Waterloo Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge crossing the River Thames in London, between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge. Its name commemorates the victory of the British, the Dutch, thanks to its location at a strategic bend in the river, the views from the bridge are widely held to be the finest from any spot in London at ground level. The first bridge on the site was designed in 1809–10 by John Rennie for the Strand Bridge Company, before its opening it was known as the Strand Bridge. During the 1840s the bridge gained a reputation as a place for suicide attempts. In 1841 the American daredevil Samuel Gilbert Scott was killed performing a act in which he hung by a rope from a scaffold on the bridge. In 1844 Thomas Hood wrote the poem The Bridge of Sighs, paintings of the bridge were created by the French Impressionist Claude Monet and the English Romantic John Constable. The bridge was nationalised in 1878 and placed under the control of the Metropolitan Board of Works, Michael Faraday tried in 1832 to measure the potential difference between each side of the bridge caused by the ebbing salt water flowing through the Earths magnetic field.
From 1884 serious problems were found in Rennies bridge piers, after scour from the river flow after Old London Bridge was demolished damaged their foundations. In 1925, a steel framework was built on top of the existing bridge. London County Council decided to demolish the bridge and replace it with a new designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. The engineers were Ernest Buckton and John Cuerel of Rendel Palmer & Tritton, Scott, by his own admission, was no engineer and his design, with reinforced concrete beams under the footways, leaving the road to be supported by transverse slabs, was difficult to implement. The beams were shaped to look as much like arches as and they are clad in Portland stone, which cleans itself whenever it rains. To guard against the possibility of further subsidence from scour each pier was given a number of jacks that can be used to level the structure, the new bridge was partially opened on Tuesday 11 March 1942 and was completed in 1945. It is the only Thames bridge to have been damaged by German bombers during the Second World War, the building contractor was Peter Lind & Company Limited.
It is frequently asserted that the force was largely female. Granite stones from the bridge were subsequently presented to various parts of the British world to further historic links in the British Commonwealth of Nations. The monument, built in 1945, is on Queens Wharf and it includes a bronze likeness of Paddy, a drinking fountain and drinking bowls below for dogs. The north end of the bridge passes above the Victoria Embankment where the road joins the Strand and this end housed the southern portal of the Kingsway Tramway Subway until the late 1950s
The Emirates Stadium is a football stadium in Holloway, London and the home of Arsenal Football Club. With a capacity of over 60,000, it is the third-largest football stadium in England after Wembley, in 1997, Arsenal explored the possibility of relocating to a new stadium, having been denied planning permission by Islington Council to expand its home ground of Highbury. After considering various options, the club bought an industrial and waste disposal estate in Ashburton Grove in 2000. A year won the councils approval to build a stadium on the site. Relocation began in 2002, but financial difficulties delayed work until February 2004, Emirates Airlines was announced as the main sponsor for the stadium. The whole stadium project was completed in 2006 at a cost of £390 million, the clubs former stadium was redeveloped as Highbury Square for an additional £130 million. The stadium has undergone a process of Arsenalisation since 2009 with the aim of restoring Arsenals heritage, the ground has hosted international fixtures and music concerts.
In response to the Hillsborough disaster of April 1989, an inquiry led by Lord Taylor of Gosforth was launched into crowd safety at sports grounds, finalised in January 1990, the Taylor Report recommended terraces be replaced by seating. Many football clubs, faced with the requirement of making their grounds all-seater by the start of the 1994–95 season, had sought ways of raising income for converted terraced areas. Arsenal at the end of the 1990–91 season introduced a bond scheme, the board felt this was the only viable option after considering other proposals, they did not want to compromise on their traditions, nor limit manager George Grahams resources. At a price of between £1,000 to £1,500, the 150-year bond was criticised by supporters, a campaign directed by the Independent Arsenal Supporters Association brought relative success as only a third of all bonds were sold. The North Bank was the last area of Highbury to be refurbished and it opened in August 1993 at a cost of £20 million.
The rework significantly reduced the capacity, from 57,000 at the beginning of the decade to under 40,000. High ticket prices to serve the existing debts and low attendance figures forced Arsenal to explore the possibility of building a larger stadium in 1997. The club wanted to attract a fanbase and financially compete with the biggest clubs in England. Manchester United by comparison enjoyed a rise in gate receipts from £43.9 million in 1994 to £87.9 million in 1997, Arsenals initial proposal to rebuild Highbury was met with disapproval from local residents, as it required the demolition of 25 neighbouring houses. It soon became problematic once the East Stand of the stadium was granted Grade II listing in July 1997, after much consultation, the club eventually abandoned its plan, deciding a capacity of 48,000 was not big enough. In January 1998, Arsenal investigated the opportunity of relocating to Wembley Stadium, the Football Association and the English National Stadium Trust opposed Arsenals offer, stating that it would harm Englands bid for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, though FIFA denied this
Crystal Palace National Sports Centre
The National Sports Centre at Crystal Palace in south London, England is a large sports centre and athletics stadium. The sports centre building was designed by the LCC Architects Department under Sir Leslie Martin between 1953–54 and is a Grade II* listed building, the athletics stadium has a capacity of 15,500, which can be increased to 24,000 with temporary seating. The current 15,500 seater athletics stadium was built on the site of the ground by M J Gleeson. From 1999 to 2012 it hosted the London Grand Prix, the stadium can be expanded to 24,000 with temporary seating if required. With the opening of the London Olympic Stadium in 2012, its future as a stadium hosting athletics events is in doubt. Crystal Palace F. C. has submitted plans to rebuild the stadium as a 40,000 seater football stadium without a running track, but with a new indoor aquatic and sports centre as part of the complex. The current athletics stadium is on the land as a previous football ground. In 1905, the owners wanted their own club to play at the venue.
They were forced to leave by the military, in 1915, the largest domestic attendance ever at the stadium was in the 1913 Cup final between Aston Villa and Sunderland, when 121,919 spectators squeezed into the stands. The previous world record had been the 1901 Cup Final, when 114,815 amassed to watch Tottenham Hotspur, Tottenham Hotspur F. C. However, Spurs plans were cancelled due to their failure to obtain the Olympic Stadium. AC London used the stadium during the 2015–16 season, four more teams won the FA Cup during this time, after replays at other grounds. All but two of the finalists from that era a century ago are still playing in either the Premier League or the Football League Championship, the exceptions being Bradford City, and Bury. Newcastle United appeared in the most finals at the ground, results of finals at Crystal Palace FA Cup Wins at Crystal Palace Crystal Palace FA Cup Final appearances Goals Scored in FA Cup Finals at Crystal Palace Goals Conceded in F. A. Cup Finals at Crystal Palace On 2 December 1905, the ground held the first England Rugby Union international match against New Zealand in England.
On Wednesday 18 August 1965, the ground was the venue of the Rugby league match in which the Commonwealth XIII rugby league team were defeated 7–15 by New Zealand. It played host to Fulham Rugby League in the mid-1980s for a couple of seasons, London County Cricket Club was a short-lived cricket club founded by the Crystal Palace Company. In 1898 they invited W. G. Grace to help form a first-class cricket club. Grace accepted the offer and became the secretary, manager
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river entirely in England and it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary, the Thames drains the whole of Greater London. Its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise, in Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the average discharge from a drainage basin that is 60% smaller. Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs and its catchment area covers a large part of South Eastern and a small part of Western England and the river is fed by 38 named tributaries. The river contains over 80 islands, in 2010, the Thames won the largest environmental award in the world – the $350,000 International Riverprize.
The Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys Thames. It has suggested that it is not of Celtic origin. A place by the river, rather than the river itself, indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name Thames is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit. It is believed that Tamesubugus name was derived from that of the river, tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography. The rivers name has always pronounced with a simple t /t/, the Middle English spelling was typically Temese. A similar spelling from 1210, Tamisiam, is found in the Magna Carta, the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as River Thames or Isis down to Dorchester, richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida.
An alternative, and simpler proposal, is that London may be a Germanic word, for merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the London River. Londoners often refer to it simply as the river in such as south of the river. Thames Valley Police is a body that takes its name from the river. The marks of human activity, in cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river
Southwark Bridge is an arch bridge in London, for traffic linking the district of Southwark and the City across the River Thames. It has the lowest traffic utilisation of any bridge in central London, a previous bridge, designed by John Rennie, opened on the site in 1819 and was originally known as Queen Street Bridge, as shown on the 1818 John Snow Map of London. The bridge consisted of three large cast-iron spans supported by granite piers, the bridge was notable for having the longest cast iron span,240 feet, ever made. A new bridge on the site was designed by Ernest George and it was built by Sir William Arrol & Co. and opened in 1921. The bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation, the current bridge was given Grade II listed structure status in 1995. The south end is near the Tate Modern, the Clink Prison Museum, the Globe Theatre, below the bridge on the south side are some old steps, which were once used by Thames watermen as a place to moor their boats and wait for customers.
Below the bridge on the side is a pedestrian tunnel, part of the Queens Walk Embankment. Southwark Bridge appears in films, including Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. The cream painted houses on the side of the bridge, Anchor Terrace. In the 1964 Disney film Mary Poppins, the Banks family mistakenly think that George W. Banks has committed suicide by jumping off the bridge after he is fired from his job at the bank, Southwark Bridge at Structurae Southwark Bridge at Structurae
Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park
It contains the athletes Olympic Village and several of the sporting venues including the London Stadium and London Aquatics Centre, besides the London Olympics Media Centre. The park is overlooked by the ArcelorMittal Orbit, an observation tower and it was simply called Olympic Park during the Games but was renamed to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. The park occupies an area straddling four east London boroughs, Tower Hamlets, part of the park reopened in July 2013, with a large majority of the rest reopening in April 2014. The site covers parts of Stratford, Bow and Hackney Wick in east London, the site was previously a mixture of greenfield and brownfield land, including parts of Hackney Marshes. The Royal Mail gave the park and Stratford City the postcode E20, the park was designed by the EDAW Consortium, working with Arup and WS Atkins. Detailed landscape architecture was by LDA Design in conjunction with Hargreaves Associates, LDA design contracted Wallace Whittle to carry out various aspects of the M+E Building services design.
The NHBC carried out the Sustainability assessments, the park was illuminated with a lighting scheme designed by Sutton Vane Associates. The fencing arena was cancelled, with the events taking place at ExCeL London. The remaining indoor arenas are the Basketball Arena and the Copper Box, in addition to the Water Polo Arena, the Aquatics Centre, the final design of the park was approved by the Olympic Delivery Authority and its planning-decisions committee. The Legacy List is the independent charity for Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, Sarah Weir, who is an Executive Director of the Almeida Theatre and was running Arts Council England, found The Legacy List, the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park charity. In autumn 2013 Sarah moved on to take up the role of Chief Executive at Waddesdon Manor, during its construction over 80,000 workers were engaged on the project. The construction of the Olympic Park was managed by CLM Delivery Partner, comprising CH2M Hill, Laing ORourke, CLM specifically managed the white space between the venue construction zones, including managing the internal road network.
No one, except perhaps the admirable Oudolf, wants to do the quiet stuff, great care was taken to make the Athletes Village aesthetically orderly, to the point where it began to resemble Ceausescus Bucharest, this eruption makes such efforts futile. Robert Holden and Tom Turner, in a review of the Olympic Parks landscape architecture state that Our fundamental point is that the planning is much better than the landscape design. The landscape planning includes the opening up of the River Lea in the section of the park, the habitat-creation strategy. The landscape design is dominated by vast pedestrian concourses which will be busy during events, there is some good garden-type planting but it has not been used to make gardens, it is used more like strips of planting beside highways. The park has a number of uses after the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London finished, such as, a university exploiting the sporting facilities and high-tech communications infrastructure remaining specialising in sport science, digital media and green technology.
3,600 apartments, the East Village, next to the Stratford City neighbourhood of Stratford, the Orbit, a steel tower which is the largest public work of art in the UK and a major tourist attraction
Albert Bridge, London
The Albert Bridge is a road bridge over the River Thames in West London, connecting Chelsea on the north bank to Battersea on the south bank. In 1973 the Greater London Council added two concrete piers, which transformed the central span into a beam bridge. As a result, today the bridge is a hybrid of three different design styles. It is an English Heritage Grade II* listed building, built as a toll bridge, it was commercially unsuccessful. Six years after its opening it was taken into public ownership, the tollbooths remained in place and are the only surviving examples of bridge tollbooths in London. Incorporating a roadway only 27 feet wide, and with serious structural weaknesses, the strengthening work carried out by Bazalgette and the Greater London Council did not prevent further deterioration of the bridges structure. In 1992, the Albert Bridge was rewired and painted in a colour scheme designed to make it more conspicuous in poor visibility. At night it is illuminated by 4,000 bulbs, making it one of west Londons most striking landmarks, in 2010–2011, these were replaced with LEDs.
Work on the Victoria Bridge, a distance downstream of Battersea Bridge, began in 1851 and was completed in 1858. Meanwhile, the proposal to demolish Battersea Bridge was abandoned, the wooden Battersea Bridge had become dilapidated by the mid-19th century. It had grown unpopular and was considered unsafe, the newer Victoria Bridge, suffered severe congestion. A compromise was reached, and in 1864 a new Act of Parliament was passed, the Act compelled the Albert Bridge Company to purchase Battersea Bridge once the new bridge opened, and to compensate its owners by paying them £3,000 per annum in the interim. Rowland Mason Ordish was appointed to design the new bridge, Ordish was a leading architectural engineer who had worked on the Royal Albert Hall, St Pancras railway station, the Crystal Palace and Holborn Viaduct. The bridge was built using the Ordish–Lefeuvre system, a form of cable-stayed bridge design which Ordish had patented in 1858. While plans for the Chelsea Embankment were debated, Ordish built the Franz Joseph Bridge over the Vltava in Prague to the design as that intended for the Albert Bridge.
In 1869, the time allowed by the 1864 Act to build the bridge expired, delays caused by the Chelsea Embankment project meant that work on the bridge had not even begun, and a new Act of Parliament was required to extend the time limit. Construction finally got underway in 1870, and it was anticipated that the bridge would be completed in about a year, in the event, the project ran for over three years, and the final bill came to £200,000. As the law demanded, the Albert Bridge Company bought Battersea Bridge, ordishs bridge was 41 feet wide and 710 feet long, with a 384-foot-9-inch central span
It is one of the United Kingdoms most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and, British monarchs. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral, since 1560, the building is no longer an abbey nor a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England Royal Peculiar—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. The building itself is the abbey church. According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site in the 7th century, at the time of Mellitus, construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror in 1066, all coronations of English and British monarchs have held in Westminster Abbey. There have been at least 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100, two were of reigning monarchs, before 1919, there had been none for some 500 years. The first reports of the abbey are based on a tradition claiming that a young fisherman called Aldrich on the River Thames saw a vision of Saint Peter near the site.
This seems to be quoted to justify the gifts of salmon from Thames fishermen that the abbey received in years, in the present was, the Fishmongers Company still gives a salmon every year. The proven origins are that in the 960s or early 970s, Saint Dunstan, assisted by King Edgar, between 1042 and 1052, King Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St Peters Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church. It was the first church in England built in the Romanesque style, the building was completed around 1090 and was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edwards death on 5 January 1066. A week later, he was buried in the church, nine years and his successor, Harold II, was probably crowned in the abbey, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror the same year. The only extant depiction of Edwards abbey, together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry, construction of the present church was begun in 1245 by Henry III who selected the site for his burial.
The abbot and monks, in proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster, the abbot often was employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords as of right. The abbey built shops and dwellings on the west side, encroaching upon the sanctuary, the abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings. The Confessors shrine subsequently played a part in his canonisation. The work continued between 1245 and 1517 and was finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of Richard II. Henry III commissioned the unique Cosmati pavement in front of the High Altar, Henry VII added a Perpendicular style chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1503. Much of the came from Caen, in France, the Isle of Portland
The Den is a football stadium in Bermondsey, south-east London, and the home of Millwall Football Club. It is situated adjacent to the South London railway line originating at London Bridge, and a quarter-of-a-mile from The Old Den, which it replaced in 1993. Built on a site of housing, a church and the Senegal Fields playgrounds, it has an all-seated capacity of 20,146. The Den is the ground that Millwall have occupied since their formation in the Millwall area of the Isle of Dogs in 1885. It was designed with effective management in mind, with the escape routes being short. Originally, it was planned to have a capacity of between 25,000 and 30,000, the club opted to wait so the capacity was kept to just over 20,000. Millwall played their game at The Old Den on 8 May 1993 after 83 years. The Den was the first new stadium constructed for a football team in London since 1937. Millwall have experienced mixed fortunes since relocating to The Den and their first season at the stadium saw them finish third in Division Two—their highest finish since relegation from the top flight four years earlier.
However, their dreams of Premier League football were ended by a defeat in the playoffs and they were relegated to Division Three in 1996 and they came close to reaching the Premier League again in 2002, finishing fourth but once again losing in the playoffs. The Lions reached the FA Cup final for the first time in 2004, in September 2016 Lewisham Council approved a compulsory purchase order of land surrounding The Den rented by Millwall, as part of a major redevelopment of the New Bermondsey area. Millwall had submitted their own plans for regeneration centred around the club itself. On 20 January 2011 the east stand of The Den was renamed as the Dockers Stand, paying tribute to Millwalls earlier history, the south stand is known as the Cold Blow Lane stand, which was the name of the road which led into The Old Den. The north stand is for visiting supporters and the west stand was renamed the Barry Kitchener stand and it houses Millwalls family enclosure, press box and executive seats. In 1994, a match was held at The Den.
Local boy Michael Bentt lost his WBO World Heavyweight Championship to Herbie Hide, the fight was Bentts last after being rushed to the hospital and told he could never fight again, after suffering brain injuries in the loss. On 1 May 2006, The Den hosted the FA Womens Cup Final between Arsenal L. F. C. and Leeds United L. F. C, Arsenal Ladies won the Cup 5–0. Three international matches have been hosted at The Den, ghana 1–1 Senegal, Jamaica 0–0 Nigeria and Australia 3–4 Ecuador
The Championship Course
The stretch of the River Thames between Mortlake and Putney in London, England is a well-established course for rowing races, most famously the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. It is often referred to as The Championship Course, the course is on the tidal reaches of the river often referred to as the Tideway. In 1845 it was agreed to stage the Boat Race on a course from Putney Bridge to Mortlake Church tower, the aim was to reduce the interference from heavy river traffic on the race. The following year, a race for the Professional World Sculling Championship moved to the course for the first time, the Wingfield Sculls followed in 1861. The course distance is 4 miles and 374 yards, as measured along the centre of the rivers stream, races are always conducted in the same direction as the tide, from Mortlake to Putney on an ebb tide or from Putney to Mortlake on a flood tide. Since the Boat Race moved to this course in 1845, it has always been raced on a tide from Putney to Mortlake except in 1846,1856 and 1863.
The Wingfield Sculls is raced from Putney to Mortlake, most other events race on an ebb tide from Mortlake to Putney. In April 1869 the Harvard University Boat Club challenged Oxford University Boat Club to an International University Boat-Race of coxed fours on the Boat Race course, the event took place on 27 August 1869 and was narrowly won by Oxford. The new Atlantic cable allowed daily reports to be received by all major newspapers across America within 23 minutes of the finish, U. S. S. and lead to the formation of the Rowing Association of American Colleges
Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, the south end is near the Tate Modern art gallery and the Oxo Tower. The first fixed crossing at Blackfriars was a 995 feet long toll bridge designed in an Italianate style by Robert Mylne, beating designs by John Gwynn and George Dance, it took nine years to build, opening to the public in 1769. It was the bridge across the Thames in the built-up area of London, supplementing the ancient London Bridge, which dated from several centuries earlier. It was made toll free, the Fleet can be seen discharging into the Thames at its north side. This created the junction at St Georges Circus between Westminster Bridge Road, Borough Road and the named Blackfriars Road which crossed the largely open parish of Christchurch Surrey, the continuation to the south at the major junction at Elephant and Castle is therefore named London Road.
Although it was built of Portland stone the workmanship was very faulty and this is the present bridge which in 1869 was opened by Queen Victoria. The present bridge is 923 feet long, consisting of five wrought iron arches built to a design by Joseph Cubitt, Cubitt designed the adjacent rail bridge and it was a condition that the spans and piers of the two bridges be aligned. It was built by P. A. Thom & Co, like its predecessor it is owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. Like London Bridge the full length and its end is within the Citys borders. Due to the volume of traffic over the bridge, it was widened between 1907–10, from 70 feet to its present 105 feet. In 2005, five suspected members of the Mafia were tried in a Rome court for Calvis murder, on the piers of the bridge are stone carvings of water birds by sculptor John Birnie Philip. On the East side, the carvings show marine life and seabirds, on the north side of the bridge is a statue of Queen Victoria, to whom the bridge was dedicated.
The ends of the bridge are shaped like a pulpit in a reference to Black Friars, Blackfriars Bridge station continued as a goods stop until 1964 when it was completely demolished, and much of it redeveloped into offices. The River Fleet empties into the Thames under the end of Blackfriars Bridge. The structure was given Grade II listed status in 1972, in 1774 the new bridge was mentioned in a popular song in Charles Dibdins opera The Waterman, referring to the boatmen who used to carry fashionable folks to Vauxhall Gardens and Ranelagh Gardens. And did you not hear of the jolly young waterman, Who at Blackfriars Bridge used for to ply, and he feathered his oars with such skill and dexterity, Winning each heart and delighting each eye. The name was given to one of the Bailey Bridges over the Rhine River in 1945, in Neil Gaimans Neverwhere, Blackfriars Bridge was named as the home of an unknown order of monks who held the key to an angelic prison
London Bridge refers to several historical bridges that have spanned the River Thames between the City of London and Southwark, in central London. The current crossing, which opened to traffic in 1973, is a box girder bridge built from concrete and this replaced a 19th-century stone-arched bridge, which in turn superseded a 600-year-old medieval structure. This was preceded by a succession of bridges, the first built by the Roman founders of London. The current bridge stands at the end of the Pool of London but is positioned 30 metres upstream from previous alignments. The traditional ends of the bridge were marked by St Magnus-the-Martyr on the northern bank. Until Putney Bridge opened in 1729, London Bridge was the only road-crossing of the Thames downstream of Kingston-upon-Thames and its importance has been the subject of popular culture throughout the ages such as in the nursery rhyme London Bridge Is Falling Down and its inclusion within art and literature. The modern bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates and it carries the A3 road, which is maintained by the Greater London Authority.
The crossing delineates an area along the bank of the River Thames. The abutments of modern London Bridge rest several metres above natural embankments of gravel, between the embankments, the River Thames could have been crossed by ford when the tide was low, or ferry when it was high. There is archaeological evidence for scattered Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement nearby, two ancient fords were in use a few miles upstream, beyond the rivers upper tidal reach. They were aligned with the course of Watling Street and led into the heartlands of the Catuvellauni, some time before Claudius conquest of AD43, power shifted to the Trinovantes, who held the region northeast of the Thames estuary from a capital at Camulodunum. Claudius imposed a major colonia on Camulodunum, and made it the city of the new Roman province of Britannia. The first London Bridge was built by the Roman military as part of their road-building programme, around AD55, the temporary bridge over the Thames was replaced by a permanent timber piled bridge and guarded by a small garrison.
On the relatively high, dry ground at the end of the bridge, a small, opportunistic trading and shipping settlement took root. A smaller settlement developed at the end of the bridge. The bridge was destroyed along with the town in the Boudican revolt. Just downstream of the bridge were substantial quays and depots, convenient to seagoing trade between Britain and the rest of the Roman Empire, with the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century, Londinium was gradually abandoned and the bridge fell into disrepair. In the Saxon period, the became a boundary between the emergent, mutually hostile kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex