, most people were part of the labouring class, a group made up of different professions and occupations. A lawyer and peasant were all considered to be part of the same social unit, a third estate of people who were neither aristocrats nor church officials. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-industrial societies; the social position of these labouring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested by peasants, for example during the German Peasants' War. In the late 18th century, under the influence of the Enlightenment, European society was in a state of change, this change could not be reconciled with the idea of a changeless god-created social order. Wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on their morals and ethics.
In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P. Thompson argues that the English working class was present at its own creation, seeks to describe the transformation of pre-modern labouring classes into a modern, politically self-conscious, working class. Starting around 1917, a number of countries became ruled ostensibly in the interests of the working class; some historians have noted that a key change in these Soviet-style societies has been a massive a new type of proletarianization effected by the administratively achieved forced displacement of peasants and rural workers. Since four major industrial states have turned towards semi-market-based governance, one state has turned inwards into an increasing cycle of poverty and brutalization. Other states of this sort have either collapsed, or never achieved significant levels of industrialization or large working classes. Since 1960, large-scale proletarianization and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes.
Additionally, countries such as India have been undergoing social change, expanding the size of the urban working class. Karl Marx defined the working class or proletariat as individuals who sell their labour power for wages and who do not own the means of production, he argued. He asserted that the working class physically build bridges, craft furniture, grow food, nurse children, but do not own land, or factories. A sub-section of the proletariat, the lumpenproletariat, are the poor and unemployed, such as day labourers and homeless people. Marx considered them to be devoid of class consciousness. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationshi
2005 Cannes Film Festival
The 58th Cannes Film Festival started on 11 May and ran until 22 May 2005. Twenty movies from 13 countries were selected to compete; the awards were announced on 21 May. The Palme d'Or went to the Belgian film L'Enfant by Dardenne brothers; the festival opened with Lemming, directed by Dominik Moll and closed with Chromophobia, directed by Martha Fiennes. Cécile de France was the mistress of ceremonies; the following people were appointed as the Jury for the feature films of the 2005 Official Selection: Emir Kusturica Jury President Javier Bardem Fatih Akın Nandita Das Salma Hayek Toni Morrison Benoît Jacquot Agnès Varda John Woo The following people were appointed as the Jury of the 2005 Un Certain Regard: Alexander Payne President Betsy Blair Eduardo Antin Geneviève Welcomme Gilles Marchand Katia Chapoutier Sandra Den Hamer The following people were appointed as the Jury of the Cinéfondation and short films competition: Edward Yang President Chantal Akerman Colin MacCabe Sylvie Testud Yousry Nasrallah The following people were appointed as the Jury of the 2005 Camera d'Or: Abbas Kiarostami President Laura Meyer Luc Pourrinet Malik Chibane Patrick Chamoiseau Roberto Turigliatto Romain Winding Scott Foundas Yves Allion The following feature films competed for the Palme d'Or: The following films were selected for the competition of Un Certain Regard: The following films were selected to be screened out of competition: The following short films were selected for the competition of Cinéfondation: The following short films competed for the Short Film Palme d'Or: Tribute Documentaries about Cinema Restored prints The following films were screened for the 44th International Critics' Week:Feature film competition Short film competition The following films were screened for the 2005 Directors' Fortnight: Short films The following films and people received the 2005 Official selection awards: Palme d'Or: L'Enfant, by Jean-Pierre Dardenne and Luc Dardenne Grand Prix: Broken Flowers, by Jim Jarmusch Best Director Award: Caché by Michael Haneke Best Screenplay Award: Guillermo Arriaga for The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada Best Actress: Hanna Laslo in Free Zone Best Actor: Tommy Lee Jones in The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada Prix du Jury: Shanghai Dreams, by Wang XiaoshuaiUn Certain Regard Prix Un Certain Regard: The Death of Mr. Lăzărescu by Cristi Puiu Un Certain Regard Prix de l'intimité: Le filmeur by Alain Cavalier Un Certain Regard Prix de l'espoir: Delwende by S.
Pierre YameogoCinéfondation First Prize: Buy It Now by Antonio Campos Second Prize: Bikur Holim by Maya Dreifuss & Vdvoyom by Nikolay Khomeriki Third Prize: La plaine by Roland Edzard & Tiens toi tranquille by Sameh ZoabiGolden Camera Caméra d'Or: The Forsaken Land by Vimukthi Jayasundara & Me and You and Everyone We Know by Miranda JulyShort films Short Film Palme d'Or: Wayfarers by Igor Strembitskyy Special Mention: Clara by Van Sowerwine FIPRESCI Prizes Hidden by Michael Haneke Crying Fist by Ryoo Seung-wan Blood by Amat Escalante Vulcan Award of the Technical Artist Vulcan Award: Leslie Shatz for Sound design in Last Days Robert Rodriguez for Visual processing in Sin CityEcumenical Jury Prize of the Ecumenical Jury: Hidden by Michael Haneke Ecumenical Jury - Special mention: Delwende by S. Pierre YameogoAward of the Youth Lower City by Sérgio MachadoAwards in the frame of International Critics' Week Grand prix: Me and You and Everyone We Know by Miranda July Prix ACID: Grain in Ear by Zhang Lu Grand Prix Canal+: Jona/Tomberry de RostoAwards in the frame of Directors' Fortnight 3ème Label Europa Cinéma: La Moustache by Emmanuel Carrère Prix Art & Essai CICAE: Sisters In Law by Kim Longinotto, Florence Ayisi 3ème Prix Regards Jeunes: Alice by Marco Martins Prix SACD du court métrage: Du soleil en hiver by Samuel Collardey Prix Gras Savoye: À bras le corps by Katell QuillévéréAssociation Prix François Chalais Prix François Chalais: Once You're Born You Can No Longer Hide, by Marco Tullio GiordanaThe members of the Jury for the 2005 Official Selection competition INA: Opening of the 2005 Festival INA: List of winners of the 2005 Festival 2005 Cannes Film Festival Official website Retrospective 2005 Cannes Film Festival Awards for 2005 at Internet Movie Database
Dominique Cabrera is a French film director. She has taught filmmaking at Harvard University, her film Nadia et les hippopotames was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1999 Cannes Film Festival. Additionally, her work has screened in Berlin International Film Festival, the Toronto International Film Festival, the Vienna International Film Festival, the Locarno Film Festival, the Rotterdam Film Festival, in the New York Film Festival, among others. Dominique Cabrera was born in 1957 in Relizane and moved to France as a child, in 1962. In 1981, she graduated from Paris' La Fémis film school known as the Institut des Hautes Etudes Cinématographiques. Between 1982 and 1993, Cabrera directed five short films and works of fiction. Two of her films of the 1990s--Chronique d'une banlieue ordinaire and Une poste à la Courneuve—brought Cabrera early recognition. After reading one of her scripts at a screenwriting competition in 1990, producer Didier Haudepin recognized Cabrera as an emerging talent.
His support led to the production of her first feature film, L'autre côté de la mer, six years later. Political engagement spans Cabrera's diverse filmography, which includes documentaries, fiction works, films combining the two genres. According to some critics, Cabrera does not make moral or ideological judgments about her characters or documentary subjects. Rather, she infuses her images with lyricism, a sense of wonder, leaving judgment up to the viewer, her fiction work deals with issues of family, cultural assimilation, national heritage. Cabrera's own pied-noir origins inform her interest in issues of assimilation and in the history between France and the Maghreb. Themes of utopia and discouragement unite her work. Cabrera's first feature-length work of fiction, L'autre côté de la mer, addresses questions of assimilation in contemporary French society. A wealthy French pied-noir travels to Paris for a cataract operation; the doctor who performs his surgery has lived in France since childhood.
Through intimate depictions of these two characters and interactions with their families, Cabrera articulates enduring consequences of Algeria's 1962 struggle for independence. The film screened at the Cannes Film Festival. Cabrera made her second feature film, Nadia et les hippopotames, in 1999. Arte broadcast an edited version of the film with the title Retiens la nuit; the film combined documentary elements within a larger fictional framework. Much of the film, which takes place during the SNCF's 1995 general strikes, records actual railroad workers, at night and in winter. Cabrera's filmic diary, Demain et encore demain, was one of the first features shot on video to see a theatrical release in France; the autobiographical film, made in 1995, alternately depicts the delight of its creator. Exploring the documentary as a therapeutic process, Cabrera inserts herself into the fabric of the film; each of her various identities—woman, daughter, lover—informs a growing definition of what it means to be a filmmaker.
This film represents a turning point in Cabrera's career. Between the completion of Demain et encore demain and 2010, all of her feature-length work was fictional. Folle Embellie in 2004 represents a venture into period fiction. Against this backdrop Cabrera evokes a kind of fairy tale about the refuge the natural world offers to the escapees of an asylum; the film features Jean-Pierre Léaud and is based on a story Cabrera heard when she worked in a psychiatric hospital in the 1970s. Le Lait de la Tendresse Humaine is Cabrera's film that most explicitly addresses issues of motherhood. Marilyne Canto plays a victim of postpartum depression, who leaves her family without notice and hides in a neighbor's apartment. Critics praised the film for its use of color, its compassion for its characters, its frank portrayal of a mother's struggle. Quand la ville mord was Cabrera's first literary adaptation. Cabrera produced the film for the television station, France 2; the film was praised for its realistic depiction of a young African woman's forced prostitution, for which Cabrera and the film's lead, Aïssa Maïga, met with former prostitutes in Paris.
Certain actors, such as Marilyne Canto, Yolande Moreau, Olivier Gourmet, Ariane Ascaride, each appear in more than one of Cabrera's films. Sometimes she works with more famous actors, such as Patrick Miou-Miou; the presence of these actors echoes other films in which they once appeared, Cabrera suggests. She has worked with the same crew since the 1980s, including her director of photography, Hélène Louvart. Cabrera has acted in three films: Un petit cas de conscience by Marie Claude Treilhou, Douches froides by Antony Cordier, Belleville-Tokyo by Elise Girard, her films have received significant critical acclaim, a César nomination, two nominations at the Cannes Film Festival. Chronique d'une banlieue ordinaire Rester là-bas Une poste à la Courneuve L'autre côté de la mer Demain et encore demain, journal 1995 Nadia et les hippopotames The Milk of Human Kindness Folle embellie Quand la ville mord J'ai droit à la parole À trois pas, trésor caché L'art d'aimer La politique du pire Ici là bas, short Un balcon au Val Fourré Traverser le jardin Rêves de ville Ranger les photos Dominique Cabrera on IMDb Official website