Rosales is an order of flowering plants. It is sister to a clade consisting of Cucurbitales, it contains about 7700 species, distributed into about 260 genera. Rosales comprise nine families, the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae; the largest of these families are Urticaceae. The order Rosales is divided into three clades; the basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae. The order Rosales is supported as monophyletic in phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences, such as those carried out by members of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. In their APG III system of plant classification, they defined Rosales as consisting of the nine families listed in the box on the right; the relationships of these families were uncertain until 2011, when they were resolved in a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear genes and ten chloroplast genes. Well-known members of Rosales include: roses, strawberries and raspberries, apples and pears, plums and apricots, almonds and hawthorn, elms, figs, breadfruit, nettles and cannabis.
In the classification system of Dahlgren the Rosales were in the superorder Rosiflorae. In the obsolete Cronquist system, the order Rosales was many times polyphyletic, it consisted of the family Rosaceae and 23 other families that are now placed in various other orders. These families and their placement in the APG III system are: Alseuosmiaceae Anisophylleaceae Brunelliaceae Bruniaceae Byblidaceae Cephalotaceae Chrysobalanaceae Columelliaceae Connaraceae Crassulaceae Crossosomataceae Cunoniaceae Davidsoniaceae Dialypetalanthaceae Eucryphiaceae Greyiaceae Grossulariaceae Hydrangeaceae Neuradaceae Pittosporaceae Rhabdodendraceae Rosaceae Saxifragaceae Surianaceae The following phylogenetic tree is from a cladistic analysis of DNA, published in 2011. Rosales is an order; this chart below shows the classification. Different plants that fall under the Rosales order grow in all different parts of the world, they can be found in the tropics and the arctics. Though you can find a member of the Rosales order anywhere the specific families grow in different specific geographical locations.
Wind-pollination is the way that the majority of the Families that fall under the Rosales order pollinate. Within the Rosales order is the Rosaceae family, which includes numerous species that are cultivated for their fruit, making this one of the most economically important families of plants. Fruit produced by members of this family include apples, plums, cherries, strawberries, raspberries and jackfruit; the leaves of the mulberry provide food for the silkworms used in commercial silk production. Many ornamental species of plant are in the Rosaceae family, including the rose after which the family and order were named; the rose, considered a symbol of love in many cultures, is featured prominently in poetry and literature. Modern garden varieties of roses such as hybrid teas and grandifora, originated from complex hybrids of several separate wild species native to different regions throughout the world; the wood from the black cherry and sweet cherry is used to make high quality furniture due to its color and ability to be warped.
Plants in the Rosales order were used in the traditional medicines of many cultures. The latex of some species of fig trees contain the enzyme ficin, effective in killing roundworms that infect the intestinal tracts of animals. Media related to Rosales at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Rosales at Wikispecies Rosales At: Trees At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website Rosales – Plant Life Forms "Rosales". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 24 April 2008
A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody, they are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, are under 6 m tall. Plants of many species may grow either depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs less than 2 m tall, such as lavender and most small garden varieties of rose, are termed "subshrubs". An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery; when clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a "stool" results in long new stems known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their character. Shrubs in common garden practice are considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either evergreen.
In botany and ecology, a shrub is more used to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants which are less than 8 metres high and have many stems arising at or near the base. For example, a descriptive system adopted in Australia is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant species. For shrubs 2–8 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-shrub mid-dense foliage cover — open-shrub sparse foliage cover — tall shrubland sparse foliage cover — tall open shrublandFor shrubs less than 2 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-heath or closed low shrubland— mid-dense foliage cover — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland— sparse foliage cover — low shrubland sparse foliage cover — low open shrubland Those marked with * can develop into tree form
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
John Torrey was an American botanist and physician. Throughout much of his career, Torrey was a teacher of chemistry at multiple universities, while at the same time pursuing botanical work. Dr. Torrey's botanical career focused on the flora of North America, his most renowned works include studies of the New York flora, the Mexican Boundary, the Pacific railroad surveys, as well as the uncompleted Flora of North America. Torrey was born in the second child of Capt. William and Margaret Torrey. Torrey showed a fondness for mechanics, at one time planned to become a machinist, but when he was 15 or 16 years of age his father received an appointment to the state prison at Greenwich Village, New York, where he was tutored by Amos Eaton a prisoner and a pioneer of natural history studies in America, he thus learned the elements of botany, as well as something of chemistry. In 1815 he began the study of medicine with Wright Post, qualifying in 1818, he opened an office in New York City, engaged in the practice of medicine, at the same time devoting his leisure to botany and other scientific pursuits.
In 1817, he became one of the founders of the New York Lyceum of Natural History, one of his first contributions to this body was his Catalogue of Plants growing spontaneously within Thirty Miles of the City of New York. Its publication gained for him the recognition of native botanists. In 1824 he issued the only volume of his Flora of the Middle States; this used John Lindley's system of classifying flora, a way of classifying, not used in the United States. He found the medical profession uncongenial, on August 5, 1824 he entered the United States Army as an assistant surgeon and became acting professor of chemistry and geology at West Point military academy. Three years he became professor of chemistry and botany in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, where he stayed until 1855, when he was made professor emeritus, he was professor of chemistry at Princeton 1830-1854, of chemistry and botany at the University of the City of New York 1832/3. He resigned from his Army position on August 31, 1828.
In 1836 he was appointed botanist to the state of New York and produced his Flora of that state in 1843. From 1853 he was chief assayer to the United States assay office in New York City when that office was established, but he continued to take an interest in botanical teaching until his death, he was consulted by the treasury department on matters pertaining to the coinage and currency, was sent on special missions at various times to visit the different mints. He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1856. In 1856, Torrey was chosen a trustee of Columbia College, in 1860, having presented the college with his herbarium, numbering about 50,000 specimens, he was made emeritus professor of chemistry and botany. On the consolidation of the College of Physicians and Surgeons with Columbia in 1860, he was chosen one of its trustees, his advice was sought on scientific subjects by various corporations. He was the first president of the Torrey Botanical Club in 1873.
Besides being the last surviving charter member of the Lyceum of Natural History, he held its vice presidency for several years, was president in 1824-26 and 1838, holding the same office in the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1855, he was one of the original members of the National Academy of Science of the United States, being named as such by act of the United States Congress in 1863. The degree of A. M. was conferred on him by Yale in 1823, that of LL. D. by Amherst in 1845. Torrey died at his home in New York City on March 10, 1873. Torrey married Eliza Shaw on April 20, 1824. Torrey's earliest publications in the American Journal of Science are on mineralogy. In 1820, he undertook the examination of the plants, collected around the headwaters of the Mississippi by David B. Douglass. During the same year, he received the collections made by Edwin James while with the expedition, sent out to the Rocky Mountains under Major Stephen H. Long, his report was the earliest treatise of its kind in the United States, arranged on the natural system.
Torrey, in the meantime, had planned A Flora of the Northern and Middle United States, or a Systematic Arrangement and Description of all the Plants heretofore discovered in the United States North of Virginia, in 1824 began its publication in parts, but it was soon suspended owing to the general adoption of the natural system of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in place of that of Carl Linnaeus. In 1836, on the organization of the geological survey of New York, he was appointed botanist, required to prepare a flora of the state, his report, consisting of two quarto volumes, was issued in 1843, was for a long time the most comprehensive for any state in the United States. In 1838, he began with Asa Gray The Flora of North America, issued in numbers irregularly until 1843, when they had completed the Compositae, but new botanical material accumulated at such a rapid rate that it was deemed best to discontinue it. Subsequently, Torrey published reports on the plants that were collected by John C. Frémont in the expedition to the Rocky Mountains, those
Agricultural Research Service
The Agricultural Research Service is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture. ARS is one of four agencies in USDA's Research and Economics mission area. ARS is charged with extending the nation's scientific knowledge and solving agricultural problems through its four national program areas: nutrition, food safety and quality. ARS research focuses on solving problems affecting Americans every day; the ARS Headquarters is located in the Jamie L. Whitten Building on Independence Avenue in Washington, D. C. and the headquarters staff is located at the George Washington Carver Center in Beltsville, Maryland. For 2018, its budget was $1.2 billion. ARS conducts scientific research for the American public, their main focus is on research to develop solutions to agricultural problems and provide information access and dissemination to: ensure high quality, safe food and other agricultural products, assess the nutritional needs of Americans, sustain a competitive agricultural economy, enhance the natural resource base and the environment, provide economic opportunities to rural citizens and society as a whole.
ARS research complements the work of state colleges and universities, agricultural experiment stations, other federal and state agencies, the private sector. ARS research may focus on regional issues that have national implications, where there is a clear federal role. ARS provides information on its research results to USDA action and regulatory agencies and to several other federal regulatory agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. ARS disseminates much of its research results through scientific journals, technical publications, Agricultural Research magazine, other forums. Information is distributed through ARS's National Agricultural Library. ARS has more than 150 librarians and other information specialists who work at two NAL locations—the Abraham Lincoln Building in Beltsville, Maryland. C. NAL provides reference and information services, document delivery, interlibrary loan and interlibrary borrowing services to a variety of audiences.
ARS supports more than 2,000 scientists and post docs working on 690 research projects within 15 National Programs at more than 90 research locations. The ARS is divided into 5 geographic areas: Midwest Area, Northeast Area, Pacific West Area, Plains Area, Southeast Area. ARS has five major regional research centers: the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California; the research centers focus on innovation in agricultural practices, pest control and nutrition among other things. Work at these facilities has given life to numerous products and technologies; the ARS offers the Culture Collection, the largest public collection of microorganisms in the world, containing 93,000 strains of bacteria and fungi. The ARS Culture Collection is housed at Northern Regional Research Laboratory ARS' Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland, is the world's largest agricultural research complex. ARS operates the U. S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Fort Pierce and the U.
S. National Poultry Research Center in Athens, Georgia. ARS has six major human nutrition research centers that focus on solving a wide spectrum of human nutrition questions by providing authoritative, peer-reviewed, science-based evidence; the centers are located in Arkansas, Texas, North Dakota and California. ARS scientists at these centers study the role of food and dietary components in human health from conception to advanced age. Technology to produce lactose-free milk, ice cream and yogurt was developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service in 1985; the grape breeding program, which dates back to 1923, developed seedless grapes. The ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory in Winter Haven, Florida, is active in work to improve the taste of orange juice concentrate. ARS had a Toxoplasma gondii research program, which experimented on cats infected with the parasite, from 1982 until 2019. Cats were bred for the program and intentionally infected, kittens in the program were euthanized after research was completed.
Cats were fed raw cat and dog meat for the study, called "kitten cannibalism" by the White Coat Waste Project. A bipartisan bill to eliminate the practice was introduced into the House by Representatives Jimmy Panetta, Brian Mast, Elissa Slotkin, Will Hurd, with a companion bill introduced into the Senate by Jeff Merkley; the bills called the "Kittens In Traumatic Testing Ends Now Act of 2019", amend the Animal Welfare Act to limit USDA experimentation on cats. The bill has been referred to the Subcommittee on Livestock and Foreign Agriculture of the House Committee on Agriculture. While the bills have not passed, the USDA stated. Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations Agricultural Resource Management Survey Germplasm Resources Information Network Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging National Clonal Germplasm Repository National Agricultural Center and Hall of Fame U. S. Horticultural Research Laboratory National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research "Agricultural Research Service".
Archived from the original on October
Vachellia rigidula known as Blackbrush Acacia or Chaparro Prieto, known as Acacia rigidula, is a species of shrub or small tree in the legume family, Fabaceae. Its native range stretches from Texas in the United States south to central Mexico; this perennial is not listed as being threatened. It reaches a height of 5–15 feet. Blackbrush Acacia grows on limestone canyons. A phytochemical study of V. rigidula by workers at the Texas A & M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center at Uvalde, TX, reported the presence of over forty alkaloids, including low amounts of several amphetamines, found by the same research group in the related species Senegalia berlandieri, but which otherwise are known only as products of laboratory synthesis. Compounds found in the highest concentrations were phenylethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine and N-methyltyramine. Other notable compounds reported were N,N-dimethyltryptamine, amphetamine and nicotine, although these were found in low concentrations.
The presence of such an unprecedented chemical range of psychoactive compounds, including ones not found in nature, in a single plant species has led to the suggestion that some of these findings may have resulted from cross-contamination or were artifacts of the analytical technique. V. rigidula is used in weight loss dietary supplements because of the presence of chemical compounds claimed to stimulate beta-receptors to increase lipolysis and metabolic rate and decrease appetite. V. Rigidula is known as a large honey producer and early blooming plant for its native region. In 2015, 52% of supplements labeled as containing Acacia rigidula were found to be adulterated with synthetic BMPEA, an amphetamine isomer. Consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 94 mg of BMPEA per day. In 2012, the FDA determined that BMPEA was not present in Acacia rigidula leaves. Media related to Vachellia rigidula at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Vachellia rigidula at Wikispecies Range Shrubs
A perennial plant or perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. Some sources cite perennial plants being plants; the term is used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are technically perennials. Perennials small flowering plants, that grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, return in the spring from their rootstock, are known as herbaceous perennials. However, depending on the rigors of local climate, a plant, a perennial in its native habitat, or in a milder garden, may be treated by a gardener as an annual and planted out every year, from seed, from cuttings or from divisions. Tomato vines, for example, live several years in their natural tropical/subtropical habitat but are grown as annuals in temperate regions because they don't survive the winter. There is a class of evergreen, or non-herbaceous, including plants like Bergenia which retain a mantle of leaves throughout the year.
An intermediate class of plants is known as subshrubs, which retain a vestigial woody structure in winter, e.g. Penstemon; the local climate may dictate whether plants are treated as perennials. For instance, many varieties of Fuchsia are shrubs in warm regions, but in colder temperate climates may be cut to the ground every year as a result of winter frosts; the symbol for a perennial plant, based on Species Plantarum by Linnaeus, is, the astronomical symbol for the planet Jupiter. Perennial plants can be short-lived or they can be long-lived, as are some woody plants like trees, they include a wide assortment of plant groups from ferns and liverworts to the diverse flowering plants like orchids and grasses. Plants that flower and fruit only once and die are termed monocarpic or semelparous. However, most perennials are polycarpic. Perennials grow structures that allow them to adapt to living from one year to the next through a form of vegetative reproduction rather than seeding; these structures include bulbs, woody crowns, rhizomes plus others.
They might have specialized stems or crowns that allow them to survive periods of dormancy over cold or dry seasons during the year. Annuals produce seeds to continue the species as a new generation while the growing season is suitable, the seeds survive over the cold or dry period to begin growth when the conditions are again suitable. Many perennials have developed specialized features that allow them to survive extreme climatic and environmental conditions; some have adapted to survive cold temperatures. Those plants tend to invest a lot of resource into their adaptations and do not flower and set seed until after a few years of growth. Many perennials produce large seeds, which can have an advantage, with larger seedlings produced after germination that can better compete with other plants; some annuals produce many more seeds per plant in one season, while some perennials are not under the same pressure to produce large numbers of seeds but can produce seeds over many years. Dividing perennial plants is something that gardeners do around the months of October.
The point of doing the division at this time is to allow 6 weeks for adequate root growth prior to the ground reaching a freezing temperature. Due to the leaves falling from trees, as well as the excessive amount of rain received in most places during the fall weeks, the ground has adequate moisture for rapid growth; each type of plant must be separated differently. However, plants such as Irises have a root system known as a Rhizomes, these root systems should be planted with the bulb of the plant just above ground level, with leaves from the following year showing; the point of dividing perennials is to increase the amount of a single breed of plant in your garden. The more you divide your perennial plants every year, the more vast your garden will grow. In warmer and more favorable climates, perennials grow continuously. In seasonal climates, their growth is limited to the growing season. In some species, perennials retain their foliage all year round. Other plants are deciduous perennials, for example, in temperate regions a perennial plant may grow and bloom during the warm part of the year, with the foliage dying back in the winter.
In many parts of the world, seasonality is expressed as wet and dry periods rather than warm and cold periods, deciduous perennials lose their leaves in the dry season. With their roots protected below ground in the soil layer, perennial plants are notably tolerant of wildfire. Herbaceous perennials are able to tolerate the extremes of cold in temperate and Arctic winters, with less sensitivity than trees or shrubs. Perennial plants can be differentiated from annuals and biennials in that perennials have the ability to remain dormant over long periods of time and continue growth and reproduction; the meristem of perennial plants communicates with the hormones produced due to environmental situations and stage of development to begin and halt the ability to grow or flower. There is a distinction between the ability to grow and actual task of growth. For example, most trees regain the ability to grow in the midst of winter but do not initiate physical growth until the spring and summer months.
The start of dormancy can be seen in perennials pla