A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Norman MacKenzie (politician)
Norman Archibald Macrae MacKenzie, was the President of the University of British Columbia from 1944 to 1962, a Senator from 1966 to 1969. He was born in Nova Scotia, he fought during World War I. He studied law at Dalhousie and Cambridge Universities. In 1927, he went to the University of Toronto, he became president of the University of New Brunswick in 1940. He was president of the University of British Columbia from 1944 to 1962. In 1959 he hosted Queen Elizabeth at the University of British Columbia's Faculty Club He was a member of the Senate from 1966 to 1969 representing the senatorial division of University-Point Grey, British Columbia. In 1969 he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada, he and his wife, born Margaret Thomas, had three children: Bridget Mackenzie, Susan Mackenzie, Patrick Thomas Mackenzie. "University of British Columbia Norman A. M. Mackenzie fonds". Retrieved February 24, 2006. Norman MacKenzie – Parliament of Canada biography
Albert William Trueman, OC, FRSC was a teacher, professor and university administrator. Trueman was born in the United States, where his New Brunswick-born father John Main Trueman taught college in Storrs, Connecticut between 1907 and 1913; the family lived in Bible Hill, Nova Scotia after 1913, where his father taught at the Nova Scotia Agricultural College. Trueman attended high school in Truro, Nova Scotia and graduated from Mount Allison University in 1927, he finished his Master of Arts degree in English Literature at Exeter College, Oxford University in 1932. Truman taught high school teacher, became school superintendent in St. John, New Brunswick, he worked a university administrator, serving as President of the University of Manitoba between 1945 and 1948, President of the University of New Brunswick from 1948 until 1953. He was principal and dean of University College at the University of Western Ontario from 1965 until 1967, he was chancellor of the University of Western Ontario from 1967 until 1971.
He returned to academic life and had an extended term as visiting professor of English at Carleton University in Ottawa from 1967 to 1981. Truman acted as Government Film Commissioner and Chairman of the National Film Board of Canada from 1953 to 1957, as the first Director of the newly created Canada Council for the Arts and Social Sciences, serving from 1957 to 1965. In these positions, he made contributions to Canadian cultural policies by promoting the roles and influence of both agencies, he served on the Board of Governors of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Truman was given many honorary degrees, he was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada since 1964, was invested as an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1974. Trueman wrote and edited several books, including A Second View of Things: A Memoir in 1982, his son Peter Trueman, was a well-known television journalist. Trueman, A. W.. The Story of the United Empire Loyalists, Toronto, ON: Copp Clark Co. MacNutt, W. Stewart, edited by A. W.
Trueman. New Brunswick and Its People: The Biography of a Canadian Province, Fredericton, NB: New Brunswick Travel Bureau Trueman, A. W.. Canada's University of New Brunswick: Its History and Its Development, New York & Montreal: Newcomen Society in North America. Trueman, A. W. Canadian Editor, with Wright, E. H. and Wright, M. H.. Richards Topical Encyclopedia, New York, NY: Richards Company. Trueman, A. W. Davies, Berton, Pierre. C. Williams; the Arts as Communication, Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. Trueman, A. W.. The Canada Council and the Culture of the Country, Victoria, B. C.: University of Victoria Trueman, Albert. A Second View of Things: A Memoir, Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-8638-5 The Maritimes: Traditions and Transitions on-screen presenter and narrator "Albert William Trueman", The Canadian Encyclopedia Royal Society of Canada: Biographical Sketches of Deceased Fellows - includes Official Obituary of Albert W. Trueman Peter Trueman, "Albert William Trueman, 1902-1988", Ottawa, ON: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Canada, Seventh Series, Volume 1, 2002
A Queen's Counsel, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer, appointed by the monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is recognised as an honorific. The position exists in some Commonwealth jurisdictions around the world, but other Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it to eliminate monarchical connotations, such as "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court; as members wear silk gowns of a particular design, appointment as Queen's Counsel is known informally as taking silk, hence QCs are colloquially called silks. Appointments are made from within the legal profession on the basis of merit rather than a particular level of experience. However, successful applicants tend to be barristers, or advocates with 15 years of experience or more; the Attorney General, Solicitor-General and King's Serjeants were King's Counsel in Ordinary in the Kingdom of England.
The first Queen's Counsel Extraordinary was Sir Francis Bacon, given a patent giving him precedence at the Bar in 1597, formally styled King's Counsel in 1603. The new rank of King's Counsel contributed to the gradual obsolescence of the more senior serjeant-at-law by superseding it; the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General had succeeded the King's Serjeants as leaders of the Bar in Tudor times, though not technically senior until 1623 and 1813, respectively. But the King's Counsel emerged into eminence only in the early 1830s, prior to when they were few in number, it became the standard means to recognise a barrister as a senior member of the profession, the numbers multiplied accordingly. It became of greater professional importance to become a KC, the serjeants declined; the KCs inherited the prestige of their priority before the courts. The earliest English law list, published in 1775, lists 165 members of the Bar, of whom 14 were King's Counsel, a proportion of about 8.5%. As of 2010 the same proportion existed, though the number of barristers had increased to about 12,250 in independent practice.
In 1839 the number of Queen's Counsel was seventy. In 1882, the number of Queen's Counsel was 187; the list of Queen's Counsel in the Law List of 1897 gave the names of 238, of whom hardly one third appeared to be in actual practice. In 1959, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 181. In each of the five years up to 1970, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 208, 209, 221, 236 and 262, respectively. In each of the years 1973 to 1978, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 329, 345, 370, 372, 384 and 404, respectively. In 1989, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 601. In each of the years 1991 to 2000, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 736, 760, 797, 845, 891, 925, 974, 1006, 1043, 1072, respectively; the title traditionally depends on the sex of the sovereign. The current Queen, Elizabeth II has had a long reign, few if any people appointed as King's Counsel survive, it can be assumed that, should the Queen die and the reign pass to a descendant, holders of the title will again become KC, as the next three in line to the throne are male heirs.
Queen's Counsel and serjeants were prohibited, at least from the mid-nineteenth century onward, from drafting pleadings alone. They were not permitted to appear in court without a junior barrister, they had to have chambers in London. From the beginning, they were not allowed to appear against the Crown without a special licence, but this was given as a formality; this stipulation was important in criminal cases, which are brought in the name of the Crown. The result was that, until 1920 in England and Wales, King's and Queen's Counsel had to have a licence to appear in criminal cases for the defence; these restrictions had a number of consequences: they made the taking of "silk" something of a professional risk, because the appointment abolished at a stroke some of the staple work of the junior barrister. By the end of the twentieth century, all of these rules had been abolished one by one. Appointment as QC is now a matter of prestige only, with no formal disadvantages. Queen's Counsel were traditionally selected from barristers, rather than from lawyers in general, because they were counsel appointed to conduct court work on behalf of the Crown.
Although the limitations on private instruction were relaxed, QCs continued to be selected from barristers, who had the sole right of audience in the higher courts. The first woman appointed King's Counsel was Helen Kinnear in Canada in 1934; the first women to be appointed as King's Counsel in the United Kingdom were Helena Normanton and Rose Heilbron in 1949. In 1994 solicitors of England and Wales became entitled to gain rights of audience in the higher courts, some 275 were so entitled in 1995. In 1995, these solicitors alone became entitled to apply for appointment as Queen's Counsel, the first two solicitors were appointed on 27 March 1997, out of 68 new QCs; these were Arthur Marriott, partner of the London office of the American law firm of Wilmer Cutler and Pickering based in Washington, D. C. and Law
Elizabeth Parr-Johnston, CM is the Managing Partner of Parr-Johnston Consultants, an economic policy consultancy based in Chester Basin, Nova Scotia. Parr-Johnston is a past president of 2 Canadian Universities, a recipient of the 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal in 1992, the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal in 2002 and the Order of Canada in 2008. In 1962, after completing her Masters in Economics from Yale University, Parr-Johnston moved to Canada, she taught Economics at the University of Western Ontario, Huron College, the University of British Columbia and Carleton University. Parr-Johnston would relocate to the United States of America in 1971 to teach at her father’s alma mater, Wesleyan University before returning to Canada to join the federal civil service in various capacities over the next 5 years. In 1974, Parr-Johnston completed her doctoral work and earned her PhD in Economics from Yale University. Parr-Johnston accepted the position of Senior Policy Analyst and Director of Government Affairs at Inco in 1976 where she remained for 3 years.
She returned to the private sector in 1980, joining Shell Canada where she held numerous senior positions over her 10-year tenure. In 1979, Parr-Johnston won a political appointment as the Chief of Staff to Ron Atkey, the Canadian Minister of Employment and Immigration during the short-lived Conservative minority government. Among her many accomplishments at the Ministry, Parr-Johnston was involved in the secret extraction of six American Embassy workers who escaped to the safety of the Canadian Embassy in Tehran during the Iran hostage crisis. In 1991, Parr-Johnston was installed as the 8th President and Vice-Chancellor of Mount Saint Vincent University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, she served a full five-year term, leading Canada’s only university dedicated to the education of women. On June 16, 1995, coinciding with the 21st G7 summit taking place in Halifax, Parr-Johnston awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters to First Lady of the United States of America, Hillary Clinton, a fellow alumna of Wellesley College.
The mount has established an endowed scholarship in the name of Parr-Johnston. Parr-Johnston was installed as the 16th President of the University of New Brunswick in Fredericton, New Brunswick in 1996, she completed one full six-year term in office before retiring to Nova Scotia with her husband Archie. In 2004, Parr-Johnston returned to UNB and was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters for her contributions to the field of education. UNB named a student residence after Parr-Johnston Scotiabank Emera Incorporated Canadian Research Institute for Social Policy Millennium Scholarships W. L. Mackenzie King Memorial Scholarships FutureGenerations Canada Sustainable Development Technology Canada National Theater School Council of Canadian Academies Empire Company Limited Chester Golf Club FPI Limited On March 20, 2005, the Canadian Minister of Finance announced the appointment of Parr-Johnston to the Independent Panel for Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing; the purpose of the panel was to examine the existing system of federal transfer payments to the provinces and to recommend necessary changes to the process.
The final report was delivered to the Minister in May 2006 and was adopted in its entirety by the Prime Minister of Canada. On February 22, 2008, Parr-Johnston was installed by the Governor General of Canada as a Member of the Order of Canada, Canada’s highest civilian honour. Parr-Johnston was recognized for her lifetime contributions to the field of education; the Investiture Ceremony programme read as follows: For decades, Elizabeth Parr-Johnston has made important contributions to the educational and voluntary sectors in Canada. As president of two universities in Atlantic Canada, she was respected for creating increased opportunities for women, notably by mentoring female faculty and by making education more accessible to women, her expertise and wise counsel have been sought by public and community boards including those of the Canadian Millennium Scholarship Foundation, the Atlantic Institute for Market Studies and Symphony Nova Scotia. As head of her own consulting company, she continues to contribute to public policy development in Canada.
Grover Cleveland High School – Valedictorian, 1957 Wellesley College – B. A. Economics, 1961, Yale University – M. A. Economics, 1962 Yale University – PhD Economics, 1974 Harvard Business School – Advanced Management Program University of New Brunswick – D. Litt. 2004 Parr-Johnston is the oldest child of Jr. and Helene Parr. Her late father was the Senior Partner of Whitman & Ransom and former National President of the Chi Psi Fraternity, her brother, Dr. Grant V. S. Parr, is the former Chief of Cardiothoracic surgery at Atlantic Health, her sister, Sally Cerny was an Instructor of Psychology at Rutgers University. On March 9, 1982, at the Royal Canadian Military Institute in Toronto, Parr-Johnston married Archibald F. Johnston, former Vice President of General Electric. Between them, they have all from prior marriages. Archie died on January 23, 2010. Parr-Johnston resides in Chester Basin, Nova Scotia with her Norwegian Elkhound Magnus. Scotiabank Sustainable Development Technology Canada Millennium Scholarships LinkedIn.com Address to Couchiching Conference, 1993 Best Practices for Audit Committee Effectiveness – October 2006
For other persons named Edward Campbell, see Edward Campbell Eddy Campbell is a Canadian mathematician, university professor, university administrator. He serves as the president of the University of New Brunswick. H. E. A. Campbell earned two degrees in mathematics from Memorial University of Newfoundland, completed his doctorate at the University of Toronto, he did post-doctoral work at the University of Western Ontario. In 1983, he joined the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario rising to head of that department, his main research interest is the invariant theory of finite groups. Campbell served as Associate Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Science at Queen's, he served as president of the Canadian Mathematical Society from 2004 to 2006. Campbell returned to his original alma mater in May 2004, to become a Vice-president, Academic at Memorial. Upon the resignation of President Alex Meisen, he stepped into the role of president and vice-chancellor on January 1, 2008.
Campbell applied for the permanent position with wide support within the MUN community, was shortlisted by the Search Committee. However, in late July 2008, Minister of Education Joan Burke, not part of the selection process, stated after an interview with two shortlisted candidates that neither was acceptable to her; this was criticized as political interference in the autonomy of the University. Campbell withdrew his name from consideration, the Chair of Memorial's Board of Trustees, Gil Dalton withdrew as leader of the search committee in September 2008. Campbell remained in his position until September 2009, when he accepted the position of President of the University of New Brunswick. In January 2014, he took part in negotiations to end the first strike of academic staff in UNB's 225-plus years history, he approved compensation to UNB students. The labour dispute was resolved by arbitration
New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i