Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order. Many systems of collation are based on numerical order or alphabetical order, or extensions and combinations thereof. Collation is a fundamental element of most office filing systems, library catalogs, reference books. Collation differs from classification in that classification is concerned with arranging information into logical categories, while collation is concerned with the ordering of items of information based on the form of their identifiers. Formally speaking, a collation method defines a total order on a set of possible identifiers, called sort keys, which produces a total preorder on the set of items of information. A collation algorithm such as the Unicode collation algorithm defines an order through the process of comparing two given character strings and deciding which should come before the other; when an order has been defined in this way, a sorting algorithm can be used to put a list of any number of items into that order.
The main advantage of collation is that it makes it fast and easy for a user to find an element in the list, or to confirm that it is absent from the list. In automatic systems this can be done using a binary search interpolation search. Other advantages are that one can find the first or last elements on the list, or elements in a given range. Strings representing numbers may be sorted based on the values of the numbers. For example, "−4", "2.5", "10", "89", "30,000". Note that pure application of this method may provide only a partial ordering on the strings, since different strings can represent the same number. A similar approach may be taken with strings representing dates or other items that can be ordered chronologically or in some other natural fashion. Alphabetical order is the basis for many systems of collation where items of information are identified by strings consisting principally of letters from an alphabet; the ordering of the strings relies on the existence of a standard ordering for the letters of the alphabet in question.
To decide which of two strings comes first in alphabetical order their first letters are compared. The string whose first letter appears earlier in the alphabet comes first in alphabetical order. If the first letters are the same the second letters are compared, so on, until the order is decided; the result of arranging a set of strings in alphabetical order is that words with the same first letter are grouped together, within such a group words with the same first two letters are grouped together, so on. Capital letters are treated as equivalent to their corresponding lowercase letters. Certain limitations and special conventions may apply when alphabetical order is used: When strings contain spaces or other word dividers, the decision must be taken whether to ignore these dividers or to treat them as symbols preceding all other letters of the alphabet. For example, if the first approach is taken "car park" will come after "carbon" and "carp", whereas in the second approach "car park" will come before those two words.
The first rule is used in the second in telephone directories. Abbreviations may be treated. For example, names containing "St." are ordered as if they were written out as "Saint". There is a traditional convention in English that surnames beginning Mc and M' are listed as if those prefixes were written Mac. Strings that represent personal names will be listed by alphabetical order of surname if the given name comes first. For example, Juan Hernandes and Brian O'Leary should be sorted as "Hernandes, Juan" and "O'Leary, Brian" if they are not written this way. Common initial words, such as The in English, are ignored for sorting purposes. So The Shining would be sorted as just "Shining" or "Shining, The"; when some of the strings contain numerals, various approaches are possible. Sometimes such characters are treated as if they came before or after all the letters of the alphabet. Another method is for numbers to be sorted alphabetically as they would be spelled: for example 1776 would be sorted as if spelled out "seventeen seventy-six", 24 heures du Mans as if spelled "vingt-quatre...".
When numerals or other symbols are used as special graphical forms of letters, as in 1337 for leet or Se7en for the movie title Seven, they may be sorted as if they were those letters. Languages have different conventions for treating certain letter combinations. For example, in Spanish the letter ñ is treated as a basic letter followi
Sue Ellen Leurgans is a biostatistician known for her work on disorders of human movement, including those caused by occupational injury and Parkinson's disease. She is a professor of neurological sciences at the Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. Leurgans majored in statistics at Princeton University, earned her Ph. D. in statistics in 1978 from Stanford University. Her dissertation, Asymptotic Distribution Theory in Generalized Isotonic Regression, was supervised by Thomas W. Sager, she was a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Washington. And is working on biostatistics. Leurgans is one of the authors of the 2007 revision of the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, she was president of the Caucus for Women in Statistics in 1990
Gallant Bloom was a plain brown filly sired by the great Gallant Man a plain brown horse. She possessed a gentle temperament, and yet she beat the best fillies and mares in America. She defeated both Gamely, she did not start well. In her two-year-old season, she was inconsistent, she won her first two starts but lost the next three by large margins. Gallant Bloom seemed to find her footing in an allowance race and followed that by taking the Matron Stakes by a romp, and she met Shuvee for the first time. In her first meeting with the brilliant filly, Gallant Bloom blew a three length lead and was caught by Shuvee at the wire. Max Hirsch believed Gallant Bloom hadn’t lost to Shuvee, he put her into rigorous training. After that, Gallant Bloom won twelve stakes races in a row, beginning in 1968 at age two and ending in 1970, she came back and beat Shuvee in the Gardenia, was voted two-year-old champion filly by Daily Racing Form. The rival Thoroughbred Racing Association and Turf & Sports Digest awards were won by Process Shot.
In 1969, Shuvee was a great success and seemed to win Three-Year-Old-Filly honors. Shuvee had won everything from the Alabama Stakes to the Ladies Handicap, defeating top older mares to achieve her victories. Shuvee became the second winner of the Triple Crown for Fillies, but at the same time, Gallant Bloom won every race she ran, at any distance, on any surface at eight different race tracks, in the process defeating Shuvee three times, Gamely once in the Matchmaker Stakes. For this, Gallant Bloom was awarded the top Three-Year-Old Filly though Shuvee had seemed the out and out winner early in the season; that year, Shuvee did not receive a single vote. Gallant Bloom won the Daily Racing Form award for Champion Female Handicap Horse. Max Hirsch died on April 3, 1969 at the age of 88, his son, Buddy Hirsch, took over the stable. Buddy sent Gallant Bloom to California, but returning to race at tracks in the U. S. Northeast, she lost in the Nassau County Handicap, it was discovered. As a brood mare, Gallant Bloom puzzled veterinarians.
She produced four foals, aborted one, became barren no matter what was tried. She had one last foal late in her life but nothing. Gallant Bloom lay down in her paddock at King Ranch and died in 1991, she was twenty five years old. She is buried at Old Frankfort Place in Kentucky. Gallant Bloom’s pedigree Gallant Bloom in the Hall of Fame
Philip Connard, CVO, RA, was a British painter. Connard rose from humble origins to become an eminent artist in oils and watercolours whose commissions brought him royal recognition. Connard left school with the minimum state education and went into the building trade as a house painter, he attended evening classes in art and won a scholarship in textile design to the Royal College of Art in London. There he won a prize of £100 which enabled him to go to Paris to study, although he did not stay there as long as he had hoped his money would allow him to, he returned to London where he worked as an illustrator before obtaining a position at the Lambeth School of Art where he taught artists such as Edmund Blampied. While teaching at Lambeth he submitted pictures to the New English Art Club and became known as a painter in oils of romantic decorative landscapes with figures such as pierettes or birds, his compositions were said to be ‘graceful and individual in conception’. Although he was nearly 40 years old when the First World War broke out, Connard volunteered as a private, learned to ride, fought in France as a member of a gun team in the Royal Field Artillery.
He reached the rank of Captain before being invalided out because of severe shell shock. He was appointed an official war artist to the Royal Navy and painted the surrender of the German ship SMS Goeben and the Zeebrugge raid; this work for the Navy is in the Imperial War Museum in London. Connard was given a number of important decorative commissions: murals at Windsor Castle, his work can be found in the Tate London. Connard was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1918 and became a full Academician in 1925, he was Keeper of the Royal Academy school, the principal tutor, from 1945 to 1949. He was a full member of the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours. In 1950 he was appointed a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. Connard, did not forget his home town: he was the founding President of The Southport Palette Club, established in 1921 to hold annual exhibitions of the work of local artists, he retained this position until his death in 1958. Connard married twice: his first wife, Mary Collyer, with whom he had two daughters, died in 1927.
He lived for several years in Surrey with Scottish artist Anne Finlay. 113 paintings by or after Philip Connard at the Art UK site
Rio Grande Credit Union Field at Isotopes Park known only as Isotopes Park, is a minor league baseball stadium located in Albuquerque, New Mexico and is the home field of the Albuquerque Isotopes of the Pacific Coast League, the Triple-A affiliate of the Colorado Rockies. The facility was previously used by the baseball program of the University of New Mexico; the stadium hosts New Mexico United, an expansion team in the United Soccer League that began play in 2019. In 2000, Bob Lozinak, then-owner of the Albuquerque Dukes, the Triple-A affiliate of the Los Angeles Dodgers, sold the team to a Portland, Oregon-based group, who moved the team to Portland as the Beavers; the Dukes had played in Albuquerque for 40 years. Their stadium, Albuquerque Sports Stadium, was the second oldest in the league at the time and was in disrepair. Finding another owner and team was not difficult; the Pacific Coast League had teams in Canada. In 2001, a group headed by Tampa businessman Ken Young bought the Calgary Cannons with the intention of moving it to Albuquerque, contingent on building a park.
However Mayor Jim Baca was unable to overcome opposition from a city council reluctant to spend city money on the project. Debate centered on whether to renovate the old Albuquerque Sports Stadium as a baseball-only park or build a brand new park downtown. Mayor Baca put the issue to a vote and the voters approved the $25 million needed to finance the project; as it turned out, the renovation of Albuquerque Sports Stadium turned into a construction of a new facility. Nothing of the old Albuquerque Sports Stadium remains, apart from the playing field. However, the new park retains its predecessor's general structure, as well as its dimensions and the system connecting the dugout to the clubhouse; the new stadium was intended to retain the old facility's well-known "drive-in" terrace, where fans could sit in their cars and watch the game for free. However, Isotopes management scrapped those plans due to security concerns and instead converted it into a play area for children. Like its predecessor, it is known as a hitters park, due to the high altitude and dry air, but changes in the field were made to create more of a wind screen which allows the ball protected lift.
The fences were brought in slightly. Isotopes Park was the home of the 2007 Triple-A All-Star Game, with the International League defeating the Pacific Coast League, 7–5; the game was viewed by 12,367 in attendance. Albuquerque's Valentino Pascucci was selected as the PCL MVP. Former Isotope Rob Stratton won the Home Run Derby. On June 23, 2009, a single-game attendance record was set when fans saw Manny Ramirez make a rehab start after serving a 50-game suspension for using performance-enhancing drugs; the Isotopes defeated the Nashville Sounds 1-0. On September 20, 2011, Isotopes Park was host to the 2011 Triple-A National Championship Game between the champions of the Pacific Coast League and the International League; the game featured the Columbus Clippers defeating the Omaha Storm Chasers, 8–3, in front of 9,569 fans. The Isotopes set a single-game attendance record in 2018 when 16,975 fans attended a game on Cinco de Mayo as part of minor league baseball's "Copa de la Diversión" promotion, in which the Isotopes played as the Mariachis de Nuevo México.
In 2020, the Isotopes entered into a corporate naming rights agreement with Rio Grande Credit Union to rebrand the facility as Rio Grande Credit Union Field at Isotopes Park. In 2012, New Mexico ranked 38th among Division I baseball programs in attendance, averaging 1,618 per home game. New Mexico United, an expansion team playing in the USL Championship, began play at Isotopes Park on March 9, 2019; the inaugural match, which finished as a 1–1 draw against Fresno FC, was attended by 12,896 fans. The record attendance for a match is 15,247, set on August 17, 2019 against Los Angeles Galaxy II; the stadium has a seating capacity of 13,279, with 11,154 fixed seats. There are 30 suites at the ballpark; the field features a hill in center field, similar to the one in the Houston Astros' stadium, Minute Maid Park. The stadium has a large open breezeway above the primary seating area with a view of the playing field, which contains most of the park's services, such as restrooms, most of the food concessions, a souvenir store behind home plate.
Behind the infield is the main structure of the stadium, which contains suites and the press box. An upper seating deck is attached to the structure. Beyond right field is a berm. Above the berm is a play area for children. Beyond left; the elevation of the playing field exceeds 5,100 feet above sea level and warm summer air give the balls great lift. Statues of Homer, Marge and Bart Simpson of the animated sitcom The Simpsons are located on the concourse; the 2001 episode "Hungry, Hungry Homer", in which the fictional Springfield Isotopes attempted a move to Albuquerque, was the inspiration for the real-life team's name. List of NCAA Division I baseball venues Isotopes Park – Albuquerque Isotopes Official Site Ballpark Digest visit to Isotopes Park
PT Bekasi Power is a power plant located in West Java, Indonesia. It is a subsidiary of PT Jababeka Tbk, established in 2007; as a 130 megawatt power plant generated by steam and gas, it strengthens Bekasi – Karawang electricity system through Cibatu substation owned by PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara. This state-owned company can only meet the needs of about 60 percent. To meet the rest, private sector needs to get involved. A reliable and sustainable electricity supply with an international standard is a must for an industrial estate. Bekasi Power plant is therefore constructed to guarantee Uninterruptible Power Supply for a total of seven industrial zones including Jababeka. By delivering reliable electricity at a competitive price, this plant supports Jababeka business as well as surrounding areas, boosting Indonesia's power capacity and industrial growth for the upcoming years; the cooperation between Bekasi Power and PLN is considered as a contribution to government's program. Through the scheme of cooperation all electricity will be purchased by PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara at a price of Rp 1,050 per kilowatt hour.
The scheme lasts for 20 years. The electricity will be redistributed to Jababeka Industrial Estate and its surroundings. PLTGU Bekasi Power, according to the Managing Director, is generated by gas supplied by state-owned companies i.e. PT Pertamina and PT Perusahaan Gas Negara; each day, the supplied gas needed is 23 million BTU. A BTU is a measure of the energy content in fuel, is used in the power, steam generation and air conditioning industries. Natural gas is measured in BTUs. To anticipate the future demand, Jababeka as the holding company has anticipated that soon the capacity shall be increased. In order to build and double the capacity, a sufficient land has been prepared to accommodate the increased capacity from 130 MW to 2 x 130 MW. Future investors need certainty to make sure their business works well. Therefore, industrial estate with complete infrastructure will interest them, and when the government has limited capacity and resources to provide, it is the turn of the private sector to engage.
The cooperation between PLN and PLTGU Bekasi Power is a solution to overcome these obstacles. In term of manufacturing a power plant, private sector needs to see in broader scope; as the President Director's said: "We cannot rely on the sale of land, we need other income. One of them comes from the electricity sales to government." He emphasized that the electricity sales turnover to PLN has resulted Rp. 1 trillion because 100% output will be absorbed by PLN. Realizing the good prospect, the company is eager to grow the same business, it will continue to develop the same PLTGU project in several other areas. The areas that are now being observed are: the Special Economic Zone Tanjung Lesung, Kendal Industrial Estate and Morotai, they will follow suit. If the area requires additional power supply the construction of power plant will be built to meet the energy needs. In term of future development, Bekasi Power has a plan to double the capacity from 130 MW to 2 x 130 MW in 2020. Ten years in 2030, they plan to increase to 3 x130 MW as a Green & Sustainable Energy Power Plant.
At that time they will support electricity for all aspects in Bekasi and Karawang i.e. housing, traffic system, industrial park, International Trade Center, commercial area, etc. The demand for electricity for industrial estate is inevitable; this is reflected in the efforts of the Ministry of Industry which in the next five years plans to develop 15 new industrial areas which will be supported by electricity supply up to 11,064 MW. The government believes that to meet these needs, developers of each industrial estate must build their own power plants, they should not only rely on government power project plans but to build their own factories. A total of 11,064 megawatts will be allocated to 13 industrial estates outside Java as the government's priority programs for industrial acceleration. Two other areas are located in Java, namely in Demak, Central Java; the demand for electricity for each industrial estate is different. As in Batulicin, for example. In an industrial area of 530 hectares in South Kalimantan province, electricity needs 2,650 MW.
Compare it to Sayung Industrial Estate in Demak, Central Java which requires only 42 MW. Differences in electricity demand occur not only because of the condition of the region but the allocation. For industrial zones that focus on processing and refining minerals require more electricity than labor-intensive industries; when a power plant is to be built in an industrial estate, it should take into account the issue of price. According to the Chairman of the Indonesian Industrial State Association the imbalance between energy availability and the price offered is not a new issue. In general, entrepreneurs in industrial areas are getting prices stun above expectations. Electricity price of US$0.12 per kWh in Bantaeng Industrial Park, according to him, is still too expensive. The ideal price range for the industry is supposed to be US$0.08 –0.10 per kWh. Therefore, entrepreneurs must be careful in choosing the source of power to obtain the economic price. Building a power plant by a private company will always be supported by the government of the Republic of Indonesia.
One of its supports is to apply tax deductions. "Components of power plants that have not been produced domestically and must be imported, can be tax deductible to only 10%." Jababeka