Valmontone is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region Lazio, located about 45 kilometres southeast of Rome. The historic part of the town is situated on a tuffaceous hill, 303 metres above sea level, part of a morphological system of valleys and low relieves, known as Alta Valle del Sacco. There are many natural springs due to the high water levels underground; because of this the landscape is covered by farmland. To preserve this water system, in Valmontone exists the C. E. R. I. A center for the prevention and control of hydro-geological risks; the origins of Valmontone are uncertain: it seems that a village was founded before the rise of Rome on a hill in the modern municipality of the town, its ruins were visible until the 18th century. These are the remains of the ancient Labicum, according to the myth, was founded by Glaucus, Minos’ son: the name of the village derives from a kind of Greek shield. Labicum was in war against Rome, but at last it was defeated and became a Roman castrum, a fortified castle: other testimonies of the Roman period are the post-station Ad Bivium, situated along the road called Via Latina, a village of coal-makers, some furnaces for tiles and vases, a villa and some other remains.
On, the castle was rebuilt on the actual site in the Late Roman Empire. The presence of a Castrum Lateranense goes back to the 1052, while the name of Vallis Montonis appears the first time in a document dated 1139. Valmontone became a fief under the Conti family until the 16th century, when, in 1548, the fief passed under the Sforza in 1632 and for a few years, under the Barberini, until Camillo Pamphili bought Valmontone; the Pamphili family became Doria-Pamphili-Landi in the 18th century. In 1843 Valmontone assumed the rank of “city” by decision of Pope Gregory XVI. On 22 January 1944, during the Italian Campaign of the Second World War, the Allies commenced Operation Shingle, an amphibious landing at Anzio in an attempt to outflank the formidable German defensive positions known as the Winter Line and push toward Rome: Valmontone was an important objective on the way to Rome, in according to Operation Buffalo, May–June 1944; the Allies thought the German forces were garrisoning the city, so they bombed Valmontone with their air forces, nearly destroying it completely: Valmontone lost 80 percent of its ancient buildings, like the fortified gates, the monastery on Colle Sant’Angelo, churches.
With the post-war reconstruction the town lost its medieval and baroque appeal, of which only a few sights survive. Palazzo Doria-Pamphilj was a fortified castle, until the Barberini decided to replace it with a bigger fortress; when Camillo Pamphilj bought the fief, he wanted to create a sort of “ideal city”, a Città Panfilia, including the palace, the nearby church and the other buildings: for this reason he called in Valmontone many important artists. On the Piano Nobile are frescoes divided by themes: the four rooms of Elements, the four dedicated to the Continents, the Sala del Principe and two chapels; the ceiling frescoes were made between 1657 and the 1661 by Pier Francesco Mola, Gaspard Dughet, Guglielmo Cortese, Francesco Cozza and Mattia Preti. Valmontone Archeological Museum, situated in the Palazzo Doria-Pamphilj; the ground floor houses a section which introduces the municipal area, the upper floor offers an introduction to the archeological sites and to related topics, through several media.
Such topics include the coal miners' village in Colle Carbone, the "Colle dei Lepri" settlement, the "Mansio", the Thermal Baths and the "Colle Pelliccione" furnace. Collegiate Church of Santa Maria dell'Assunta, built on an ancient Gothic church with the same name, under Camillo Pamphilj, in the 17th century; the architect was Mattia de Rossi, who rose to prominence under the mentorship of Gian Lorenzo Bernini: however, de Rossi was for this structure inspired by Borromini's design for the Roman church of Sant'Agnese in Agone. The church has a façade composed by a curved colonnade with four Ionic columns; the plan is elliptic, with four chapels including numerous Baroque pictures. Fontana del Colle, in Baroque style, is part of the original Prince Pamphilj project, it is composed by a pedestal with four round-shaped basins, one at each angle, decorated with lions heads. On the pedestal is a column surmounted by the bronze statue of the Labicanus, a Roman warrior, symbol of Valmontone; this fountain was destroyed under the World War II bombings, except one of the basins and the pedestal: the structure was rebuilt in 1968.
The Church of Sant'Antonio was not bombed during World War II, is the last medieval building of Valmontone. The real name of the church is Santa Maria delle Grazie and was erected in the 9th century: the construction is made with blocks of tuff, with two closed windows, one of them decorated with a little arch; the interior is decorated with Baroque stuccoes, a Madonna with the Son and a Sant'Antonio Abate, both painted by anonymous. Colle Sant'Angelo hill houses the cemetery of Valmontone and the convent of Sant’Angelo: built on the ruins of a Roman sanctuary, it was nearly destroyed during the last war, rebuilt immediately, it was erected in the 8th century by the Benedictine Order, includes some remains of the old monastery in the cloister and in the refectory: two bells, one of them of 1523, the other of 1744, are visible in the c
Arcinazzo Romano is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 50 kilometres east of Rome. Arcinazzo Romano borders the following municipalities: Affile, Piglio, Serrone, Trevi nel Lazio, it was called Ponza until 1891. The area of Arcinazzo includes a popular holiday resort. Official website
Plutarch named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, was a Greek biographer and essayist, known for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist. Plutarch's surviving works were intended for both Greek and Roman readers. Plutarch was born to a prominent family in the small town of Chaeronea, about 80 kilometres east of Delphi, in the Greek region of Boeotia, his family was wealthy. The name of Plutarch's father has not been preserved, but based on the common Greek custom of repeating a name in alternate generations, it was Nikarchus; the name of Plutarch's grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia and in his Life of Antony. His brothers and Lamprias, are mentioned in his essays and dialogues, which speak of Timon in particular in the most affectionate terms. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarch's wife, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not to grieve too much at the death of their two-year-old daughter, named Timoxena after her mother.
He hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation. The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them and the second Plutarch, are mentioned. Plutarch's treatise De animae procreatione in Timaeo is dedicated to them, the marriage of his son Autobulus is the occasion of one of the dinner parties recorded in the "Table Talk". Another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarch's son, but this is nowhere stated, his treatise on marriage questions, addressed to Eurydice and Pollianus, seems to speak of the latter as having been an inmate of his house, but without any clear evidence on whether she was his daughter or not. Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67. At some point, Plutarch received Roman citizenship; as evidenced by his new name, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, his sponsor for citizenship was Lucius Mestrius Florus, a Roman of consular status whom Plutarch used as a historical source for his Life of Otho.
He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo. For many years Plutarch served as one of the two priests at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the site of the famous Delphic Oracle, twenty miles from his home. By his writings and lectures Plutarch became a celebrity in the Roman Empire, yet he continued to reside where he was born, participated in local affairs serving as mayor. At his country estate, guests from all over the empire congregated for serious conversation, presided over by Plutarch in his marble chair. Many of these dialogues were recorded and published, the 78 essays and other works which have survived are now known collectively as the Moralia. In addition to his duties as a priest of the Delphic temple, Plutarch was a magistrate at Chaeronea and he represented his home town on various missions to foreign countries during his early adult years. Plutarch held the office of archon in his native municipality only an annual one which he served more than once.
He undertook the humblest of duties. The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that Emperor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria. However, most historians consider this unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, Plutarch did not speak Illyrian. According to the 8th/9th-century historian George Syncellus, late in Plutarch's life, Emperor Hadrian appointed him nominal procurator of Achaea – which entitled him to wear the vestments and ornaments of a consul. Plutarch spent the last thirty years of his life serving as a priest in Delphi, he thus connected part of his literary work with the sanctuary of Apollo, the processes of oracle-giving and the personalities who lived or traveled there. One of his most important works is the "Why Pythia does not give oracles in verse". More important is the dialogue "On the E in Delphi", which features Ammonius, a Platonic philosopher and teacher of Plutarch, Lambrias, Plutarch's brother. According to Ammonius, the letter E written on the temple of Apollo in Delphi originated from the following fact: the wise men of antiquity, whose maxims were written on the walls of the vestibule of the temple, were not seven but five: Chilon, Thales and Pittakos.
However, the tyrants Cleobulos and Periandros used their political power in order to be incorporated in the list. Thus, the E, which corresponds to number 5, constituted an acknowledgment that the Delphic maxims originated from the five real wise men; the portrait of a philosopher exhibited at the exit of the Archaeological Museum of Delphi, dating to the 2nd century AD, had been in the past identified with Plutarch. The man, although bearded, is depicted at a young age, his hair and beard are rendered in thin incisions. The gaze is due to the heavy eyelids and the incised pupils; the portrait is no longer thought to represent Plutarch. But a fragmentary hermaic stele next to the portrait did once bear a portrait of Plutarch, since it is inscribed, "The Delphians along with the Chaeroneans dedicated this to Plutarch, following the precepts of the Amphictyony". Plutarc
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t
“How many times at night were our projectors used only to illuminate the enemies that came out to help the wounded and bury the dead. Enrico lost his left leg while working for Italian railways, at the age of 24. After his injury he became a cyclist. In 1911, riding on a bicycle with one leg, he cycled to Paris, through Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark, up to Finland and Lapland. From there, via Russia and Poland, he returned to Italy in June 1912. In January 1913 Toti started cycling again, this time in Egypt; when war broke out between Italy and the Austrian Empire, Toti tried to volunteer for the Italian army but was not accepted due to his injury. Undaunted, he reached the frontline with his bicycle and managed to serve as an unpaid, unregistered non-regulation "civilian volunteer" attached to several units. Forced to leave the combat zone and return home by the Carabinieri, Toti stubbornly returned to the front and managed to join the 3rd Bersaglieri Bicycle Battalion, he was killed in the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo.
Fatally wounded in a clash, he hurled his crutch at the enemy. Before falling on the ground he shouted: "Nun moro io!". He was posthumously awarded the Gold Medal of Military Valor, one of the few civilians to have this honour bestowed on them. Two submarines of the Italian Navy were named after Enrico Toti: Enrico Toti, a Balilla-class submarine, built for the Regia Marina in 1925, she sank HMS Triad in 1940. Enrico Toti, a Toti-class submarine, built in 1968 for the Marina Militare, preserved as a museum ship in Milan. Circolopolare - l'importanza della memoria at www.circolopolare.com Enrico Toti Guide - Yahoo! Travel Guide UK at uk.holidaysguide.yahoo.com Bersagliere Volontario Enrico Toti
Artena is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy. It is situated in the upper valley of the Sacco River, it is 40 kilometres southeast by rail, 30 kilometres direct from Rome. Economy is based on animal husbandry and tourism; the name of the original village of the Volsci is uncertain. The modern village was called Monte Fortino until 1873, it owes its present name to an unproven identification of the site with the ancient Volscian Artena, destroyed in 404 BC. Another Artena, an Etruscan town belonging to the district of Caere, laying between it and Veii, was destroyed in the period of the kings, its site is unknown. In the Middle Ages Artena was a fief of the Counts of Tusculum and the Counts of Segni, who held its castle until 1475 when, after request of Charles VIII of France, it was assigned to the Colonna. Due to the latter's anti-papal stance, Artena was ravaged several times by papal armies. On the mountain 600 metres above the village are the fine remains of the fortifications of a city built in the 6th or 5th century BC, in cyclopean blocks of local limestone.
Within the walls are traces of buildings, a massive terrace which supported some edifice of importance. This terraced settlement was the site of a Roman villa. Other sights include the Palazzo Borghese, the churches of Santa Maria delle Letizie, Santa Croce, Santo Stefano Protomartire and San Francesco. Alcalá del Río, Spain Official website