National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
Maryland Terrapins women's lacrosse
The Maryland Terrapins women's lacrosse team represents the University of Maryland in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's college lacrosse. The Maryland program has won the most of any women's lacrosse program; the Terrapins have made the most NCAA tournament appearances, won the most tournament games, made the most NCAA championship game appearances. Before the NCAA sanctioned women's lacrosse, Maryland won the AIAW national championship in 1981. Starting with the 2014–2015 season, the Terrapins joined the Big Ten women's lacrosse league. *Statistics through 2017 season Reference: Reference: The Terrapins have appeared in 34 NCAA tournaments. Their postseason record is 69–21. Jen Adams
Virginia Cavaliers men's basketball
The Virginia Cavaliers men's basketball program represents the University of Virginia in the Atlantic Coast Conference in Division I of the NCAA. The team is coached by Tony Bennett. Since 2006 the team has played at John Paul Jones Arena, an on-campus arena on the North Grounds of the university, in front of 14,593. A consistent winner in the early years of college basketball under the tutelage of Pop Lannigan, the Cavalier program lay dormant between 1930 and 1975 before Terry Holland arrived to win their first ACC Championship and earn their first NCAA Tournament appearance in his second year. UVA has since finished first in the ACC basketball standings nine times, third best all-time, they have won the ACC Tournament three times. Virginia won the 2019 NCAA Tournament Championship, has been to the Final Four of the NCAA Tournament three times, won the last third-place game played at the event; the Cavaliers have been in the Top 5 of the AP Poll a total of 96 weeks in the past four decades, ranking the program 9th since 1980.
Never making the Top 5 from the first poll in 1949 until 1981, the program still ranks 16th all-time by this measure. The Wahoos, as they are unofficially known, began their history under the tutelage of a Welshman and American immigrant known best as "Pop", Henry Lannigan. Lannigan began the program in 1905 after training Olympic Games hopefuls in track and field and brought the basketball program into near-dominant form, he led the Cavaliers to a perfect record of 17–0 in 1914-15 and a Southern Conference title in its inaugeral season of 1921-22. After reaching prominence the team was invited to help the nationally known Kentucky Wildcats showcase their new Alumni Gymnasium. Virginia dominated Kentucky, 29–16. Inviting Kentucky back to Memorial Gymnasium in 1928, Virginia again won, 31–28. Lannigan's record of 254–95 held the Virginia record for best career winning percentage by a head coach until surpassed by a man, hired 104 years after he started the program. After Lannigan's sudden death in 1930 and with limited administration interest at the onset of the Great Depression, Virginia basketball did not maintain its momentum into the next several decades.
Buzzy Wilkinson scored 32.1 points per game in 1954-55 and is still the all-time ACC leader in scoring per game for both the single-season and career categories. He was selected by the Boston Celtics in the 1955 NBA Draft. Virginia teams of the era were not as great at defense and high scoring did not lead to many wins. Barry Parkhill was named ACC Men's Basketball Player of the Year in 1971–72 and was drafted in the first round by the Portland Trail Blazers but the program had not regained its early standing. Terry Holland was hired from Davidson in 1975, with star Wally Walker surprised the ACC in just his second year as head coach when his sixth-seeded Virginia defeated AP No. 17 NC State, No. 9 Maryland and No. 4 North Carolina en route to winning the school's first ACC Championship. Played in Landover, Maryland, it was and fittingly the first ACC Tournament held outside of North Carolina. Athletic and seven-foot-four, Ralph Sampson was the most desired high school recruit in college basketball history when he chose to play with Jeff Lamp at Virginia over Kentucky in 1979.
He lived up to that hype would become one of the most dominant college players the game has known, winning three consecutive Naismith College Player of the Year awards to tie him with Bill Walton as the most awarded individual player in NCAA history. Virginia would attain its first AP Top 5 rankings and go to its first Final Four in Sampson's era, but would be stonewalled by Dean Smith and North Carolina both in that Final Four and in ACC Tournaments. Carolina notoriously held the ball in a four corners offense for most of the last seven minutes of the game, despite having UNC’s most celebrated NBA superstars Michael Jordan and James Worthy on the floor, to defeat Virginia in the 1982 ACC Tournament 47–45. Both the shot clock and three-point line were implemented into college basketball during the same decade in part to combat such shenanigans. In 1984, after Sampson was drafted first in the 1983 NBA Draft, Virginia made a Cinderella run back to the Final Four. There they lost 49–47, in overtime, to a Houston team led by the first pick of the 1984 NBA Draft, Hakeem Olajuwon, who joined Sampson to form the original Twin Towers of the NBA on the Houston Rockets.
John Crotty and Bryant Stith took the darkhorse 1988–89 team to the Elite Eight after defeating a No. 1 seed Oklahoma team which returned most of its lineup from the team that reached the 1988 NCAA Tournament Championship Game. After Holland retired, the Cavaliers were coached by Jeff Jones, Pete Gillen, Dave Leitao. Highlights of those teams include a Jones team headlined by Cory Alexander and Junior Burrough that reached the Elite Eight after a first-place finish in the ACC standings of 1995. There were no championship teams under Gillen, but his recruits Sean Singletary and J. R. Reynolds led the 2007 team to Virginia's next conference-topping finish in Leitao's second season. While there were flashes of brilliance under each of the three coaches, the program regained and expanded its national prominence under the one who followed them. Tony Bennett arrived in March 2009 and got to work in building ”a program that lasts." His 2013–14 team led by Joe Harris and Malcolm Brogdon brought Virginia its first ACC Tournament Championship in 38 years and its first Sweet Sixteen appearance in 19 years.
The 2014–15 squad, led by Justin Anderson and Brogdon, started 19–0 and was more dominant throughout the season as this team more than doubled up the scores of Georgia Tech and Wake Forest, only
Maryland Terrapins men's lacrosse
The Maryland Terrapins men's lacrosse team represents the University of Maryland in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I lacrosse as a member of the Big Ten Conference. Maryland was a founding member of the Atlantic Coast Conference before withdrawing after the 2014 season. Since 1924, Maryland has secured numerous national championship honors, including three NCAA tournament championships, eight Wingate Memorial Trophy titles and one United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association championship, they have reached 25 NCAA tournament semi-finals since 1971. Maryland is the only major college lacrosse team to have never finished a season with a losing record. Maryland are coached by John Tillman. Johns Hopkins, located nearby in Baltimore, is considered the Terrapins' biggest rival; the two schools have played more than 100 times since the series began in 1895, it is consided the greatest rivalry in college lacrosse. In 2015, the rivalry became a conference game, as Johns Hopkins joined the Big Ten Conference as an associate member in men's lacrosse.
The Maryland program started as a club team in 1895. During its early years, Maryland teams competed against the best in lacrosse with games on record against Johns Hopkins, Penn State, Harvard and others; the team was elevated to varsity status in 1924. Since Maryland has never finished with a losing record, a feat unmatched by any other major college lacrosse team; the Terrapins have finished four seasons with a winning percentage of.500. Under the guidance of coach R. V. Truitt, Maryland entered the United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse League in 1924. In its first contest in the association, it snapped Navy's 46-game winning streak and beat undefeated Johns Hopkins, the Southern Division championship team, 4–2; the following season, Maryland captured the Southern Division title by beating the Doug Turnbull-led Hopkins squad, 3–1. In 1926, the USILL was succeeded by the United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association, which did not have a limitation on the number of member schools. For the next five decades, Maryland remained a national power, alongside Johns Hopkins, St. John's.
The dominance of these four schools located in the state of Maryland was due in large part to the high caliber of the sport at the interscholastic level. Lacrosse was the preeminent spring sport at the public Baltimore Polytechnic Institute and Baltimore City College, as well as the city's private high schools; the importance of lacrosse was magnified by the lack of any major professional teams in Baltimore until the creation of the Colts in 1947 and the return of the Orioles in 1954. Maryland finished the 1928 season with a 9 -- the loss coming at the hands of Johns Hopkins. Three other association members finished with one loss: Hopkins and Rutgers; the four squads were awarded Gold Medals as the best teams in the nation. That year, arrangements were made for the inclusion of a lacrosse exhibition at the 1928 Summer Olympics. American Olympic Committee president General Douglas MacArthur established a committee to organize the country's participation in the lacrosse event. Representation of the United States was determined by a tournament of intercollegiate and amateur teams that involved Maryland, Johns Hopkins, Army and the Mount Washington Lacrosse Club.
Maryland advanced to the final. In 1929, the undefeated St. John's Johnnies handed Maryland its first homefield loss in thirteen years. Before the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, lacrosse proponents arranged for another exhibition tournament. To decide the representative for the United States, the American Olympic Lacrosse Committee held an eight-team single-elimination tournament featuring Maryland, Johns Hopkins, Syracuse, St. John's, Crescent Athletic Club, Mount Washington Lacrosse Club, an all-star team composed of American Indian players from the Six Nations. Maryland defeated Mount Washington at Baltimore Stadium in front of 6,000 spectators in a doubleheader that featured Johns Hopkins narrowly beat St. John's. In the semifinals, a small crowd of 500 watched Maryland beat the Crescents and Hopkins beat Rutgers in foul rainy weather. Hopkins defeated Maryland in the final before a crowd of 5,000 to secure their place as the United States representatives for the Olympics. In 1936, Maryland coach Jack Faber guided the undefeated Terps to secure the inaugural Wingate Memorial Trophy, awarded to the USILA champions.
The next year, Maryland finished undefeated again and shared the national co-championship with William F. Logan's Princeton. Faber led Maryland to back-to-back outright USILA titles in 1939 led by Jim Meade and Rip Hewitt, in 1940 led by Milton Mulitz and Oscar Nevares. In 1955 and 1956, co-head coaches Faber and Al Heagy guided the Terrapins to two more undefeated seasons and consecutive national championships. Maryland split the USILA championship with two other one-loss teams and Johns Hopkins, in 1959. In 1967, Maryland suffered one loss to Navy, that decade's dominant team, but Hopkins in turn defeated the Midshipmen which resulted in a three-way tie for the championship between the trio. On March 29, 2009, the Maryland–Virginia regular season match resulted in the longest lacrosse game in NCAA history, extending into seven overtime periods. An unintentional whistle by the officiating staff negated what would have been a game-winning goal by Terrapins attackman Grant Catalino in the first overtime.
Virginia went on to win with a goal in the seventh overtime, 10–9, preserved its perfect record, 11–0, while Maryland slid to 6–3. In 2011, Maryland defeated first-seeded Duke to recapture the ACC tournament championship after a six-
CannonDesign is an American architectural practice that provides services for a range of project types including corporate headquarters and commercial office buildings, healthcare centers and municipal facilities, multi-family residential, mixed-use, sports facilities and convention centers. Will Cannon, Sr. started an architecture practice in Niagara Falls, New York in the early 20th century. His best-known work from this period was the design of the Beaux-Arts style Niagara Falls City Hall in 1923; the firm Cannon was established in 1945 by his sons, Will, Jr. and Don. In May 2000, Cannon changed its name to Inc.. In 2017, CannonDesign announced it was merging its global practice with FKP Architects, a Houston-based architecture firm with 90 employees. In 2015, CannonDesign was named a finalist in Fast Company's Innovation By Design Awards for designing Cedars-Sinai's OR 360 simulation center. In late 2014, CannonDesign acquired Pittsburgh firm Astorino Co; the deal allowed Cannon to expand their footprint into Abu Dhabi and Italy.
In 2009, the company acquired O'Donnell Wicklund Pigozzi & Peterson, a Chicago-based architecture firm that reported revenue of $50.3 million in 2008. 2015 Zurich Insurance Group Headquarters 2015 Flexera Software Headquarters Relocation 2015 Lockton Companies Chicago Office Relocation 2015 CJ Corporation Only One Center 2015 Follett Corporation Headquarters Office Consolidation 2012 Clorox New Pleasanton Campus 2008 Buffalo City Tower 2005 Metropolitan Capital Bank Tree Studios 2018 University of Maryland Baltimore County Event Center 2017 University of Maryland New Cole Field House 2016 University of Utah Lassonde Studios 2015 Carnegie Mellon University Cohon University Center Addition 2015 Coppin State University Science and Technology Center 2014 University of Colorado Boulder Student Recreation Center 2008 University of Chicago Law School Library Tower 2008 University of San Diego Price Center renovation 2008 Texas Christian University Brown Lupton University Union 2003 Cornwall Central High School, New York 2016 University of California, San Diego Jacobs Medical Center 2015 Kaiser Permanente Kraemer Radiation Oncology Center 2013 Cedars-Sinai Medical Center OR 360 Simulation Laboratory 2012 Kaleida Health Gates Vascular Institute 2011 Tata Medical Center 2010 Advocate Lutheran General Hospital 2013 Museum of Tolerance 2012 St. Louis Public Library 2012 Lloyd D. George Federal District Courthouse 2012 Buffalo State College Science and Mathematics Complex 2011 Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center 1977 Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center 2016 Yale University Sterling Chemistry Lab Renovation 2011 Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research 200 Tech Square 1994 Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University 2015 Rafferty Stadium 2011 Jack Nicklaus Golf Club Korea 2011 TD Place Stadium 2008 Richmond Olympic Oval 2003 Curb Event Center 2003 Friedman Wrestling Center, Cornell University 2000 Jenny Craig Pavilion ArchDaily selected projects Architizer firm profile
College Park, Maryland
The City of College Park is in Prince George's County, United States, is about 4 miles from the northeast border of Washington, D. C; the population was 30,413 at the 2010 United States Census. It is best known as the home of the University of Maryland, College Park, since 1994 the city has been home to the National Archives at College Park, a facility of the U. S. National Archives, as well as to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Weather and Climate Prediction. College Park was developed beginning in 1889 near the Maryland Agricultural College and the College Station stop of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; the suburb was incorporated in 1945 and included the subdivisions of College Park, Berwyn, Oak Spring, Daniel's Park, Hollywood. The original College Park subdivision was first plotted in 1872 by Eugene Campbell; the area remained undeveloped and was re-platted in 1889 by John O. Johnson and Samuel Curriden, Washington real estate developers; the original 125-acre tract was divided into a grid-street pattern with long, narrow building lots, with a standard lot size of 50 feet by 200 feet.
College Park developed catering to those who were seeking to escape the crowded Washington, D. C. as well as to a expanding staff of college faculty and employees. College Park included single-family residences constructed in the Shingle, Queen Anne, Stick styles, as well as modest vernacular dwellings. Commercial development increased in the 1920s, aided by the increased automobile traffic and the growing campus along Baltimore Avenue / Route 1. By the late 1930s, most of the original subdivision had been developed. Several fraternities and sororities from the University of Maryland built houses in the neighborhood. After World War II, construction consisted of infill of ranch and split-level houses. After incorporation in 1945, the city continued to grow, a municipal center was built in 1959; the Lakeland neighborhood was developed beginning in 1892 around the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, whose Branchville and Calvert Road depots were located one mile to the north and south, respectively. Lakeland was created by Edwin Newman, who improved the original 238 acres located to the west of the railroad.
He built a number of the original homes, a small town hall, a general store. The area was envisioned as a resort-type community. However, due to the flood-prone, low-lying topography, the neighborhood attracted a lower-income population and became an area for African-American settlement. Around 1900, the Baltimore Gold Fish Company built five artificial lakes in the area to spawn goldfish and rare species of fish. A one-room school was built in 1903 for the African-American population; the Berwyn neighborhood was developed beginning about 1885 adjacent to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It was created by Francis Shannabrook, a Pennsylvanian who purchased a tract of land between Baltimore Avenue and the railroad tracks. Shannabrook established a small depot, built a general store, erected 15 homes in the area to attract moderate-income families looking to move out of Washington; the neighborhood began to grow after 1900 when the City and Suburban Electric Railway entered the area. By 1925 100 single-family homes existed two-story, wood-frame buildings.
The community housing continued to develop in the 1930s and 1940s with one story bungalows, Cape Cods, Victorians and raised ranches and split level homes. The Daniels Park neighborhood was developed beginning in 1905 on the east and west sides of the City and Suburban Electric Railway in north College Park. Daniels Park was created by Edward Daniels on 47 acres of land; this small residential subdivision was improved with single-family houses arranged along a grid pattern of streets. The houses—built between 1905 and the 1930s—range in style from American Foursquares to bungalows; the Hollywood neighborhood was developed in the early 20th century along the City and Suburban Electric Railway. Edward Daniels, the developer of Daniels Park, planned the Hollywood subdivision as a northern extension of that earlier community. Development in Hollywood was slow until after World War II when Albert Turner acquired large tracts of the northern part of the neighborhood in the late 1940s. Turner was able to develop and market brick and frame three-bedroom bungalows beginning in 1950.
By 1952, an elementary school had been built. Hollywood Neighborhood Park, a 21-acre facility along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad line, is operated by the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission. In 1943, due to World War II efforts to conserve rail transport, the Washington Senators relocated their spring training camp in College Park; the location of 1943 Major League Baseball spring training camps was limited to an area east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River. On September 24, 2001, a multiple-vortex F3 tornado hit the area; this storm moved at peak intensity through the University of Maryland College Park campus, moved north parallel to I-95 to the Laurel area, where F3 damage was noted. The damage path from the storm was measured at 17.5 miles in length. The tornado caused $101 million in property damage; the two deaths were sisters who died when their car was picked up and hurled over a building before being slammed to the ground. Both young women were University of Maryland students.
This tornado was part of the Maryland and Washington, D. C. tornado outbreak of 2001, one of the most dramatic recent tornado events to directly affe
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa