Costilla County, Colorado
Costilla County is the ninth-least populous of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,524; the county seat is the oldest continuously occupied town in Colorado. Costilla County was the first area of Colorado to be settled by European-Americans. Hispanic settlers from Taos, New Mexico established San Luis on April 9, 1851. Costilla County was one of the original 17 counties created by the Territory of Colorado on November 1, 1861; the county was named for the Costilla River. Although San Miguel was designated the county seat, the county government was moved to San Luis in 1863; the county's original boundaries extended over much of south-central Colorado. Much of the northern portion became part of Saguache County in 1866, the western portions were folded into Hinsdale and Rio Grande counties in 1874. Costilla County arrived at its modern boundaries in 1913 when Alamosa County was created from its northwest portions. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,230 square miles, of which 1,227 square miles is land and 304 square miles is water.
Huerfano County - northeast Las Animas County - east Colfax County, New Mexico - southeast Taos County, New Mexico - south Conejos County - west Alamosa County - northwest San Isabel National Forest Fort Garland State History Museum Los Caminos Antiguos Scenic and Historic Byway Old Spanish National Historic Trail As of the census of 2000, there were 3,663 people, 1,503 households, 1,029 families residing in the county. The population density was 3 people per square mile. There were 2,202 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 60.91% White, 0.79% Black or African American, 2.48% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 29.46% from other races, 5.21% from two or more races. 67.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,503 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.60% were married couples living together, 11.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.50% were non-families.
28.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 23.30% from 25 to 44, 28.30% from 45 to 64, 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $19,531, the median income for a family was $25,509, the lowest for Colorado. Males had a median income of $22,390 versus $16,121 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,748. About 21.30% of families and 26.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.40% of those under age 18 and 23.30% of those age 65 or over. Costilla County tends to favor the Democratic candidate in Presidential elections; the last Republican to carry the county was Calvin Coolidge in 1924, the last to gain an absolute majority William Howard Taft in 1912 – an era when most votes in these high valley counties were done for the voters by political machines.
In the last eleven Presidential elections the Democratic candidate has received over sixty percent of the county’s vote and four times won over seventy percent. In Colorado’s first elections as a state in 1876, Auguste Lacome ran against William H. Meyer for State Senate in Costilla County Colorado’s 18th District. Meyer would become the Lt. Governor of Colorado. Votes cast. Meyer carried the election 349-204, it is part of Colorado's 3rd congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+5 and is represented by Republican Scott Tipton. In the Colorado Senate it is represented by Larry Crowder. In the Colorado House of Representatives it is in District 62 and is represented by Democrat Donald Valdez. Blanca San Luis Fort Garland San Acacio Chama Garcia Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Costilla County, Colorado Auguste Lacome Search Costilla County Information Costilla County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society San Luis Valley Information Center
New Mexico's 3rd congressional district
New Mexico's 3rd Congressional District serves the northern half of New Mexico, including the state's Capital, Santa Fe. The district has a significant Native American presence, encompassing most of the New Mexico portion of the Navajo Nation situated in the northwest corner of the state and most of the Puebloan peoples reservations; the current Representative is Democrat Ben R. Luján. Election results from presidential races New Mexico's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Burlington Northern Railroad
The Burlington Northern Railroad was a United States-based railroad company formed from a merger of four major U. S. railroads. Burlington Northern operated between 1970 and 1996, its historical lineage begins in the earliest days of railroading with the chartering in 1848 of the Chicago and Aurora Railroad, a direct ancestor line of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, which lends Burlington to the names of various merger-produced successors. Burlington Northern acquired the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway on December 31, 1996 to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway, owned by the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation; that corporation was purchased by Berkshire Hathaway in 2009, controlled by investor Warren Buffett. The Burlington Northern Railroad was the product of the merger of four major railroads: the Great Northern Railway, the Northern Pacific Railway, the Spokane and Seattle Railway and the Chicago and Quincy Railroad; the four railroads shared a intertwined history, due to the efforts of James J. Hill, the railroad tycoon who had founded the Great Northern Railway.
Hill purchased an interest in the Northern Pacific in 1896 as the railway endured a period of financial turmoil. Hill was rebuffed by the leaders of the Northern Pacific. In 1901, the two railways teamed up to purchase nearly all shares of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, giving both a needed connection Chicago, the nation's railroad hub; that same year, came the next attempt to merge the railroads with the establishment of the Northern Securities Company, a trust that controlled all three, with Hill serving as president. The company was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act and in 1904 the Justice Department won in the Supreme Court ruling Northern Securities Co. v. United States. Although the ruling forced the three companies to be operated independently, they were still linked sharing a headquarters building in Saint Paul, Minnesota. In 1905, the Spokane and Seattle Railway was founded. Like the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, this new railroad was co-owned by the Great Northern and Northern Pacific and allowed both to access the Pacific Northwest.
Leaders were unsuccessful. The four railroads were cleared to merge on March 2, 1970 after a legal challenge that once again went to the Supreme Court, where the justices reversed the court's 1904 ruling against Northern Securities. A newly established holding company, Burlington Northern, Inc. purchased the four railroad companies and merged them into the Burlington Northern Railroad. To further expand the Burlington Northern, a single track was constructed in 1972 into the Powder River Basin to serve various coal mines; the expansion was a source of traffic unprecedented in United States railroad history. In 1971, the first full year for the new railroad, trains carried 64,116 million revenue ton-miles of freight, by 1979 the total was 135,004 million. Most of the increase was attributed to Powder River coal from Wyoming; the Burlington Northern, along with handling freight trains operated inter-city passenger trains. The BN had started operations just a matter of weeks before the end of service of the original California Zephyr, operated by the CB&Q, in conjunction with the Denver & Rio Grande Western and Western Pacific railroads, continued to operate the North Coast Limited, "Mainstreeter" Empire Builder, "Western Star", Denver Zephyr, "Gopher", "International", until Amtrak took over intercity passenger service in May 1971, thus becoming the last "new" Class I railroad to operate its own passenger trains.
The BN operated a commuter line inherited from the CB&Q from Chicago Union Station to the western suburb of Aurora, Illinois. On November 21, 1980, the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway was acquired, giving the railroad trackage as far south into Florida. In the early 1980s two independently operated railroads, owned by Burlington Northern Inc. were absorbed into the Burlington Northern Railroad. The railroad relocated its headquarters from Saint Paul to Seattle, Washington in 1981, as well as its parent company and sister companies. All of Burlington Northern, Inc's non-rail operations were spun off to a new company, Burlington Resources in 1988; the railroad once again relocated its headquarters in 1988 moving from Seattle to Texas. On September 22, 1995, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway merged with the Burlington Northern to create the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway. However, the merger was not official until December 31, 1996, when a common dispatching system was established, Santa Fe's non-union dispatchers were unionized and the implementation of Santa Fe's train identification codes systemwide.
On January 24, 2005, the railroad shortened its name to BNSF Railway. The Burlington Northern traversed the most northerly routes of any railroad in the western United States; these routes started at Chicago and ran west-northwest to La Crosse, Wisconsin. From here the routes continued northwest through Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota to Grand Forks, North Dakota. From Grand Forks the routes ran west through North Dakota and Idaho to Spokane, Washington; the former GN routed through North Dakota/Northern Montana, crossing the continental divide at Marias Pass, while the former NP line routed through the southern part of Montana, crossing the continental divide at Mullan and Homestake Passes. At Spokane the routes split into three; the former
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Raton, New Mexico
Raton is a city and the county seat of Colfax County in northeastern New Mexico. The city is located just south of Raton Pass; the city is located 6.5 miles south of the New Mexico/ Colorado border and 85 miles west of Texas. Ratón is the Spanish word for mouse. Raton Pass had been used by Spanish explorers and Indians for centuries to cut through the rugged Rocky Mountains, the mountain branch of the Santa Fe Trail cuts through the city, along what is now Business I-25; the post office at this location was named Willow Springs from 1877 to 1879, Otero from 1879 to 1880 renamed Raton in 1880. Raton was founded at the site of a stop on the Santa Fe Trail; the original 320 acres for the Raton townsite were purchased from the Maxwell Land Grant in 1880. In 1879, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway bought a local toll road and established a busy rail line. Raton developed as a railroad and ranching center for the northeast part of the New Mexico territory, as well as the county seat and principal trading center of the area.
The city is mentioned in Jack Kerouac's novel On the Road. Raton is located at 36°53′49″N 104°26′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.0 square miles, all land. The Raton Range and Raton Peak are located north of the town; the Raton Range is a 75-mile-long ridge. Raton Pass and the Raton Basin are named for the Raton Range. Raton is one of the famous sites for viewing the K-T Boundary known as the K-Pg Boundary or Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary, or the Iridium Layer. There is a well-preserved sequence of rocks spanning the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary in Climax Canyon Park, a Raton city park to the west of town. Geographic Coordinates: 36°54′13.99″N 104°27′0.75″W The rocks have been studied for evidence of the iridium anomaly cited as evidence of a large meteorite impact at the end of the Cretaceous. It is interpreted to have caused the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event which killed off non-avian dinosaurs, as well as many other species of flora and fauna 66 million years ago.
The K-T Boundary is represented in the rock strata by a 1-cm thick tonstein clay layer, found to contain anomalously high concentrations of iridium. As of the United States Census of 2000, there were 7,282 people, 3,035 households, 1,981 families residing in the city; the population density was 992.4 people per square mile. There were 3,472 housing units at an average density of 473.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.04% White, 0.23% African American, 1.59% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 16.19% from other races, 3.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 56.96% of the population. There were 3,035 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 18.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,028, the median income for a family was $31,762. Males had a median income of $24,946 versus $18,433 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,223. About 14.8% of families and 17.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.2% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. In the United States Census of 2010, the population of Raton had dropped to 6,885, was estimated to have dropped to 6,066 by July 1, 2018. I-25 US 87 US 64 Raton Amtrak Station is a stop on the Southwest Chief route. Raton Municipal Airport Sugarite Canyon State Park is located 12 miles northeast of Raton at an elevation of 8,800 feet.
Activities there include camping and hiking. The NRA Whittington Center is located 15 miles southwest of Raton, it is the largest NRA shooting range in the US. It hosts national competitions. High-powered rifle and skeet shooting are possible. Run to Raton, a motorcycle rally that includes camps outs, free music, a pin up contest, takes place every July. Raton was the site of New Mexico's first horse racetrack, La Mesa Park, which closed in 1992. Raton is home to the International Balloon Rally, a hot air balloon gathering, held on the Fourth Of July weekend. Tom W. Blackburn, Western writer who wrote the lyrics to "The Ballad of Davy Crockett" Edwin Fullinwider, Olympic fencer Noel Mazzone, offensive coordinator for the University of Arizona football team Paul L. Modrich received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2015 John Morrow, United States Representative from New Mexico John R. Sinnock, US Mint engraver known for work on the FDR dime Petro Vlahos, thrice Oscar-awarded Hollywood special effects pioneer Robert W. Warren, Attorney General of Wisconsin Bennie L. Woolley, Jr. racehorse trainer who won the 2009 Kentucky DerbyNotable groupThe Fireballs and roll group who had a #1 hit with 1963's "Sugar Shack" and #9 hit with "Bottle of Wine" Folsom Falls National Old Trails Road Raton Downtown Historic District Conway, Jay T..
- A brief community history of Raton, New Mexico, 1880-1930: Commemorating Her Fiftieth Birthday. - Raton, New Mexico: Gazette Print. OCLC
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups