Richard J. Evans
Sir Richard John Evans, is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany. He is the author of eighteen books, including his three-volume The Third Reich Trilogy, hailed as "brilliant" and "magisterial." Evans was Regius Professor of History at the University of Cambridge from 2008 until his retirement in 2014, President of Cambridge's Wolfson College from 2010 to 2017. He has been Provost of Gresham College in London since 2014. Evans was appointed Knight Bachelor for services to scholarship in the 2012 Birthday Honours. Evans was born at Woodford, Essex, of Welsh parentage and was educated at Forest School, Jesus College, St Antony's College, Oxford. In a 2004 interview, he stated that frequent visits to Wales during his childhood inspired both an interest in history and a sense of "otherness", he said that one reason that he was drawn to the study modern German history in the late 1960s was his identification of parallels between the Vietnam War and German imperialism.
He admired the work of Fritz Fischer, whom he credits with inspiring him to study modern German history. Evans first established his academic reputation with his publications on the German Empire. In the early 1970s, Evans travelled to Germany to research his dissertation, a study of the feminist movement in Germany in the first half of the 20th century, it was published as The Feminist Movement In Germany, 1894–1933 in 1976. Evans followed his study of German feminism by another book, The Feminists, which traced the history of the feminist movement in North America and Europe from 1840 to 1920. A theme of both books was the weakness of German middle-class culture and its susceptibility to the appeal of nationalism. Evans argued that both liberalism and feminism failed in Germany for those reasons despite flourishing elsewhere in the Western world. Evans' main interest is social history, he is much influenced by the Annales school, he agrees with Fischer that 19th-century German social development paved the way for the rise of Nazi Germany, but Evans takes pains to point out that many other possibilities could have happened.
For Evans, the values of the 19th-century German middle class contained the germinating seeds of National Socialism. Evans studied under Fischer in Hamburg in 1970 and 1971 but came to disagree with the "Bielefeld School" of historians, who argued for the Sonderweg thesis that saw the roots of Germany’s political development in the first half of the 20th century in a "failed bourgeois revolution" in 1848. Following a contemporary trend that opposed the previous "great man" theory of history, Evans was a member of a group of young British historians who in the 1970s sought to examine German history during the German Empire "from below"; these scholars highlighted "the importance of the grass-roots of politics and the everyday life and experience of ordinary people". "History is about people, their relationships. It’s about the perennial question of ‘how much free will do people have in building their own lives, making a future," Evans has said, he says he supported the creation of a "new school of people's history", a result of a trend that "has taken place across a whole range of historical subjects, political opinions, methodological approaches and has been expressed in many different ways".
In 1978, as editor of a collection of essays by young British historians entitled Society And Politics In Wilhelmine Germany, he launched a critique of the ‘top-down’ approach of the Bielefeld School associated with Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Jürgen Kocka in regards to the Wilhelmine Germany. With the historians Geoff Eley and David Blackbourn, Evans instead emphasized the "self-mobilization from below" of key sociopolitical groups, as well as the modernity of National Socialism. In the 1980s, Evans organized ten international workshops on modern German social history at the University of East Anglia that did a good deal to refine these ideas, to pioneer research in this new historical field and, in six collections of papers, present it to an Anglophone readership. Among Evans' major research works are Death in Hamburg, a study of class conflict and liberal government in 19th-century Germany using the example of Hamburg’s cholera epidemics and applying statistical methods to the exploration of social inequality in an industrializing society, Rituals of Retribution, a study of capital punishment in German history applying structural anthropological concepts to the rituals of public execution up to the mid-19th century and exploring the politics of the death penalty until its abolition by East Germany in 1987.
In Death in Hamburg, Evans studied the cholera outbreak in Hamburg in 1892, which he concluded was caused by a failure in the medical system to safeguard against such an event. Another study in German social history was Tales from the German Underworld, where Evans traced the life stories of four German criminals in the late 19th century, namely a homeless woman, a forger, a prostitute and a conman. In Rituals of Retribution, Evans traced the history of capital punishment in Germany, using the ideas of Michel Foucault, Philippe Ariès and Norbert Elias as his guide argued that opposition to the death penalty was strongest when liberalism was in the ascendancy, support for capital punishment coincided when the right was in the ascendancy. Thus, in Evans' view, capital punishment in Germany was never a mere matter of law being disinterestedly applied but was rather a form of state power being exercised. In addition, Evans examined such subjects as belief in witchcraft, the last words of the executed, the psychology of mobs, varying forms of execution from the Thirty Years War to the 198
Donald Cameron Watt
Donald Cameron Watt was a British historian. Donald Cameron Watt was a chorister in the Choir of King's College and was educated at Rugby School, he read Philosophy and Economics at Oriel College, graduating from Oxford University with a bachelor's degree in 1951. Watt served as a Professor of International History at the London School of Economics, where he served as the Head of the Department and Stevenson Chair of International History from 1981 to 1993. Watt edited Survey of International Affairs at Chatham House from 1962 to 1971, he was the co-author of 25 books. He won the Wolfson History Prize in 1990. Watt was married twice, he first married Marianne Grau in 1951, they had a son. After she died in 1962, he married Felicia Stanley, she predeceased him in 1997. Watt died on 30 October 2014, he was 86 years old. Watt, Donald Cameron. Documents on the Suez Crisis, 26 July to 6 November 1956. London, U. K.: Royal Institute of International Affairs. OCLC 818220. Mayall, James. Documents on International Affairs, 1963.
London, U. K.: Oxford University Press. OCLC 1331464. Watt, Donald Cameron. Personalities and Policies: Studies in the Formulation of British Foreign Policy in the Twentieth Century. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. OCLC 404671. Watt, Donald Cameron. Britain Looks to Germany: British Opinion and Policy Towards Germany Since 1945. London, U. K.: O. Wolff. OCLC 358292. Brown, Neville. A History of the World in the Twentieth Century. New York: Scott Foresman. OCLC 6536389. Watt, Donald Cameron. Contemporary History in Europe: Problems and Perspectives. New York: Praeger. OCLC 11705. Mayall, James. Current British Foreign Policy: Documents, Speeches, 1971. London, U. K.: Temple Smith. ISBN 9780851170411. OCLC 55644303. Watt, Donald Cameron. Too Serious a Business: European Armed Forces and the Approach to the Second World War. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520028296. OCLC 1370478. Watt, Donald Cameron. Succeeding John Bull: America in Britain's Place, 1900-1975: A Study of the Anglo-American Relationship and World Politics in the Context of British and American Foreign Policy-Making in the Twentieth Century.
Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521250221. OCLC 9686557. Watts, Donald Cameron. How War Came: The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938-1939. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 9780394579160. OCLC 19921655
Sir Antony James Beevor, is an English military historian. He has published the 20th century in general. Born in Kensington, Beevor was educated at two independent schools, he went to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, where he studied under the military historian John Keegan, before receiving a commission in the 11th Hussars on 28 July 1967. Beevor served in England and Germany and was promoted to lieutenant on 28 January 1969 before resigning his commission on 5 August 1970. Beevor has been a visiting professor at the School of History and Archaeology at Birkbeck, University of London and at the University of Kent, he revised his 1982 The Spanish Civil War in 2006 as The Battle for Spain, which keeps the structure and some language from its predecessor, but uses the updated narrative and detailed style of his Stalingrad book. The reworked release adds characters and archival research from Russia, he is descended from a long line of writers, being a son of "Kinta" Beevor, the daughter of Lina Waterfield, an author and foreign correspondent for The Observer and a descendant of Lucie Duff-Gordon.
Kinta Beevor wrote A Tuscan Childhood. Antony Beevor is married to biographer Artemis Cooper, his best-known works, the best-selling Stalingrad and Berlin - The Downfall 1945, recount the World War II battles between the Soviet Union and Germany. They have been praised for their vivid, compelling style, their treatment of the ordinary lives of combatants and civilians and the use of newly disclosed documents from Soviet archives, his 2012 book The Second World War is noted for its focus on the conditions and grief faced by civilians and women and for its "masterful" coverage of the war in East Asia. Beevor's expertise has been the subject of some commentary, he has appeared as an expert in documentaries related to World War II. Overall, his works have been translated into over 30 languages with over 6 million copies sold. In August 2015, Russia's Yekaterinburg region considered the banning of Beevor's books, accusing him of Nazi sympathies citing his lack of Russian sources when writing about Russia, promoting false stereotypes introduced by Nazi Germany during World War II.
Beevor responded by calling the banning "a government trying to impose its own version of history" like other "attempts to dictate a truth" such as the denial of the Holocaust and the Armenian Genocide. In January 2018, Beevors's book about the Battle of Stalingrad was banned in Ukraine. Beevor told RFE/RL: "I must say, this sounds astonishing. There's nothing inherently anti-Ukrainian in the book at all." Beevor was appointed a Knight Bachelor in the 2017 New Year Honours for "services in support of Armed Forces Professional Development". Beevor is a Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, a member of Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana and a commander of the Order of the Crown. Beevor was elected an honorary Fellow of King's College London in July 2016, he was awarded an Honorary D. Litt. From the University of Bath in 2010, an honorary doctorate from the University of Kent, awarded in 2004, his book Crete: The Battle and the Resistance for which he won the Runciman Prize, administered by the Anglo-Hellenic League for stimulating interest in Greek history and culture.
Beevor has been recognized with the 2014 Pritzker Military Museum & Library's Literature Award for Lifetime Achievement in Military Writing. Tim O'Brien, the 2013 recipient, made the announcement on behalf of the selection committee; the award carried a purse of $US 100,000. In July 2016, he was awarded the Medlicott Medal for services to history by the UK based Historical Association. Beevor sits on the Council of the Society of Authors. Crete: The Battle and the Resistance Runciman Prize Stalingrad Samuel Johnson Prize for Non-Fiction Wolfson History Prize Hawthornden Prize for Literature Berlin:The Downfall 1945 Longman-History Today Trustees' Award The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-39 La Vanguardia Prize for Non-Fiction He has written thirteen books and non-fiction. Antony Beevor has edited books, including: A Writer at War: Vasily Grossman with the Red Army 1941–1945 by Vasily Grossman. ISBN 9780375424076He has contributed to several other books, including: The British Army and Society into the Twenty-First Century, ed by Hew Strachan What Ifs? of American History: Eminent Historians Imagine What Might Have Been, by Robert Cowley, Antony Beevor and Caleb Carr.
Official website Antony Beevor Stalingrad Berlin - The Downfall 1945 Antony Beevor discusses his book on the Spanish Civil War Antony Beevor on IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN Interview on The Second World War at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library on 21 June 2012 Sir Antony Beevor on Desert Island Discs, BBC Radio 4, 19 February 2017
Lady Antonia Margaret Caroline Fraser, is a British author of history, novels and detective fiction. She is the widow of the 2005 Nobel Laureate in Literature, Harold Pinter, prior to his death was known as Lady Antonia Pinter. Fraser is the first-born of the eight children of Frank Pakenham, 7th Earl of Longford, his wife, Elizabeth Pakenham, Countess of Longford, née Elizabeth Harman; as the daughter of an earl, she is accorded the courtesy title "Lady" and thus customarily addressed formally as "Lady Antonia". As a teenager and her siblings converted to Catholicism, following the conversions of their parents, her "maternal grandparents were Unitarians – a non-conformist faith with a strong emphasis on social reform...". In response to criticism of her writing about Oliver Cromwell, she has said, "I have no Catholic blood". Before his own conversion in his thirties following a nervous breakdown in the Army, as she explains, "My father was Protestant Church of Ireland, my mother was Unitarian up to the age of 20 when she abandoned it."She was educated at the Dragon School in Oxford, St Mary's School and Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.
She began work as an "all-purpose assistant" for George Weidenfeld at Weidenfeld & Nicolson, which became her own publisher and part of Orion Publishing Group, which publishes her works in the UK. Her first major work, published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, was Mary, Queen of Scots, followed by several other biographies, including Cromwell, Our Chief of Men, she won the Wolfson History Award in 1984 for The Weaker Vessel, a study of women's lives in 17th century England. From 1988 to 1989, she was president of English PEN, she chaired its Writers in Prison Committee, she has written detective novels. From 1983–84, she was president of Edinburgh's Sir Walter Scott Club. More Fraser published The Warrior Queens, the story of various military royal women since the days of Boadicea and Cleopatra. In 1992, a year after Alison Weir's book The Six Wives of Henry VIII, she published a book with the same title, she chronicled the life and times of Charles II in a well-reviewed 1979 eponymous biography. The book was cited as an influence on the 2003 BBC/A&E mini-series, Charles II: The Power & the Passion, in a featurette on the DVD, by Rufus Sewell who played the title character.
Fraser served as editor for many monarchical biographies, including those featured in the Kings and Queens of England and Royal History of England series, and, in 1996, she published a book entitled The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith in 1605, which won both the St. Louis Literary Award and the Crime Writers' Association Non-Fiction Gold Dagger. Two of the most recent of her thirteen non-fiction books are Marie Antoinette: The Journey, made into the film Marie Antoinette, directed by Sofia Coppola, with Kirsten Dunst in the title role, Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King, she was a contestant on the BBC Radio 4 panel game My Word! from 1979 to 1990. She serves as a judge for the Enid McLeod Literary Prize, awarded by the Franco-British Society winning that prize for her biography Marie Antoinette. Fraser's memoir Must You Go? My Life with Harold Pinter was published in January 2010 and she read a shortened version as BBC Radio Four's Book of the Week that month. At the Cheltenham Literary Festival on 17 October 2010, Lady Antonia announced that her next work would be on the subject of the Great Reform Bill 1832.
She is no longer planning a biography of Queen Elizabeth I, as this subject has been extensively covered. Fraser acknowledges. I don't think I could have written a history of political thought or anything like that. I'd have to come at it another way.'" From 1956 until their divorce in 1977, she was married to Sir Hugh Fraser, a descendant of Scottish aristocracy 14 years her senior and a Roman Catholic Conservative Unionist MP in the House of Commons, a friend of the American Kennedy family. They had six children: three sons, Benjamin and Orlando. All three daughters are biographers. Benjamin Fraser works for JPMorgan, Damian Fraser is the managing director of the investment banking firm UBS AG in Mexico, Orlando Fraser is a barrister specializing in commercial law. Antonia Fraser has 18 grandchildren. On 22 October 1975, Hugh and Antonia Fraser, together with Caroline Kennedy, visiting them at their Holland Park home, in Kensington, west London, were blown up by an IRA car bomb placed under the wheels of his Jaguar, triggered to go off at 9 am when he left the house.
Fairley, a neighbour of the Frasers, had been walking his dog, when he noticed something amiss and stopped to examine the bomb. In 1975, she began an affair with playwright Harold Pinter, married to the actress Vivien Merchant. In 1977, after she had been living with Pinter for two years, the Frasers' union was dissolved. Merchant spoke about her distress publicly to the press, which quoted her cutting remarks about her rival, but she resisted divorcing Pinter. In 1980, after Merchant signed divorce papers and Pinter married. After the death
M. R. D. Foot
Michael Richard Daniell Foot, known as M. R. D. Foot, was a British military historian and former British Army intelligence officer and special operations operative during the Second World War; the son of a career soldier, Foot was educated at Winchester College and New College, where he became involved romantically with Iris Murdoch. Foot joined the British Army on the outbreak of the Second World War and was commissioned into a Royal Engineers searchlight battalion. In 1941 searchlight units transferred to the Royal Artillery. By 1942, he was serving at Combined Operations Headquarters, but wanting to see action he joined the SAS as an intelligence officer and was parachuted into France after D-Day, he was for a time a prisoner of war, was injured during one of his attempts to escape. For his service with the French Resistance he was twice mentioned in despatches and awarded the Croix de Guerre, he ended the war as a major. After the war he remained in the Territorial Army, transferring to the Intelligence Corps in 1950.
After the war Foot taught at Oxford University for eight years before becoming Professor of Modern History at Manchester University. His experiences during the war gave him a lifelong interest in the European resistance movements, intelligence matters and the experiences of prisoners of war; this led him to become the official historian of SOE, with privileged access to its records, allowing him to write some of the first, still definitive, accounts of its wartime work in France. So, SOE in France took four years to get clearance. Foot was distantly related to his namesake Michael Foot, he was at one time married to the British philosopher Philippa Foot, the granddaughter of U. S. President Grover Cleveland. Foot's second wife was Elizabeth King, with whom he had a son and a daughter, the historian Sarah Foot. In 1972 Foot married Mirjam Romme, who under her married name would become a distinguished historian of bookbinding. Foot was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2001.
He received the Territorial Decoration for Long Service in the Territorial Army. Books and monographs "Great Britain and Luxemburg 1867" Gladstone and Liberalism with J. L. Hammond British Foreign Policy since 1898 Men in Uniform: Military Manpower in Modern Industrial Societies SOE in France. An Account of the Work of the British Special Operations Executive in France 1940–1944 The Gladstone Diaries editor War and Society: Historical Essays in Honour and Memory of J. R. Western 1926–1971 editor Resistance – An Analysis of European Resistance to Nazism 1940–1945 Six Faces of Courage MI9: Escape and Evasion 1939–1945 with J. M. Langley Little Resistance: Teenage English Girl's Adventures in Occupied France with Antonia Hunt, née Lyon-Smith SOE, The Special Operations Executive 1940–1946 Art and War: Twentieth Century Warfare as Depicted By War Artists Open and Secret War, 1938-1945 Oxford Companion to World War II with I. C. B. Dear Foreign Fields: The Story of an SOE Operative SOE in the Low Countries Secret Lives: Lifting the Lid on Worlds of Secret Intelligence editor The Next Moon: The Remarkable True Story of a British Agent Behind the Lines in Wartime France with Ewen Southby-Tailyour and André Hue Clandestine Sea Operations in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Adriatic 1940–1944 with Richard Brooks, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-203-64164-7Further readingMemories of an SOE Historian Book reviews Nicholas Rankin.
Churchill's Wizards. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22195-0. - reviewed in The Spectator 308/9397: 44 Thaddeus Holt. The Deceivers. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84804-6.. Reviewed in English Historical Review, V120: 1103–04 M. R. D. Foot at Spartacus Educational M. R. D. Foot on IMDb
Alan Louis Charles Bullock, Baron Bullock, was a British historian. He is best known for his book Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, the first comprehensive biography of Adolf Hitler and influenced many other major biographies of Hitler. Bullock was born in Trowbridge in Wiltshire, England where his father worked as a gardener and a Unitarian preacher, he was educated at Bradford Grammar School and Wadham College, Oxford where he read classics and modern history. After graduating in 1938, he worked as a research assistant for Winston Churchill, writing his History of the English-Speaking Peoples. During World War II, Bullock worked for the European Service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. After the war, he returned to Oxford as a history fellow at New College, he was the censor of St Catherine's Society and founding master of St Catherine's College, Oxford, a college for undergraduates and graduates, divided between students of the sciences and the arts. He was credited with massive fundraising efforts to develop the college.
He was the first full-time Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University. In 1952, Bullock published Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, the first comprehensive biography of Adolf Hitler, which he based on the transcripts of the Nuremberg Trials; this book dominated Hitler scholarship for many years. The book characterised Hitler as an opportunistic Machtpolitiker. In Bullock's opinion, Hitler was a "mountebank", an opportunistic adventurer devoid of principles, beliefs or scruples whose actions throughout his career were motivated only by a lust for power. Bullock's views led in the 1950s to a debate with Hugh Trevor-Roper who argued that Hitler did possess beliefs, albeit repulsive ones, that his actions were motivated by them. Bullock's Guardian obituary commented that "Bullock's famous maxim'Hitler was jobbed into power by backstairs intrigue' has stood the test of time."When reviewing Hitler: A Study in Tyranny in The Times in 1991, John Campbell wrote "Although written so soon after the end of the war and despite a steady flow of fresh evidence and reinterpretation, it has not been surpassed in nearly 40 years: an astonishing achievement."Later, Bullock to some extent changed his mind about Hitler.
His works show the dictator as much more of an ideologue, who pursued the ideas expressed in Mein Kampf despite their consequences. This has become a accepted view of Hitler in relation to the Holocaust. Taking note of the shift in interest among professional historians towards social history in the 1960s, Bullock agreed that in general, deep long-term social forces are decisive in history, but not always, he argued, For there are times when the Great Man is decisive. In revolutionary circumstances, "It is possible for an individual to exert a powerful a decisive influence on the way events develop and the policies that are followed." Bullock's other works included The Humanist Tradition in the West, The Life and Times of Ernest Bevin, a three-volume biography of British Labour Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin. He was editor of The Harper Dictionary of Modern Thought, a project he suggested to the publisher when he found he could not define the word "hermeneutics", he had earlier co-edited with Maurice Shock a collection on The Liberal Tradition: From Fox to Keynes.
In the mid-1970s, Bullock used his committee skills to produce a report which proved to be influential in the classroom: A Language for Life, about reading and the teaching of English, was published in 1975. Bullock appeared as a political pundit during the BBC's coverage of the 1959 British general election. Late in his life, Bullock published Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives, a massive work which he described in the introduction as "essentially a political biography, set against the background of the times in which they lived", he showed how the careers of Joseph Stalin fed off each other to some extent. Bullock comes to a thesis that Stalin's ability to consolidate power in his home country and, unlike Hitler, not to over-extend himself enabled him to retain power longer than Hitler.. It was awarded the 1992 Wolfson History Prize. American historian Ronald Spector, writing in The Washington Post, praised Bullock's ability to write about the development of Nazism and Soviet Communism without either abstract generalization or irrelevant detail.
"The writing is invariably interesting and informed and there are new insights and cogent analysis in every chapter," he wrote. Bullock was decorated with the award of the Chevalier, Legion of Honour in 1970, knighted in 1972, becoming Sir Alan Bullock and in 1976 he was made a life peer as Baron Bullock, of Leafield in the County of Oxfordshire, his writings always appeared under the name "Alan Bullock". In May 1976, Bullock was awarded an honorary degree from the Open University as Doctor of the University. Historiography of Adolf Hitler List of Adolf Hitler books William L. Shirer Louis Leo Snyder Rosenbaum, Explaining Hitler: the search for the origins of his evil, New York: Random House, 1998. ISBN 0-679-43151-9
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography. In the United Nations Statistics Division scheme of geographic regions, 20 territories make up Eastern Africa: Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan are members of the East African Community; the first five are included in the African Great Lakes region. Burundi and Rwanda are at times considered to be part of Central Africa. Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia – collectively known as the Horn of Africa; the area is the easternmost projection of the African continent, is sometimes considered a separate region from East Africa. Comoros and Seychelles – small island nations in the Indian Ocean. Réunion and Mayotte – French overseas territories in the Indian Ocean. Mozambique and Madagascar – considered part of Southern Africa, on the eastern side of the sub-continent. Madagascar has close cultural ties to the islands of the Indian Ocean. Malawi and Zimbabwe – also included in Southern Africa, constituted the Central African Federation.
Sudan and South Sudan – collectively part of the Nile Valley. Situated in the northeastern portion of the continent, the Sudans are included in Northern Africa. Members of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa free trade area. Due to colonial territories of the British East Africa Protectorate and German East Africa, the term East Africa is used to refer to the area now comprising the three countries of Kenya and Uganda. However, this has never been the convention in many other languages, where the term had a wider geographic context and therefore included Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia; some parts of East Africa have been renowned for their concentrations of wild animals, such as the "big five": the elephant, lion, black rhinoceros, leopard, though populations have been declining under increased stress in recent times those of the rhino and elephant. The geography of East Africa is stunning and scenic. Shaped by global plate tectonic forces that have created the East African Rift, East Africa is the site of Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya, the two tallest peaks in Africa.
It includes the world's second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria, the world's second deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika. The climate of East Africa is rather atypical of equatorial regions; because of a combination of the region's high altitude and the rain shadow of the westerly monsoon winds created by the Rwenzori Mountains and Ethiopian Highlands, East Africa is cool and dry for its latitude. In fact, on the coast of Somalia, many years can go by without any rain whatsoever. Elsewhere the annual rainfall increases towards the south and with altitude, being around 400 mm at Mogadishu and 1,200 mm at Mombasa on the coast, whilst inland it increases from around 130 mm at Garoowe to over 1,100 mm at Moshi near Kilimanjaro. Unusually, most of the rain falls in two distinct wet seasons, one centred on April and the other in October or November; this is attributed to the passage of the Intertropical Convergence Zone across the region in those months, but it may be analogous to the autumn monsoon rains of parts of Sri Lanka and the Brazilian Nordeste.
West of the Rwenzoris and Ethiopian highlands, the rainfall pattern is more tropical, with rain throughout the year near the equator and a single wet season in most of the Ethiopian Highlands from June to September – contracting to July and August around Asmara. Annual rainfall here ranges from over 1,600 mm on the western slopes to around 1,250 mm at Addis Ababa and 550 mm at Asmara. In the high mountains rainfall can be over 2,500 mm. Rainfall in East Africa is influenced by El Niño events, which tend to increase rainfall except in the northern and western parts of the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands, where they produce drought and poor Nile floods. Temperatures in East Africa, except on the hot and humid coastal belt, are moderate, with maxima of around 25 °C and minima of 15 °C at an altitude of 1,500 metres. At altitudes of above 2,500 metres, frosts are common during the dry season and maxima about 21 °C or less; the unique geography and apparent suitability for farming made East Africa a target for European exploration and colonialization in the nineteenth century.
Today, tourism is an important part of the economies of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The easternmost point of the continent, Ras Hafun in Somalia, is of archaeological and economical importance. According to the theory of the recent African origin of modern humans, the predominantly held belief among most archaeologists, East Africa is the area where anatomically modern humans first appeared. There are differing theories on whether there was several. A growing number of researchers suspect that North Africa was instead the original home of the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent; the major competing hypothesis is the multiregional origin of modern humans, which envisions a wave of Homo sapiens migrating earlier from Africa and interbreeding with local Homo erectus populations in multiple regions of the globe. Most multiregionalists still view Africa as a major wellspring of human genetic diversity, but allow a much greater role for hybridization. Some