Murrumbidgee Council is a local government area in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. This area was formed in 2016 from the merger of the Murrumbidgee Shire with the neighbouring Jerilderie Shire; the combined area comprises 6,880 square kilometres and covers the urban areas of Coleambally, Darlington Point and Jerilderie and the surrounding cropping and pastoral areas. At the time of its establishment, the estimated population of the area was 4,047; the inaugural Mayor of Murrumbidgee Council is former Jerilderie Shire councillor Ruth McRae, elected on 21 September 2017. The Murrumbidgee Council has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Darlington Point, Warangesda: Warangesda Aboriginal Mission Jerilderie, Nowranie Street: Jerilderie railway station Murrumbidgee Council has nine Councillors, with three councillors elected proportionally from three wards - Jerilderie and Murrumbidgee East. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office; the most recent election was held on 9 September 2017, the makeup of the Council by order of election, with posts of Mayor and Deputy Mayor yet to be filled pending the first meeting, is as follows: Local government areas of New South Wales
Waddi, New South Wales
Waddi is a village community in the central part of the Riverina on the Sturt Highway. It is situated by road, about 2 kilometres south from Darlington Point and 29 kilometres north from Coleambally
The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of aerial birds. They are superficially similar to swallows, but are not related to any passerine species. Swifts are placed in the order Apodiformes with hummingbirds; the treeswifts are related to the true swifts, but form a separate family, the Hemiprocnidae. Resemblances between swifts and swallows are due to convergent evolution, reflecting similar life styles based on catching insects in flight; the family name, Apodidae, is derived from the Greek ἄπους, meaning "footless", a reference to the small, weak legs of these most aerial of birds. The tradition of depicting swifts without feet continued into the Middle Ages, as seen in the heraldic martlet. Taxonomists have long classified swifts and treeswifts as relatives of the hummingbirds, a judgment corroborated by the discovery of the Jungornithidae and of primitive hummingbirds such as Eurotrochilus. Traditional taxonomies place the hummingbird family in the same order as the treeswifts; the taxonomy of the swifts is complicated, with genus and species boundaries disputed amongst the swiftlets.
Analysis of behavior and vocalizations is complicated by common parallel evolution, while analyses of different morphological traits and of various DNA sequences have yielded equivocal and contradictory results. The Apodiformes diversified at the end of which the extant families were present. A prehistoric genus sometimes assigned to the swifts, might be a more distant ancestor. There are around 100 species of swifts grouped into two subfamilies and four tribes. Cypseloidinae Tribe CypseloidiniApodinae Tribe Collocaliini – swiftlets Tribe Chaeturini – needletails Tribe Apodini – typical swifts Swifts are among the fastest of birds, larger species like the white-throated needletail have been reported travelling at up to 169 km/h. in level flight. The common swift can cruise at a maximum speed of 31 metres per second. In a single year the common swift can cover at least 200,000 km; the wingtip bones of swiftlets are of proportionately greater length than those of most other birds. Changing the angle between the bones of the wingtips and forelimbs allows swifts to alter the shape and area of their wings to increase their efficiency and maneuverability at various speeds.
They share with their relatives the hummingbirds a unique ability to rotate their wings from the base, allowing the wing to remain rigid and extended and derive power on both the upstroke and downstroke. The downstroke produces both lift and thrust, while the upstroke produces a negative thrust, 60% of the thrust generated during the downstrokes, but it contributes lift, 60% of what is produced during the downstroke; this flight arrangement might benefit the bird's maneuverability in the air. The swiftlets or cave swiftlets have developed a form of echolocation for navigating through dark cave systems where they roost. One species, the Three-toed swiftlet, has been found to use this navigation at night outside its cave roost too. Swifts occur on all the continents except Antarctica, not in the far north, in large deserts, on many oceanic islands; the swifts of temperate regions are migratory and winter in the tropics. Some species can survive short periods of cold weather by entering torpor, a state similar to hibernation.
Many have a characteristic shape, with a short forked tail and long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. The flight of some species is characterised by a distinctive "flicking" action quite different from swallows. Swifts range in size from the pygmy swiftlet, which weighs 5.4 g and measures 9 cm long, to the purple needletail, which weighs 184 g and measures 25 cm long. The nest of many species is glued to a vertical surface with saliva, the genus Aerodramus use only that substance, the basis for bird's nest soup; the eggs hatch after 19 to 23 days, the young leave the nest after a further six to eight weeks. Both parents assist in raising the young. Swifts as a family have smaller egg clutches and much longer and more variable incubation and fledging times than passerines with sized eggs, resembling tubenoses in these developmental factors. Young birds reach a maximum weight heavier than their parents. Swifts and seabirds have secure nest sites, but their food sources are unreliable, whereas passerines are vulnerable in the nest but food is plentiful.
All swifts eat insects, ranging from aerial spiders, flies, ants, to aphids and bees. Some species, like the chimney swift, hunt with other bird species as well. No swift species has become extinct since 1600, but BirdLife International assesses the Guam swiftlet as endangered and lists the Atiu, dark-rumped, Schouteden's, Seychelles and Tahiti swiftlets as vulnerable; the hardened saliva nests of the edible-nest swiftlet and the black-nest swiftlet have been used in Chinese cooking for over 400 years, most as bird's nest soup
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 410,301, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall; the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, 280 km south-west of Sydney, 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran. Although Canberra is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in state capital cities, as do the Governor-General and the Prime Minister; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being an planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States, or Brasília in Brazil. Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913.
The Griffins' plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, was centred on axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city's design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation; the growth and development of Canberra were hindered by the World Wars and the Great Depression, which exacerbated a series of planning disputes and the ineffectiveness of a procession of bodies that were created in turn to oversee the development of the city. The national capital emerged as a thriving city after World War II, as Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies championed its development and the National Capital Development Commission was formed with executive powers. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority; as the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the official residence of the Monarch's representative the Governor-General, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies.
It is the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, Australian National University, Royal Australian Mint, Australian Institute of Sport, National Gallery, National Museum and the National Library. The Australian Army's officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital; the ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power. The ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, has its own Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states; as the city has a high proportion of public servants, the Commonwealth Government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra, although no longer the majority employer. Compared to the national averages, the unemployment rate is the average income higher. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations.
The word "Canberra" is popularly claimed to derive from the word Kambera or Canberry, claimed to mean "meeting place" in Ngunnawal, one of the Indigenous languages spoken in the district by Aboriginal Australians before European settlers arrived, although there is no clear evidence to support this. An alternative definition has been claimed by numerous local commentators over the years, including the Ngunnawal elder Don Bell, whereby Canberra or Nganbra means "woman's breasts" and is the indigenous name for the two mountains, Black Mountain and Mount Ainslie, which lie opposite each other. In the 1860s, the name was reported by Queanbeyan newspaper owner John Gale to be an interpretation of the name nganbra or nganbira, meaning "hollow between a woman's breasts", referring to the Sullivans Creek floodplain between Mount Ainslie and Black Mountain. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivan's Creek floodplain between these two mountains as "Nganbra". "Nganbra" or "Nganbira" could have been anglicised to the name "Canberry", as the locality soon become known to European settlers.
R. H. Cambage in his 1919 book Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales, Part X, the Federal Capital Territory noted that Joshua John Moore, the first settler in the region, named the area Canberry in 1823 stating that "there seems no doubt that the original was a native name, but its meaning is unknown."' Survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. In 1920, some of the older residents of the district claimed that the name was derived from the Australian Cranberry which grew abundantly in the area, noting that the local name for the plant was canberry. Although popularly pronounced or, the original pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians. Anthropologist Norman Tindale suggested the principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal people, while the Ngarigo lived to the south of the ACT, the Wandandian to the east, the Walgulu to the south, Gandangara people to the north and Wiradjuri to the north-west.
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites as well as stone tools and arrangements. Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some po
The Macquarie Dictionary is a dictionary of Australian English. It is held by universities and the legal profession to be the authoritative source on Australian English, it pays considerable attention to New Zealand English. It was a publishing project of Jacaranda Press, a Brisbane educational publisher, for which an editorial committee was formed from the Linguistics department of Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia, it is now published by Macquarie Dictionary Publishers an imprint of Pan Macmillan Australia Pty Ltd. In October 2007 it moved its editorial office away from Macquarie University to the University of Sydney, and later to the Pan Macmillan offices in the Sydney central business district. The first seven editions of the Macquarie Dictionary were edited by lexicographer Susan Butler, who joined the project in 1970 as a research assistant, was its chief editor by the time the first edition was published in 1981. Butler announced her retirement as the Macquarie's editor in March 2018 after 48 years with the publisher.
The original version of the Macquarie Dictionary was based on Hamlyn's Encyclopedic World Dictionary of 1971, which in turn was based on Random House's American College Dictionary of 1947, based on the 1927 New Century Dictionary, based on The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, which itself was based on Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language second edition of 1841. Since its first publication in 1981, its use has grown so that over time, it has come to rival longer-established dictionaries from elsewhere in the English-speaking world as a standard authority on the English language within Australia; the second edition was published in 1991 and it introduced encyclopedic content to many entries. The third edition, published in 1997, made use of an inhouse corpus of Australian writing, Ozcorp, to add a large number of examples of Australian usage, to give some of the flavour of an historical dictionary; this edition gave a good coverage of English in Asia. The fourth edition, published in 2005, increases the number of citations, includes etymologies for many phrases and pays particular attention to Australian regionalisms.
The fifth edition was published on October 2009 and places particular emphasis on words relating to the environment and climate change. The sixth edition was published on October 2013 and includes an update of new words and senses as well as words and phrases from other varieties of English which impinge on Australian English such as British English, American English and English in Southeast Asia and India; the seventh edition of the Macquarie Dictionary was published on 28 February 2017. With a foreword by Kate Grenville, this latest edition includes thousands of new words and senses along with Australian regionalisms and a collection of words from the Australian experience in WW1; the dictionary records standard Australian English spelling, closer to British spelling than American spelling, with spellings like colour, centre and practice/practise. It gives -ise spellings first, listing -ize spellings as acceptable variants, unlike the Oxford English Dictionary and some other dictionaries of British English, which continue to prefer -ize to -ise in spite of the opposite tendency amongst the British general public.
Labour, however, is sometimes spelt labor in reference to the Australian political party. One difference from British usage is the word program which the Macquarie Dictionary gives as the preferred spelling. See main article on Word of the Year. A number of smaller versions are available, including a pocket edition, as well as companion volumes such as a thesaurus; the latest edition of the main complete version of the Macquarie Dictionary is the seventh, published in 2017. The Macquarie Australian Slang Dictionary published in 2004 is an up-to-date record of Australian slang. A range of dictionaries from the complete to a small dictionary is available as an iOS application; the Macquarie Dictionary Online was the digital version of the print fourth edition. From 2013 it is the most complete version of the dictionary with greatest coverage of encyclopedic and non-encyclopedic entries, it offers spoken pronunciations. It is available by subscription. Macquarie Dictionary Online
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
A dragline excavator is a piece of heavy equipment used in civil engineering and surface mining. Draglines fall into two broad categories: those that are based on standard, lifting cranes, the heavy units which have to be built on-site. Most crawler cranes, with an added winch drum on the front, can act as a dragline; these units are designed to be transported over the road on flatbed trailers. Draglines used in civil engineering are always of this smaller, crane type; these are used for road, port construction and canal dredging, as pile driving rigs. These types are built by crane manufacturers such as Hyster; the much larger type, built on site is used in strip-mining operations to remove overburden above coal and more for oil sands mining. The largest heavy draglines are among the largest mobile land machines built; the smallest and most common of the heavy type weigh around 8,000 tons while the largest built weighed around 13,000 tons. A dragline bucket system consists of a large bucket, suspended from a boom with wire ropes.
The bucket is maneuvered by means of a number of chains. The hoist rope, powered by large diesel or electric motors, supports the bucket and hoist-coupler assembly from the boom; the dragrope is used to draw the bucket assembly horizontally. By skillful maneuver of the hoist and the dragropes the bucket is controlled for various operations. A schematic of a large dragline bucket system is shown below; the dragline was invented in 1904 by John W. Page for use in digging the Chicago Canal. By 1912, Page realized that building draglines was more lucrative than contracting, so he created the Page Engineering Company to build draglines. Page built its first crude walking dragline in 1923; these used legs operated by pinion on a separate frame that lifted the crane. The body was pulled forward by chain on a roller track and lowered again. Page developed the first diesel engines for dragline application in 1924. Page invented the arched dragline bucket, a design still used today by draglines from many other manufacturers, in the 1960s pioneered an archless bucket design.
With its walking mechanism badly behind that of competitor Monighan, Page updated their mechanism to an eccentric drive in 1935. This much improved mechanism gave a proper elliptical motion and was used until 1988. Page modernized its draglines further with the 700 series in 1954. Page's largest dragline was the Model 757 delivered to the Obed Mine near Hinton, Alberta in 1983, it featured a 75-yard bucket on an operating weight of 4,500 tons. In 1988, Harnischfeger Corporation purchased Page Engineering Company. Harnischfeger Corporation was established as P&H Mining in 1884 by Alonzo Pawling and Henry Harnischfeger. In 1914, P&H introduced the world's first gasoline engine powered dragline. In 1988, Page was acquired by Harnischfeger which makes the P&H line of shovels and cranes. P&H's largest dragline is the 9030C with a 160-yard bucket and up to a 425-foot boom. In 1907, Monighan's Machine Works of Chicago became interested in manufacturing draglines when local contractor John W. Page placed an order for hoisting machinery to install one.
In 1908, Monighan changed its name to the Monighan Machine Company. In 1913, a Monighan engineer named Oscar Martinson invented the first walking mechanism for a dragline; the device, known as the Martinson Tractor, was installed on a Monighan dragline, creating the first walking dragline. This gave Monighan the company prospered; the cam mechanism was further improved in 1925 by eliminating the drag chains for the shoes and changing to a cam wheel running in an oval track. This gave the shoe a proper elliptical motion; the first dragline using the new mechanism was the 3-W available in 1926. So popular were these machines. In the early 1930s, Bucyrus-Erie began purchasing shares of Monighan stock with Monighan's approval. Bucyrus purchased a controlling interest and the joint company became known as Bucyrus-Monighan until the formal merger in 1946; the first walking dragline excavator in the United Kingdom was used at the Wellingborough iron quarry in 1940. Ransomes & Rapier was founded in 1869 by four engineers to build railway equipment and other heavy works.
In 1914 they started building two small Steam shovels as a result of a customer request. The rope operated crowd system they built for this was patented and sold to Bucyrus. After WWI, demand for excavators increased and in 1924 they reached an agreement to build Marion draglines from 1 to 8 cubic yards capacity. In 1927, they built Type-7 Type-460 1.5-yard models. The deal to build Marion machines ended in 1936. R&R began building their own designs with the Type-4120 followed by the 4140 of 3.5 cubic yards. In 1958 the Ramsomes & Rapier division was sold to Chambers & Co.. Ltd of Sheffield, combined with their NCK Crane & Excavator division; this became NCK-Rapier. The walking dragline division of NCK-Rapier was acquired by Bucyrus in 1988; the Marion Power Shovel Company built its first walking dragline with a simple single-crank mechanism in 1939. Its largest dragline was the 8950 sold to Amax Coal Company in 1973, it weighed 7,300 tons. Marion was acquired by Bucyrus in 1997. Bucyrus Foundry and Manufacturing Company entered the dragline market in 1910 with the purchase of manufacturing rights for the Heyworth-Newman dragline excavator.
Their "Class 14" dragline was int