Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
RTÉ Concert Orchestra
The RTÉ Concert Orchestra is one of the two full-time professional orchestras in Ireland that are part of RTÉ, the national broadcasting station. Since its formation as the Radio Éireann Light Orchestra in 1948, the RTÉ Concert Orchestra, has grown from a small studio-based recording group to become an active 45-strong orchestra performing over eighty concerts annually, it is part of RTÉ Performing Groups. The orchestra performs classical and big band evening and lunchtime concerts, covering a range of music from baroque to contemporary; the period from 2003-2006 saw a particular emphasis on the classical repertoire under the orchestra's principal conductor Laurent Wagner. In this period the orchestra programmed classical-themed concerts compared to the "lighter" side that dominated under its previous principal conductor Proinnsias O’Duinn from 1978 to 2003, leading to collaboration with comperes such as Des Keogh, presenter of the popular radio programme Music for Middlebrows. 2007 saw the beginning of a classical series featuring incumbent principal conductor David Brophy, Robert Houlihan with the best of Irish soloists at the Royal Dublin Society Concert Hall.
2014-2015 saw a return to classical repertoire with a particular emphasis on English composers such as Elgar and Vaughan Williams, UK and international soloists under principal conductor John Wilson. The orchestra has recorded for the Naxos and Marco Polo labels, more with Universal and Decca, it has performed many concerts with Irish choirs including the RTÉ Philharmonic Choir, The National Chamber Choir, the Galway Baroque Choir, the Tallaght Choral Society, the Culwick Choral Society, Dun Laoighre Choral Society and has had a tradition of performing Handel's'Messiah' with Our Lady's Choral Society, including in its first performance in the Vatican in 2009. In July 2017 at the Galway International Arts Festival, the orchestra with soloist Clare Hammond, gave the World Premiere of Argentinian double Grammy winning composer Claudia Montero´s Piano Concerto “Blanco y Negro” conducted by David Brophy, followed by a second performance at the National Concert Hall in Dublin. In addition to regular operatic gala concert performances with noted Irish international artists like Ailish Tynan, Cara O'Sullivan, Orla Boylan, Mary Hegarty, Regina Nathan, Majella Cullagh and Virginia Kerr, the orchestra has worked with visiting artists including Denis O'Neill, Plácido Domingo, Luciano Pavarotti, José Carreras and Dame Kiri te Kanawa.
From 1993 to 2008 it played for all Opera Ireland productions where it performed four full productions per year over the spring and winter opera seasons. Well known operas by the Italian masters and others were performed along with more modern works such as Dead Man Walking by Jake Heggie, Previn’s A Streetcar Named Desire, it has recorded Irish composer’s William Vincent Wallace’s ‘Maritana’ for Marco Polo label, in 2008 performed Balfe’s ‘Falstaff’, another Irish opera not performed since 1838. This historic performance was released in 2008 on CD as a live recording; the orchestra's primary educational initiative is the'Music in the Classroom' series and devised by Gearóid Grant. The orchestra performs about 24 of these concerts per year, with audience numbers at about one thousand primary school children per concert. While a regular feature since the earlier days of the orchestra, with the expansion of the orchestra in the 1960s and players like Benny McNeill, Davy Martin, John Tate and Harry Knowles, the orchestra has been a leading performer of jazz and big band repertoire.
Arrangements by John Tate and Noel Kelehan defined the style of the orchestra and this tradition has continued with its current membership and arranging team as well as conductors. Visiting conductors like Bobby Lamb, Brian Byrne and John Wilson helped develop the orchestra's repertoire and style. Lamb worked with the orchestra from the 1980s, bringing with him well known soloists, playing many of his own arrangements and compositions. Wilson works to recreate the arrangements and playing style of the golden Hollywood era of the 1940s to 1960s. In 2009 John Wilson was appointed principal guest conductor of the orchestra, succeeded David Brophy as Principal Conductor of the orchestra in 2014, holding this position until 2016; the RTÉ Concert Orchestra has always played an active role in bringing popular music into an orchestral setting. Through the 1970s, 80s and 1990s it performed for the Irish National Song Contest, played for the Eurovision song contest in 1971, 1981, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1997.
As part of the 1994 Eurovision the orchestra performed Riverdance as the interval act, premiering a work, to go on to make enormous worldwide impact. Conductor Gareth Hudson worked extensively with the orchestra on TV shows, musical theatre productions and continues to make his mark in this area; the orchestra has brought many international and Irish artists to the Irish public through its "Signature Series". Principal conductor David Brophy has worked on many of these concerts showing his ability to cover a broad range of styles including elements of pop, new age, contemporary songwriters etc; the RTÉ Concert Orchestra combined with the Mooney radio programme and the RTÉ radio audience to create a concert series running to 11 concerts finishing in 2014, Mooney Tunes from the Grand Canal Theatre and the National Concert Hall.. 2016 saw the first of a series of'dance music' performances at venues like the Electric Picnic, the Three Arena Dublin with 2fm DJ Jenny Greene and Gemma Sugrue vocals.
RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra RTÉ Philharmonic Choir RTÉ Cór na nÓg RTÉ Vanbrugh Quartet Irish Times education page RTÉ concert orchestra recordings on Naxos and Marco Po
John Henry Newman
John Henry Newman, was a theologian and poet, first an Anglican priest and a Catholic priest and cardinal, an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century. He was known nationally by the mid-1830s. An evangelical Oxford University academic and priest in the Church of England, Newman became drawn to the high-church tradition of Anglicanism, he became known as a leader of, an able polemicist for the Oxford Movement, an influential and controversial grouping of Anglicans who wished to return to the Church of England many Catholic beliefs and liturgical rituals from before the English Reformation. In this the movement had some success. In 1845 Newman, joined by some but not all of his followers left the Church of England and his teaching post at Oxford University and was received into the Catholic Church, he was ordained as a priest and continued as an influential religious leader, based in Birmingham. In 1879, he was created a cardinal by Pope Leo XIII in recognition of his services to the cause of the Catholic Church in England.
He was instrumental in the founding of the Catholic University of Ireland which evolved into University College Dublin, today the largest university in Ireland. Newman was a literary figure of note: his major writings including the Tracts for the Times, his autobiography Apologia Pro Vita Sua, the Grammar of Assent, the poem The Dream of Gerontius, set to music in 1900 by Edward Elgar, he wrote the popular hymns "Lead, Kindly Light" and "Praise to the Holiest in the Height". Newman's beatification was proclaimed by Pope Benedict XVI on 19 September 2010 during his visit to the United Kingdom, his canonisation was approved by Pope Francis on February 12, 2019, is expected to take place this year. Newman was born on 21 February 1801 in the City of London, the eldest of a family of three sons and three daughters, his father, John Newman, was a banker with Ramsbottom and Company in Lombard Street. His mother, was descended from a notable family of Huguenot refugees in England, founded by the engraver and stationer Paul Fourdrinier.
Francis William Newman was a younger brother. His eldest sister, Harriet Elizabeth, married Thomas Mozley prominent in the Oxford Movement; the family lived in Southampton Street in Bloomsbury and bought a country retreat in Ham, near Richmond, in the early 1800s. At the age of seven Newman was sent to Great Ealing School conducted by George Nicholas. There George Huxley, father of Thomas Henry Huxley, taught mathematics, the classics teacher was Walter Mayers. Newman took no part in the casual school games, he was a great reader of the novels of Walter Scott in course of publication, of Robert Southey. Aged 14, he read sceptical works by Thomas Paine, David Hume and Voltaire. At the age of 15, during his last year at school, Newman was converted, an incident of which he wrote in his Apologia that it was "more certain than that I have hands or feet". At the same time the bank Ramsbottom, Newman and Co. crashed, though it paid its creditors and his father left to manage a brewery. Mayers, who had himself undergone a conversion in 1814, lent Newman books from the English Calvinist tradition.
It was in the autumn of 1816 that Newman "fell under the influence of a definite creed" and received into his intellect "impressions of dogma, through God's mercy, have never been effaced or obscured". He became an evangelical Calvinist and held the typical belief that the Pope was the antichrist under the influence of the writings of Thomas Newton, as well as his reading of Joseph Milner's History of the Church of Christ. Mayers is described as a moderate, Clapham Sect Calvinist, Newman read William Law as well as William Beveridge in devotional literature, he read The Force of Truth by Thomas Scott. Although to the end of his life Newman looked back on his conversion to evangelical Christianity in 1816 as the saving of his soul, he shifted away from his early Calvinism; as Eamon Duffy puts it, "He came to see Evangelicalism, with its emphasis on religious feeling and on the Reformation doctrine of justification by faith alone, as a Trojan horse for an undogmatic religious individualism that ignored the Church's role in the transmission of revealed truth, that must lead inexorably to subjectivism and skepticism."
Newman's name was entered at Lincoln's Inn. He was, sent shortly to Trinity College, where he studied widely. However, his anxiety to do well in the final schools produced the opposite result. Desiring to remain in Oxford, Newman took private pupils and read for a fellowship at Oriel "the acknowledged centre of Oxford intellectualism." He was elected at Oriel on 12 April 1822. Edward Bouverie Pusey was elected a fellow of the same college in 1823. On 13 June 1824, Newman was made an Anglican deacon in Oxford. Ten days he preached his first sermon in Holy Trinity at Over Worton, near Banbury, when on a visit to his former teacher the Reverend Walter Mayers, curate there since 1823. On Trinity Sunday, 29 May 1825, he was ordained a priest in Christ Church Cathedral by the Bishop of Oxford, Edward Legge, he became, at curate of St Clement's Church, Oxford. Here, for two years, he was engaged in parochial work, wrote articles on Apollonius of Tyana
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, masque, cantata or musical. The term libretto is sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet. Libretto, from Italian, is the diminutive of the word libro. Sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot; some ballet historians use the word libretto to refer to the 15–40 page books which were on sale to 19th century ballet audiences in Paris and contained a detailed description of the ballet's story, scene by scene. The relationship of the librettist to the composer in the creation of a musical work has varied over the centuries, as have the sources and the writing techniques employed.
In the context of a modern English language musical theatre piece, the libretto is referred to as the book of the work, though this usage excludes sung lyrics. Libretti for operas and cantatas in the 17th and 18th centuries were written by someone other than the composer a well-known poet. Pietro Trapassi, known asMetastasio was one of the most regarded librettists in Europe, his libretti were set many times by many different composers. Another noted, he who wrote the libretti for three of Mozart's greatest operas, for many other composers as well. Eugène Scribe was one of the most prolific librettists of the 19th century, providing the words for works by Meyerbeer, Bellini, Donizetti and Verdi; the French writers' duo Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy wrote a large number of opera and operetta libretti for the likes of Jacques Offenbach, Jules Massenet and Georges Bizet. Arrigo Boito, who wrote libretti for, among others, Giuseppe Verdi and Amilcare Ponchielli composed two operas of his own; the libretto is not always written before the music.
Some composers, such as Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Serov, Rimsky-Korsakov and Mascagni wrote passages of music without text and subsequently had the librettist add words to the vocal melody lines. Some composers wrote their own libretti. Richard Wagner is most famous in this regard, with his transformations of Germanic legends and events into epic subjects for his operas and music dramas. Hector Berlioz, wrote the libretti for two of his best-known works, La Damnation de Faust and Les Troyens. Alban Berg adapted Georg Büchner's play Woyzeck for the libretto of Wozzeck. Sometimes the libretto is written in close collaboration with the composer. In the case of musicals, the music, the lyrics and the "book" may each have their own author. Thus, a musical such as Fiddler on the Roof has a composer, a lyricist and the writer of the "book". In rare cases, the composer writes everything except the dance arrangements – music and libretto, as Lionel Bart did for Oliver!. Other matters in the process of developing a libretto parallel those of spoken dramas for stage or screen.
There are the preliminary steps of selecting or suggesting a subject and developing a sketch of the action in the form of a scenario, as well as revisions that might come about when the work is in production, as with out-of-town tryouts for Broadway musicals, or changes made for a specific local audience. A famous case of the latter is Wagner's 1861 revision of the original 1845 Dresden version of his opera Tannhäuser for Paris; the opera libretto from its inception was written in verse, this continued well into the 19th century, although genres of musical theatre with spoken dialogue have alternated verse in the musical numbers with spoken prose. Since the late 19th century some opera composers have written music to prose or free verse libretti. Much of the recitatives of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess, for instance, are DuBose and Dorothy Heyward's play Porgy set to music as written – in prose – with the lyrics of the arias, duets and choruses written in verse; the libretto of a musical, on the other hand, is always written in prose.
The libretto of a musical, if the musical is adapted from a play, may borrow their source's original dialogue liberally – much as Oklahoma! used dialogue from Lynn Riggs's Green Grow the Lilacs, Carousel used dialogue from Ferenc Molnár's Liliom, My Fair Lady took most of its dialogue word-for-word from George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, Man of La Mancha was adapted from the 1959 television play I, Don Quixote, which supplied most of the dialogue, the 1954 musical version of Peter Pan used J. M. Barrie's dialogue; the musical Show Boat, different from the Edna Ferber novel from which it was adapted, uses some of Ferber's original dialogue, notably during the miscegenation scene. And Lionel Bart's Oliver! Uses chunks of dialogue from Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist, although it bills itself
Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI is a senior prelate of the Catholic Church who served as its head and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013. Benedict's election as pope occurred in the 2005 papal conclave that followed the death of Pope John Paul II. Benedict chose to be known by the title "Pope Emeritus" upon his resignation. Ordained as a priest in 1951 in his native Bavaria, Ratzinger had established himself as a regarded university theologian by the late 1950s and was appointed a full professor in 1958. After a long career as an academic and professor of theology at several German universities, he was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1977, an unusual promotion for someone with little pastoral experience. In 1981, he was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, one of the most important dicasteries of the Roman Curia. From 2002 until his election as pope, he was Dean of the College of Cardinals.
Prior to becoming Pope, he was "a major figure on the Vatican stage for a quarter of a century". He has lived in Rome since 1981, his prolific writings defend traditional Catholic doctrine and values. He was a liberal theologian, but adopted conservative views after 1968. During his papacy, Benedict XVI advocated a return to fundamental Christian values to counter the increased secularisation of many Western countries, he views relativism's denial of objective truth, the denial of moral truths in particular, as the central problem of the 21st century. He taught the importance of both an understanding of God's redemptive love. Pope Benedict revived a number of traditions, including elevating the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position, he strengthened the relationship between the Catholic Church and art, promoted the use of Latin, reintroduced traditional papal garments, for which reason he was called "the pope of aesthetics". He has been described as "the main intellectual force in the Church" since the mid-1980s.
On 11 February 2013, Benedict unexpectedly announced his resignation in a speech in Latin before the cardinals, citing a "lack of strength of mind and body" due to his advanced age. His resignation became effective on 28 February 2013, he is the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415, the first to do so on his own initiative since Celestine V in 1294. As pope emeritus, Benedict retains the style of His Holiness, the title of pope, continues to dress in the papal colour of white, he was succeeded by Pope Francis on 13 March 2013, he moved into the newly renovated monastery Mater Ecclesiae for his retirement on 2 May 2013. In his retirement, Benedict XVI has made occasional public appearances alongside Pope Francis. Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger was born on 16 April, Holy Saturday, 1927, at Schulstraße 11, at 8:30 in the morning in his parents' home in Marktl, Germany, he was baptised the same day. He is the third and youngest child of Joseph Ratzinger, Sr. a police officer, Maria Ratzinger.
His mother's family was from South Tyrol. Pope Benedict's elder brother, Georg Ratzinger, is a Catholic priest and is the former director of the Regensburger Domspatzen choir, his sister, Maria Ratzinger, who never married, managed Cardinal Ratzinger's household until her death in 1991. At the age of five, Ratzinger was in a group of children who welcomed the visiting Cardinal Archbishop of Munich, Michael von Faulhaber, with flowers. Struck by the cardinal's distinctive garb, he announced that day that he wanted to be a cardinal, he attended the elementary school in Aschau am Inn, renamed in his honour in 2009. Ratzinger's family his father, bitterly resented the Nazis, his father's opposition to Nazism resulted in demotions and harassment of the family. Following his 14th birthday in 1941, Ratzinger was conscripted into the Hitler Youth—as membership was required by law for all 14-year-old German boys after March 1939—but was an unenthusiastic member who refused to attend meetings, according to his brother.
In 1941, one of Ratzinger's cousins, a 14-year-old boy with Down syndrome, was taken away by the Nazi regime and murdered during the Action T4 campaign of Nazi eugenics. In 1943, while still in seminary, he was drafted into the German anti-aircraft corps as Luftwaffenhelfer. Ratzinger trained in the German infantry; as the Allied front drew closer to his post in 1945, he deserted back to his family's home in Traunstein after his unit had ceased to exist, just as American troops established a headquarters in the Ratzinger household. As a German soldier, he was interned in a prisoner of war camp, but released a few months at the end of the war in May 1945. Ratzinger and his brother Georg entered Saint Michael Seminary in Traunstein in November 1945 studying at the Ducal Georgianum of the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich, they were both ordained in Freising on 29 June 1951 by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber of Munich. Ratzinger recalled: "at the moment the elderly Archbishop laid his hands on me, a little bird – a lark – flew up from the altar in the high cathedral and trilled a little joyful song."Ratzinger's 1953 dissertation was on St. Augustine and was titled The People and the House of God in Augustine's Doctrine of the Church.
His habilitation was on Bonaven
This article uses the Hebrew Psalms numbering. Psalm 113 in Septuagint/Vulgate numbering would correspond to Psalm 114–115 in Hebrew numbering. Psalm 113 is the 113th psalm of the Book of Psalms, it is similar to the Song of Hannah. The psalm is known by its first two words, Laudate pueri, there are many musical settings – including Claudio Monteverdi's Vespro della Beata Vergine of 1610. In Hebrew the opening line is an acrostic poem: הַלְלוּ-יָהּ: הַלְלוּ, עַבְדֵי יְהוָה. Following is the Hebrew text and an English translation of Psalm 113: Praise ye the LORD. Praise, O ye servants of the LORD, praise the name of the LORD. Blessed be the name for evermore. From the rising of the sun unto the going down of the same the LORD's name is to be praised; the LORD is high above all nations, his glory above the heavens. Who is like unto the LORD our God, who dwelleth on high, Who humbleth himself to behold the things that are in heaven, in the earth! He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, lifteth the needy out of the dunghill.
He maketh the barren woman to keep house, to be a joyful mother of children. Praise ye the LORD. Is the first of six psalms of which Hallel is composed. On all days when Hallel is recited, this psalm is recited in its entirety, it is one of the so called Egyptian Hallel though it was written by King David. Verse 2 is part of Baruch Hashem L'Olam during Maariv, the mezuman preceding Birkat Hamazon, is recited when opening the Hakafot on Simchat Torah, is found in the repetition of the Mussaf Amidah on Rosh Hashanah. Verses 2-4 are the second thru fourth verses of Yehi Kivod of Pesukei Dezimra; the Psalm has been set to music as one of the psalms included in vespers set in Latin, Laudate pueri. Claudio Monteverdi wrote a setting in his Vespro della Beata Vergine, published in 1610. Mozart set the text in his two vespers compositions, Vesperae solennes de Dominica, K. 321, Vesperae solennes de confessore, K. 339 Individual settings of the psalm include five by Antonio Vivaldi, RV 600–603. Handel set it twice, a setting in F major, his earliest extant autograph which may have been written as early as 1701/02 in Halle, HWV 236, a setting composed in D major in Rome in 1707, HWV 237.
In 1830, Mendelssohn set the psalm as one of 3 Motets for female choir and organ, Op. 39, No. 2. In 1863, Bruckner set the psalm in German, Psalm 112 Alleluja! Lobet den Herrn, ihr Diener, WAB 35. Pieces with text from Psalm 113: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Psalm 113: Free scores at the Choral Public Domain Library Text of Psalm 113 according to the 1928 Psalter Psalms Chapter 113 text in Hebrew and English, mechon-mamre.org Hallelujah! Praise, you servants of the LORD, praise the name of the LORD. Text and footnotes, usccb.org Unites States Conference of Catholic Bishops Psalm 113:1 introduction and text, biblestudytools.com Psalm 113 – Praise to the LORD Who Lifts the Lowlyd enduringword.com Psalm 113 / Refrain: From the rising of the sun to its setting let the name of the Lord be praised. Church of England Psalm 113 at biblegateway.com
St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It is a Grade I listed building, its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604. The present cathedral, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren, its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London. The cathedral building destroyed in the Great Fire, now referred to as Old St Paul's Cathedral, was a central focus for medieval and early modern London, including Paul's walk and St. Paul's Churchyard being the site of St. Paul's Cross; the cathedral is one of the most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, has dominated the skyline for over 300 years. At 365 feet high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1967; the dome is among the highest in the world.
St Paul's is the second-largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral. Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Sir Winston Churchill and Baroness Thatcher. St Paul's Cathedral is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz; the cathedral is a working church with daily services. The tourist entry fee at the door is £ 20 for adults. A list of the 16 "archbishops" of London was recorded by Jocelyn of Furness in the 12th century, claiming London's Christian community was founded in the 2nd century under the legendary King Lucius and his missionary saints Fagan, Deruvian and Medwin. None of, considered credible by modern historians but, although the surviving text is problematic, either Bishop Restitutus or Adelphius at the 314 Council of Arles seems to have come from Londinium; the location of Londinium's original cathedral is unknown.
Bede records that in AD 604 Augustine of Canterbury consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although not proved, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. On the death of Sæberht in about 616, his pagan sons expelled Mellitus from London, the East Saxons reverted to paganism; the fate of the first cathedral building is unknown. Christianity was restored among the East Saxons in the late 7th century and it is presumed that either the Anglo-Saxon cathedral was restored or a new building erected as the seat of bishops such as Cedd and Earconwald, the last of whom was buried in the cathedral in 693; this building, or a successor, was rebuilt in the same year. King Æthelred the Unready was buried in the cathedral on his death in 1016.
The cathedral was burnt, with much of the city, in a fire in 1087, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The present structure of St Peter upon Cornhill was designed by Christopher Wren following the Great Fire of London in 1666, it stands upon the highest point in the area of old Londinium, medieval legends tie it to the city's earliest Christian community. In 1995, however, a large and ornate 5th-century building on Tower Hill was excavated, which might have been the city's cathedral; the Elizabethan antiquarian William Camden argued that a temple to the goddess Diana had stood during Roman times on the site occupied by the medieval St Paul's Cathedral. Wren reported that he had found no trace of any such temple during the works to build the new cathedral after the Great Fire, Camden's hypothesis is no longer accepted by modern archaeologists; the fourth St Paul's referred to as Old St Paul's, was begun by the Normans after the 1087 fire. A further fire in 1136 disrupted the work, the new cathedral was not consecrated until 1240.
During the period of construction, the style of architecture had changed from Romanesque to Gothic and this was reflected in the pointed arches and larger windows of the upper parts and East End of the building. The Gothic ribbed vault was constructed, like that of York Minster, of wood rather than stone, which affected the ultimate fate of the building. An enlargement programme commenced in 1256. This'New Work' was consecrated in 1300 but not complete until 1314. During the Medieval period St Paul's was exceeded in length only by the Abbey Church of Cluny and in the height of its spire only by Lincoln Cathedral and St. Mary's Church, Stralsund. Excavations by Francis Penrose in 1878 showed that it was 100 feet wide; the spire was about 489 feet in height. By the 16th century the building was starting to decay. After the Protestant Reformation under Henry VIII and Edward VI, the Dissolution of the Monasteries and Chantries Acts led to the destruction of interior ornamentation and the cloisters, crypts, shrines and other buildings in St Paul's Churchyard.
Many of these former Catholic