The sagebrush vole is a tiny vole found in western North America. This is the only member of genus Lemmiscus, they are somewhat similar in appearance to lemmings. They have chunky bodies with short legs and a short tail, covered in fur and lighter below, they have fluffy dull grey fur with lighter underparts. They are 12 cm long with a 2 cm tail and weigh about 27 g; these animals are found in dry open brushy areas in the western United States and southern parts of western Canada. They feed on grasses and leaves in summer and sagebrush and twigs in winter. Predators include owls, coyotes and weasels. Female voles have 5 or more litters of 4 to 6 young in a year; the young are born in a nest in a burrow. They are active year-round and night, but are more active near sunrise and sunset, they make trails through the surface vegetation and dig underground burrows with many entrances. They burrow under the snow in winter; these animals are found in colonies
Euarchontoglires is a clade and a superorder of mammals, the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents, treeshrews and primates. The Euarchontoglires clade is based on DNA sequence analyses and retrotransposon markers that combine the clades Glires and Euarchonta. So far, few if any distinctive anatomical features have been recognized that support Euarchontoglires, nor does any strong evidence from anatomy support alternative hypotheses. Although both Euarchontoglires and diprotodont marsupials are documented to possess a vermiform appendix, this feature evolved as a result of convergent evolution. Euarchontoglires is now recognized as one of the four major subclades within the clade Eutheria, it is discussed without a taxonomic rank but has been called a cohort, magnorder, or superorder. Relations among the four cohorts and the identity of the placental root remain controversial. Euarchontoglires split from the Laurasiatheria sister group about 85 to 95 million years ago, during the Cretaceous, developed in the Laurasian island group that would become Europe.
This hypothesis is supported by molecular evidence. The combined clade of Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria is recognized as Boreoeutheria; the hypothesized relationship among the Euarchontoglires is as follows: One study based on DNA analysis suggests that Scandentia and Primates are sister clades, but does not discuss the position of Dermoptera. Although it is known that Scandentia is one of the most basal Euarchontoglire clades, the exact phylogenetic position is not yet considered resolved, it may be a sister of Glires, Primatomorpha or Dermoptera or to all other Euarchontoglires; some recent studies place Scandentia as sister of the Glires. Whole-genome duplication took place in the ancestral Euarchontoglires
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Eutheria is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or the Late Jurassic. Except for the Virginia opossum, from North America, a metatherian, all post-Miocene mammals indigenous to Europe, Africa and North America north of Mexico are eutherians. Extant eutherians, their last common ancestor, all extinct descendants of that ancestor are members of Placentalia. Eutherians are distinguished from noneutherians by various phenotypic traits of the feet, ankles and teeth. All extant eutherians lack epipubic bones; this allows for expansion of the abdomen during pregnancy. The oldest-known eutherian species is Juramaia sinensis, dated at 161 million years ago from the Jurassic in China. Eutheria was named in 1872 by Theodore Gill. Distinguishing features are: an enlarged malleolus at the bottom of the tibia, the larger of the two shin bones the joint between the first metatarsal bone and the entocuneiform bone in the foot is offset farther back than the joint between the second metatarsal and middle cuneiform bones—in metatherians these joints are level with each other various features of jaws and teeth Eutheria contains several extinct genera as well as larger groups, many with complicated taxonomic histories still not understood.
Members of the Adapisoriculidae and Leptictida have been placed within the out-dated placental group Insectivora, while Zhelestids have been considered primitive ungulates. However, more recent studies have suggested these enigmatic taxa represent stem group eutherians, more basal to Placentalia; the weakly favoured cladogram favours Boreoeuthearia as a basal Eutherian clade as sister to the Atlantogenata
The Arvicolinae are a subfamily of rodents that includes the voles and muskrats. They are most related to the other subfamilies in the Cricetidae; some authorities place the subfamily Arvicolinae in the family Muridae along with all other members of the superfamily Muroidea. Some rank the taxon as a full family, the Arvicolidae; the Arvicolinae are the most populous group of Rodentia in the Northern Hemisphere. They are found in fossil occlusions of bones cached by past predators such as owls and other birds of prey. Fossils of this group are used for biostratigraphic dating of archeological sites in North America and Europe; the most convenient distinguishing feature of the Arvicolinae is the nature of their molar teeth, which have prismatic cusps in the shape of alternating triangles. These molars are an adaptation to a herbivorous diet in which the major food plants include a large proportion of abrasive materials such as phytoliths. Arvicolinae are Holarctic in distribution and represent one of only a few major muroid radiations to reach the New World via Beringia.
Arvicolines do well in the subnival zone beneath the winter snowpack, persist throughout winter without needing to hibernate. They are characterized by extreme fluctuations in population numbers. Most arvicolines are small, short-tailed voles or lemmings, but some, such as Ellobius and Hyperacrius, are well adapted to a fossorial lifestyle. Others, such as Ondatra and Arvicola, have evolved larger body sizes and are associated with an aquatic lifestyle; the phylogeny of the Arvicolinae has been studied using molecular characters. Markers for the molecular phylogeny of arvicolines included the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene and the exon 10 of the growth hormone receptor nuclear gene; the comparison of the cyb and ghr phylogenetic results seems to indicate nuclear genes are useful for resolving relationships of evolved animals. As compared to mitochondrial genes, nuclear genes display several informative sites in third codon positions that evolve enough to accumulate synapomorphies, but slow enough to avoid evolutionary noise.
Of note, mitochondrial pseudogenes translocated within the nuclear genome complicate the assessment of the mitochondrial DNA orthology, but they can be used as phylogenetic markers. Sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of voles may help to distinguish between authentic genes and pseudogenes; the complementary phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular characters suggests: Ellobius and Lagurus are among the most basal arvicolines. Dicrostonyx and Arborimus may form a clade. Core arvicolines include three subclades: Lemmini: Synaptomys, Myopus Clethrionomyini: Eothenomys, Myodes Arvicolini: Arvicola, Chionomys and Microtus Microtus sensu lato contains Alexandromys, ‘Neodon’, Lasiopodomys and Microtus sensu stricto. Ondatra and Dinaromys positions are uncertain compromised by the convergent evolution of morphological characters; some authorities have placed the zokors within the Arvicolinae, but they have been shown to be unrelated. Subfamily Arvicolinae - voles, muskrats The subfamily Arvicolinae contains ten tribes, seven of which are classified as voles, one as lemmings, two as muskrats.
Tribe Arvicolini Genus Arvicola - water voles European water vole, A. amphibius Southwestern water vole, A. sapidus Montane water vole, A. scherman Genus Blanfordimys Afghan vole, B. afghanus Bucharian vole, B. bucharicus Genus Chionomys - snow voles Caucasian snow vole, C. gud European snow vole, C. nivalis Robert's snow vole, C. roberti Genus Lasiopodomys Brandt's vole, L. brandtii Plateau vole, L. fuscus Mandarin vole, L. mandarinus Genus Lemmiscus Sagebrush vole, L. curtatus Genus Microtus - voles Insular vole, M. abbreviatus California vole, M. californicus Rock vole, M. chrotorrhinus Long-tailed vole, M. longicaudus Mexican vole, M. mexicanus Singing vole, M. miurus North American water vole, M. richardsoni Zempoaltépec vole, M. umbrosus Taiga vole, M. xanthognathus Subgenus Microtus Field vole, M. agrestis Anatolian vole, M. anatolicus Common vole, M. arvalis Cabrera's vole, M. cabrerae Doğramaci's vole, M. dogramacii Günther's vole, M. guentheri Tien Shan vole, M. ilaeus Persian vole, M. irani Southern vole, M. levis Paradox vole, M. paradoxus Qazvin vole, M. qazvinensis Schidlovsky's vole, M. schidlovskii Social vole, M. socialis European pine vole, M. subterraneus Transcaspian vole, M. transcaspicus Subgenus Terricola Bavarian pine vole, M. bavaricus Calabria pine vole, M. brachycercus Daghestan pine vole, M. daghestanicus Mediterranean pine vole, M. duodecimcostatus Felten's vole, M. felteni Liechtenstein's pine vole, M. liechtensteini Lusitanian pine vole, M. lusitanicus Major's pine vole, M. majori Alpine pine vole, M. multiplex Savi's pine vole, M. savii Tatra pine vole, M. tatricus Thomas's pine vole, M. thomasi Subgenus Mynomes Beach vole, M. breweri Gray-tailed vole, M. canicaudus Montane vole, M. montanus Creeping vole, M. oregoni Meadow vole, M. pennsylvanicus Townsend's vole, M. townsendii Subgenus Alexandromys Clarke's vole, M. clarkei Evorsk vole, M. evoronensis Reed vole, M. fortis Gerbe's vole, M. gerbei Taiwan vole, M. kikuchii Lacustrine vole, M. limnophilus Maximowicz's vole, M. maximowiczii Middendorf's vole, M. middendorffi Mongolian vole, M. mongolicus Japanese grass vole, M. montebelli Muisk vole, Microtus mujanensis Tundra
Nelson's collared lemming
Nelson's collared lemming is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found in southwestern Alaska in the United States. Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton.. Superfamily Muroidea. Pp. 894–1531 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
Lasiopodomys is a genus of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It contains the following species: Brandt's vole Plateau vole Mandarin vole Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. Pp. 894–1531 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore