A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building from one point to multiple rooms. When combined with other systems in order to control the building climate, central heating differs from space heating in that the heat generation occurs in one place, such as a furnace room or basement in a house or a mechanical room in a large building. The heat is distributed throughout the building, typically by forced-air through ductwork, by circulating through pipes. The most common method of heat generation involves the combustion of fuel in a furnace or boiler. In much of the climate zone, most detached housing has had central heating installed since before the Second World War. Where coal was readily available coal-fired steam or hot water systems were common, coal-fired systems are now mostly reserved for larger buildings. A cheaper alternative to hot water or steam heat is forced hot air, a furnace burns fuel oil, which heats air in a heat exchanger, and blower fans circulate the warmed air through a network of ducts to the rooms in the building.
This system is cheaper because the air moves through a series of ducts instead of pipes, the space between floor joists can be boxed in and used as some of the ductwork, further lowering costs. Electrical heating systems occur less commonly and are only with low-cost electricity or when ground source heat pumps are used. Considering the combined system of power station and electric resistance heating. More and more buildings utilize solar-powered heat sources, in case the distribution system normally uses water circulation. Alternatives to such systems are gas heaters and district heating, district heating uses the waste heat from an industrial process or electrical generating plant to provide heat for neighboring buildings. This requires underground piping to circulate hot water or steam, and is only practical in a small area. The ancient Greeks originally developed central heating, the temple of Ephesus was heated by flues planted in the ground and circulating the heat which was generated by fire.
Some buildings in the Roman Empire used central heating systems, conducting air heated by furnaces through empty spaces under the floors and out of pipes in the walls—a system known as a hypocaust. The Roman hypocaust continued to be used on a smaller scale during late Antiquity and by the Umayyad caliphate, after the collapse of the Roman Empire, overwhelmingly across Europe, heating reverted to more primitive fireplaces for almost a thousand years. In the early medieval Alpine upland, a central heating system where heat travelled through underfloor channels from the furnace room replaced the Roman hypocaust at some places. In Reichenau Abbey a network of interconnected underfloor channels heated the 300 m² large assembly room of the monks during the winter months, the degree of efficiency of the system has been calculated at 90%
An apartment or a flat is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building, correctly, on a single level without a stair. In Scotland it is called a block of flats or, if its a traditional building, a tenement. Apartments may be owned by an owner/occupier, by leasehold tenure or rented by tenants, the term apartment is favoured in North America. In the UK, the apartment is more usual in professional real estate and architectural circles where otherwise the term flat is commonly. Technically multi-storey apartments are referred to as duplex indicating the number of floors within the property, usage generally follows the British in Ireland, Hong Kong and most Commonwealth nations. In Malaysian English, flat often denotes a housing block of lesser quality meant for lower-income groups, while apartment is more generic, in Australian English, the term flat is traditionally used, but the term unit is frequently used. More recently, the apartment is being used. Tenement law refers to the basis of permanent property such as land or rents.
It may be combined as in Messuage or Tenement to encompass all the land, buildings. Most apartments are in buildings designed for the purpose, but large older houses are divided into apartments. The word apartment denotes a unit or section in a building. In some locations, particularly the United States, the word connotes a rental unit owned by the building owner, in the England and Wales, some flat owners own shares in the company that owns the freehold of the building as well as holding the flat under a lease. This is commonly known as a share of freehold flat, the freehold company has the right to collect annual ground rents from each of the flat owners in the building. The freeholder can develop or sell the building, subject to the usual planning and this does not happen in Scotland, where long leasehold of residential property was formerly unusual, and is now not possible. In some countries the word unit is a general term referring to both apartments and rental business suites. The word unit is used only in the context of a specific building.
This building has three units or Im going to rent a unit in this building, but not Im going to rent a unit somewhere, in Australia, a unit refers to flats, apartments or even semi-detached houses. An industrial, warehouse, or commercial space converted to an apartment is called a loft
Hot water bottle
A hot water bottle is a container filled with hot water and sealed with a stopper, used to provide warmth, typically while in bed, but for the application of heat to a specific part of the body. Containers for warmth in bed were in use as early as the 16th century, the earliest versions contained hot coals from the dying embers of the fire, and these bed warmers were used to warm the bed before getting into it. Containers using hot water were used, with the advantage that they could remain in the bed with the sleeper. Prior to the invention of rubber that could withstand sufficient heat, to prevent burning, the metal hot water flasks were wrapped in a soft cloth bag. India rubber hot water bottles were in use in Britain at least by 1875, modern conventional hot water bottles were patented in 1903 and are manufactured in natural rubber or PVC, to a design patented by the Croatian inventor Eduard Penkala. They are now covered in fabric, sometimes with a novelty design. By the late 20th century, the use of hot water bottles had markedly declined around most of the world, not only were homes better heated, but newer items such as electric blankets were competing with hot water bottles as a source of night-time heat.
However the hot water remains a popular alternative in Australia, United Kingdom, developing countries. For example, it is used in Chile, where it is called a guatero. There has been a recent surge in popularity in Japan where it is seen as an ecologically friendly, some newer products function like the older bottles, but use a polymer gel or wax in a heat pad. The pads can be heated in an oven, and they are marketed as safer than liquid-filled bottles or electrically-heated devices. Some newer bottles now use a silicone-based material instead of rubber, which resists very hot water better, although the stopper size in Ireland and the UK has been largely standard for many decades, the newer bottles use a wider mouth which is easier to fill. Hot water bottles are meant to very hot fluids and supposed to be in contact with human skin. More generally, it is crucial to certify and assure that hot water bottles, whether manufactured, for instance, the United Kingdom defined British Standards for hot water bottles to regulate their manufacture and sale as well as to ensure their compliance with all safety standards.
Most regulations applied to a country are generally harmonized in order to be applied and applicable in a larger area, there have been problems with premature failure of rubber hot water bottles due to faulty manufacture. The rubber may fail strength or fitness tests, or become brittle if manufacturing is not controlled closely, natural rubber filled with calcium carbonate is the most common material used, but is susceptible to oxidation and polymer degradation at the high temperatures used in shaping the product. Boiling water is not recommended for use in hot water bottles and this is due to risks of the rubber being degraded from high-temperature water, and the risk of injury in case of breakage. Alfred, the hot water bottle, is a character from Johnson and Friends
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity.
An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability – a building should stand up robustly, utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture. The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power.
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance and his work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way adorned. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, but suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, This is beautiful, le Corbusiers contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design, function came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural
Kerosene, known as paraffin, lamp oil and coal oil, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum, widely used as a fuel in industry as well as households. Its name derives from Greek, κηρός meaning wax, and was registered as a trademark by Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark and it is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage. Liquid paraffin is a more viscous and highly refined product which is used as a laxative, paraffin wax is a waxy solid extracted from petroleum. Kerosene is widely used to power jet engines of aircraft and some rocket engines, in parts of Asia, where the price of kerosene is subsidized, it fuels outboard motors on small fishing boats. World total kerosene consumption for all purposes is equivalent to about 1.2 million barrels per day, to prevent confusion between kerosene and the much more flammable and volatile gasoline, some jurisdictions regulate markings or colorings for containers used to store or dispense kerosene.
For example, in the United States, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania requires that portable containers used at retail service stations be colored blue and it is miscible in petroleum solvents but immiscible in water. The American Society for Testing and Materials standard specification D-3699-78 recognizes two grades of kerosene, grades 1-K and 2-K, regardless of crude oil source or processing history, kerosenes major components are branched and straight chain alkanes and naphthenes, which normally account for at least 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons in this range, such as alkylbenzenes and alkylnaphthalenes. Olefins are usually not present at more than 5% by volume, the flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 °C, and its autoignition temperature is 220 °C. The pour point of kerosene depends on grade, with aviation fuel standardized at −47 °C. 1-K grade kerosene freezes around -40 °C, heat of combustion of kerosene is similar to that of diesel fuel, its lower heating value is 43.1 MJ/kg, and its higher heating value is 46.2 MJ/kg.
In the United Kingdom, two grades of heating oil are defined, BS2869 Class C1 is the lightest grade used for lanterns, camping stoves, wick heaters, and mixed with gasoline in some vintage combustion engines as a substitute for tractor vaporising oil. BS2869 Class C2 is a heavier distillate, which is used as heating oil. Premium kerosene is sold in 5 or 20 liter containers from hardware, camping. Standard kerosene is usually dispensed in bulk by a tanker and is undyed and international standards define the properties of several grades of kerosene used for jet fuel. Flash point and freezing point properties are of particular interest for operation and safety, the process of distilling crude oil/petroleum into kerosene, as well as other hydrocarbon compounds, was first written about in the 9th century by the Persian scholar Rāzi. In his Kitab al-Asrar, the physician and chemist Razi described two methods for the production of kerosene, termed naft abyad, using an apparatus called an alembic, one method used clay as an absorbent, whereas the other method used ammonium chloride.
The distillation process was repeated until all most of the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been removed, Kerosene was produced during the same period from oil shale and bitumen by heating the rock to extract the oil, which was distilled
A building code is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, usually from a local council, the main purpose of building codes is to protect public health and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Codes regulating the design and construction of structures where adopted into law, examples of building codes began in ancient times. In the USA the main codes are the International Commercial or Residential Code, electrical codes and plumbing, fifty states and the District of Columbia have adopted the I-Codes at the state or jurisdictional level. In Canada, national model codes are published by the National Research Council of Canada, the practice of developing and enforcing building codes varies considerably among nations.
In some countries building codes are developed by the government agencies or quasi-governmental standards organizations, such codes are known as the national building codes. In other countries, where the power of regulating construction and fire safety is vested in local authorities, model building codes have no legal status unless adopted or adapted by an authority having jurisdiction. The developers of model codes urge public authorities to reference model codes in their laws, regulations, when referenced in any of these legal instruments, a particular model code becomes law. This practice is known as adoption by reference, there are instances when some local jurisdictions choose to develop their own building codes. At some point in all major cities in the United States had their own building codes. However, due to increasing complexity and cost of developing building regulations. For example, in 2008 New York City abandoned its proprietary 1968 New York City Building Code in favor of a version of the International Building Code.
The City of Chicago remains the only municipality in America that continues to use a building code the city developed on its own as part of the Municipal Code of Chicago, in Europe, the Eurocode is a pan-European building code that has superseded the older national building codes. Each country now has National Annexes to localize the contents of the Eurocode, similarly, in India, each municipality and urban development authority has its own building code, which is mandatory for all construction within their jurisdiction. All these local building codes are variants of a National Building Code, Building codes have a long history. The earliest known written building code is included in the Code of Hammurabi, the book of Deuteronomy in the Hebrew Bible stipulated that parapets must be constructed on all houses to prevent people from falling off. The Laws of the Indies were passed in the 1680s by the Spanish Crown to regulate the urban planning for colonies throughout Spains worldwide imperial possessions, the first systematic national building standard was established with the London Building Act of 1844
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
In the U. S and Canada, an electric blanket is a blanket with an integrated electrical heating device usually placed above the top bed sheet. In the U. K and Commonwealth, electric blanket commonly refers to an electric under the blanket, electric blankets usually have a control unit which adjusts the amount of heat the blanket produces. Blankets for larger sized beds often have separate controls for each side of the bed, the electric blanket may be used to pre-heat the bed before use or to keep the occupant warm while in bed. Some modern low voltage electric blankets have thin carbon fiber wires, the first electric blanket was invented in 1912 by American inventor Samuel Irwin Russell. This earliest form of a blanket was an ‘underblanket’ under the bed that covered and heated from below. There is some dispute about when the first electric over blankets were introduced, the first recorded publication of such a unit was in 1930 by Samson United Corporation. However, others claim it was in 1937 that electric over blankets, much like heating pads, electric blankets use an insulated wire or heating element inserted into a fabric that heats when it is plugged in.
The temperature control unit, located between the blanket and the outlet, manages the amount of current entering into the heat elements in the blanket. Some modern electric blankets use carbon fiber wires to heat the user and these wires are far less bulky and conspicuous than older heating wires. Carbon fiber wires are used as the heating element in many high-end heated car seats. Blankets can be purchased with rheostats that regulate the heat by managing body heat and blanket temperatures, newer electric blankets have a shutoff mechanism to prevent the blanket from overheating or catching fire. Older blankets may not have a mechanism, users run the risk of overheating. Older blankets are considered fire hazards, such blankets include 12-volt blankets designed for in-car use, they tend to shut off automatically every 45 minutes or so. Old or damaged blankets concern fire safety officials internationally, the use of such blankets is of concern due to the combination of heat, the abundance of flammable bedding material, and a sleeping occupant.
In the UK, it is estimated that 5,000 fires per year are caused by faulty electric blankets, electric blankets present a burn risk to those who cannot feel pain or are unable to react to it. Individuals included in group are small children, diabetics. As with any source of heat over the groin, use of electric blankets can reduce fertility in men, there is little scientific evidence to support concerns that electromagnetic radiation from electric blankets may cause negative health effects. A cartoon electrical blanket with its temperature control acting as an anthropomorphic face named Blanky was portrayed in the 1987 film The Brave Little Toaster
A bathtub, bath, or tub is a large or small container for holding water in which a person or a persons pet may bathe. Most modern bathtubs are made of thermoformed acrylic, porcelain enameled steel, fiberglass-reinforced polyester, a bathtub is usually placed in a bathroom either as a stand-alone fixture or in conjunction with a shower. Modern bathtubs have overflow and waste drains and may have taps mounted on them and they are usually built-in, but may be free-standing or sometimes sunken. Until recently, most bathtubs were roughly rectangular in shape but with the advent of acrylic thermoformed baths, bathtubs are commonly white in colour although many other colours can be found. The process for enamelling cast iron bathtubs was invented by the Scottish-born American David Dunbar Buick, two main styles of bathtub are common, Western style bathtubs in which the bather lies down. These baths are typically shallow and long, eastern style bathtubs in which the bather sits up. These are known as ofuro in Japan and are typically short, evidence of the earliest surviving personal sized bath tub was found on the Isle of Crete where a 1. 5-metre long pedestal tub was found built from hardened pottery.
The design spread to England where it found much popularity among the aristocracy, early bathtubs in England tended to be made of cast iron, or even tin and copper with a face of paint applied that tended to peel with time. The Scottish-born inventor David Buick invented a process for bonding porcelain enamel to cast iron in the 1880s while working for the Alexander Manufacturing Company in Detroit. Far from the feet and luxury most associated with clawfoot tubs, an early Kohler example was advertised as a horse trough/hog scalder. The items use as hog scalder was considered an important marketing point than its ability to function as a bathtub. In the latter half of the 20th century, the once popular clawfoot tub morphed into a tub with a small apron front. This enclosed style afforded easier maintenance and, with the emergence of colored sanitary ware, more options for the homeowner. The Crane Company introduced colored bathroom fixtures to the US market in 1928, the clawfoot tub or claw-foot tub was considered a luxury item in the late 19th century, originally made from cast iron and lined with porcelain.
Modern technology has contributed to a drop in the price of clawfoot tubs, clawfoot tubs usually require more water than a standard bathtub, because generally they are larger. Clawfoot tubs come in 4 major styles, Classic roll rim tubs, slipper tubs - where one end is raised and sloped creating a more comfortable lounging position. Double slipper tubs - where both ends are raised and sloped, double ended tubs - where both ends of the tub are rounded. Notice how one end of the tub is rounded and one is fairly flat
Detroit is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the fourth-largest city in the Midwest and the largest city on the United States–Canada border. It is the seat of Wayne County, the most populous county in the state, the municipality of Detroit had a 2015 estimated population of 677,116, making it the 21st-most populous city in the United States. Roughly one-half of Michigans population lives in Metro Detroit alone, the Detroit–Windsor area, a commercial link straddling the Canada–U. S. Border, has a population of about 5.7 million. Detroit is a port on the Detroit River, a strait that connects the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States, the City of Detroit anchors the second-largest economic region in the Midwest, behind Chicago, and the thirteenth-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and various bridges, Detroit was founded on July 24,1701 by the French explorer and adventurer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and a party of settlers.
During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region, with expansion of the American automobile industry in the early 20th century, the Detroit area emerged as a significant metropolitan region within the United States. The city became the fourth-largest in the country for a period, in the 1950s and 1960s, suburban expansion continued with construction of a regional freeway system. A great portion of Detroits public transport was abandoned in favour of becoming a city in the post-war period. Due to industrial restructuring and loss of jobs in the auto industry, between 2000 and 2010 the citys population fell by 25 percent, changing its ranking from the nations 10th-largest city to 18th. In 2010, the city had a population of 713,777 and this resulted from suburbanization, industrial restructuring and the decline of Detroits auto industry. In 2013, the state of Michigan declared an emergency for the city. Detroit has experienced urban decay as its population and jobs have shifted to its suburbs or elsewhere, conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces since the 2000s and allowed several large-scale revitalisations.
More recently, the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago. In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Potawatomi, for the next hundred years, virtually no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois likely response. When the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, the 1798 raids and resultant 1799 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began almost immediately, and by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400, by 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec
A space heater is a device for heating an enclosed area. Space heating is employed to warm a small space, and is usually held in contrast with central heating. Permanently installed space heaters may burn natural gas, fuel oil, or wood pellets, use electricity for resistance heating, for portable use, electric heaters are most appropriate because gas heating can be very dangerous without a permanent flue. Space heaters can be divided into those that transfer their heat to the required space primarily by convection, in convection heaters, heating elements either warm the air directly or heat oil or another filler, which in turn transfers heat to the air. The air warms the objects and people in the space, convective heaters are suitable for providing constant, diffuse heat in well-insulated rooms. Oil heaters warm up slowly but do not reach dangerous surface temperatures, wire-element heaters, one particular type of convective heater is the fan heater. The main advantage of radiative heaters is that the radiation they produce is absorbed directly by clothing and skin.
This makes them suitable for warming people in poorly insulated rooms and it allows for greater distance between the people and heater. Some of the earliest electric heaters were radiative, consisting of Nichrome heating wires held by ceramic or mica insulation at the point of a polished metal reflector. The cost was low since nothing else, not even a switch, was needed. Later models included a guard preventing accidental contact with the heating wires or the hot ceramic. However the metal reflectors needed to be fairly heavy gauge, in the mid-20th century the cheapest heaters were radiative, but with the heating wires stretched relatively closely across a larger thin metal reflector separated from a thin metal housing. A small fan blew just enough air between the housing and the reflector to cool them, the output to the room was the radiative heat. Having the heating wires stretched across an area meant that fewer expensive ceramic insulators were needed. Quartz heaters are radiative heaters which were efficient, in the amount and directionality of heating.
The wires could thus operate at a higher temperature than practical with ceramic-supported wires or be thinner, if the heating elements were at a higher temperature, proportionally more energy was radiated compared to open-wire heaters. Halogen heaters comprise tungsten filaments in sealed envelopes, mounted in front of a metal reflector in a plastic case. They operate at a higher temperature than Nichrome wire heaters but not as high as incandescent light bulbs and they convert up to 86% of their input power to radiant energy, losing the remainder to conductive and convective heat
A shower is a place in which a person bathes under a spray of typically warm or hot water. Indoors, there is a drain in the floor, most showers have temperature, spray pressure and adjustable showerhead nozzle. The simplest showers have a swivelling nozzle aiming down on the user and this allows the showerer to spray the water at different parts of their body. A shower can be installed in a shower stall or bathtub with a plastic shower curtain or door. Showering is common in Western culture due to the efficiency of using it compared with a bathtub and its use in hygiene is therefore common practice. A shower uses less water on average than a bath,80 litres for a shower compared with 150 litres for a bath, the original showers were neither indoor structures nor man-made, but were common natural formations, waterfalls. The falling water rinsed the bathers completely clean and was more efficient than bathing in a traditional basin, ancient people began to reproduce these natural phenomena by pouring jugs of water, often very cold, over themselves after washing.
There has been evidence of upper class Egyptian and Mesopotamians having indoor shower rooms where servants would bathe them in the privacy of their own homes. However, these were rudimentary by modern standards, having rudimentary drainage systems and water was carried, not pumped, the ancient Greeks were the first people to have showers. Their aqueducts and sewage systems made of lead pipes allowed water to be pumped both into and out of large communal shower rooms used by elites and common citizens alike. These rooms have been discovered at the site of the city Pergamum, the depictions are very similar to modern locker room showers, and even included bars to hang up clothing. The ancient Romans followed this convention, their famous bathhouses can be all around the Mediterranean. The Romans not only had these showers, but believed in bathing multiple times a week, the water and sewage systems developed by the Greeks and Romans broke down and fell out of use after the fall of the Roman Empire.
The first mechanical shower, operated by a pump, was patented in England in 1767 by William Feetham. His shower contraption used a pump to force the water into a vessel above the users head, the system would recycle the same dirty water through every cycle. This early start was greatly improved in the anonymously invented English Regency shower design of circa 1810, the original design was over 10 feet tall, and was made of several metal pipes painted to look like bamboo. A basin suspended above the pipes fed water into a nozzle that distributed the water over the users shoulders, the water on the ground was drained and pumped back through the pipes into the basin, where the cycle would repeat itself. The original prototype was improved upon in the following decades