The Ohio Country was a name used in the mid to late 18th century for a region of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and north of the upper Ohio and Allegheny Rivers extending to Lake Erie. The area encompassed all of present-day Ohio, northwestern West Virginia, Western Pennsylvania, a wedge of southeastern Indiana; this area was disputed in the 17th century by the Iroquois and other Native American tribes, by France and Great Britain in the mid-18th century. During British sovereignty, several minor "wars" including Pontiac's Rebellion and Dunmore's war were fought here. Ohio Country became part of unorganized U. S. territory in 1783 with the Treaty of Paris. It was one of the first frontier regions of the United States. Several colonial states had conflicting claims to portions of it, including Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania. In 1787, it became part of the larger organized Northwest Territory. In the 17th century, the area north of the Ohio River had been occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Shawnee and some Siouan language-speaking tribes.
Around 1660, during a conflict known as the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois seized control of the Ohio Country, driving out the Shawnee and Siouans, such as the Omaha and Ponca, who settled further northwest and west. The Iroquois conquered and absorbed the Erie, who spoke an Iroquoian language; the Ohio Country remained uninhabited for decades, was used as a hunting ground by the Iroquois. In the 1720s, a number of Native American groups began to migrate to the Ohio Country from the East, driven by pressure from encroaching colonists. By 1724, Delaware Indians had established the village of Kittanning on the Allegheny River in present-day western Pennsylvania. With them came those Shawnee who had settled in the east. Other bands of the scattered Shawnee tribe began to return to the Ohio Country in the decades that followed. A number of Seneca and other Iroquois migrated to the Ohio Country, moving away from the French and British imperial rivalries south of Lake Ontario; the Seneca were the westernmost of the Iroquois nations based in New York.
In the late 1740s and the second half of the 18th century, the British angled for control of the territory. In 1749, the British Crown, via the colonial government of Virginia, granted the Ohio Company a great deal of this territory on the condition that it be settled by British colonists. With the arrival of the Europeans, both Great Britain and France claimed the area and both sent fur traders into the area to do business with the Ohio Country Indians; the Iroquois League claimed the region by right of conquest. The rivalry between the two European nations, the Iroquois, the Ohio natives for control of the region played an important part in the French and Indian War from 1754 through 1760. After remaining neutral, the Ohio Country Indians sided with the French. Armed with supplies and guns from the French, they raided via the Kittanning Path against British settlers east of the Alleghenies. After they destroyed Fort Granville in the summer of 1756, the colonial governor John Penn ordered Lt. Colonel John Armstrong to destroy the Shawnee villages west of the Alleghenies.
The British defeated the their allies. Meanwhile, other British and colonial forces drove the French from Fort Duquesne and built Fort Pitt, the origin of the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In the 1763 Treaty of Paris, France ceded control of the entire Ohio region to Great Britain, without consulting its native allies, who still believed they had territorial claims. Colonies such as Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed some of the westward lands by their original charters. In an attempt to improve relations with the Native Americans to encourage trade and avoid conflicts with colonists, George III in his Royal Proclamation of 1763 placed the Ohio Country in what was declared an Indian Reserve, stretching from the Appalachian Mountains west to the Mississippi River and from as far north as Newfoundland to Florida; the British ordered the existing settlers either to leave or obtain special permission to stay and prohibited British colonists from settling west of the Appalachians. The area was closed to European settlement by the Royal Proclamation of 1763.
The Crown no longer recognized claims. On June 22, 1774, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act. Colonists in the Thirteen Colonies considered this one of the Intolerable Acts passed by Parliament, contributing to the American Revolution. Despite the Crown's actions, frontiersmen from the Virginia and Pennsylvania colonies began to cross the Allegheny Mountains and came into conflict with the Shawnee; the Shawnee referred to the settlers as the Long Knives. Because of the threat posed by the colonists, the Shawnee and other nations of the Ohio Country chose to side with the British against the rebel colonists during the American Revolutionary War. Americans wanted to establish control over the region. In 1778, after victories in the region by the Patriot general George Rogers Clark, the Virginia legislature organized the first American civil government in the region, they called it the Illinois County, which encompassed all of the lands lying west of the Ohio River to which Virginia had any claim.
The high-water mark of the Native American struggle to retain the region was in 1782: the Ohio Nations and the British met in a council at the Chalawgatha village along the Little Miami River to plan what was the successful rout of the Americans at the Battle of Blue Licks, south of the Ohio River, two weeks later. In 1783, following the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain ceded the area to
Alexander Township, Athens County, Ohio
Alexander Township is one of the fourteen townships of Athens County, United States. The 2010 census found 2,811 people in the township. Located in the southwestern part of the county, it borders the following townships: Athens Township - north Canaan Township - northeast corner Lodi Township - east Bedford Township, Meigs County - southeast corner Scipio Township, Meigs County - south Columbia Township, Meigs County - southwest corner Lee Township - west Waterloo Township - northwest cornerA small part of the village of Albany is located in southwestern Alexander Township. Alexander Township contains the unincorporated community of Pleasanton, it is the only Alexander Township statewide. The township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election.
Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website
Manasseh Cutler (representative)
Manasseh Cutler was an American clergyman involved in the American Revolutionary War. Cutler was a member of the United States House of Representatives. Cutler is "rightly entitled to be called'The Father of Ohio University.'" Cutler was born in Connecticut. In 1765, he graduated from Yale College and after being a school teacher in Dedham, Massachusetts and a merchant – and appearing in court as a lawyer – he decided to enter the ministry. From 1771 until his death, he was pastor of the Congregational church in what was the parish of Ipswich, Massachusetts until 1793, now Hamilton. For a few months in 1776, he was chaplain to the 11th Massachusetts Regiment commanded by Colonel Ebenezer Francis, raised for the defense of Boston. In 1778, he became chaplain to General Jonathan Titcomb's brigade and took part in General John Sullivan's expedition to Rhode Island. Soon after his return from this expedition he trained in medicine to supplement the scanty income of a minister. In 1782, he established a private boarding school.
In 1786, Cutler became interested in the settlement of western lands by American pioneers to the Northwest Territory. The following year, as agent of the Ohio Company of Associates that he had been involved in creating, he organized a contract with Congress whereby his associates might purchase one and a half million acres of land at the mouth of the Muskingum River with their Certificate of Indebtedness. Cutler took a leading part in drafting the famous Ordinance of 1787 for the government of the Northwest Territory, presented to Congress by Massachusetts delegate Nathan Dane. In order to smooth passage of the Northwest Ordinance, Cutler bribed key congressmen by making them partners in his land company. By changing the office of provisional governor from an elected to an appointed position, Cutler was able to offer the position to the president of Congress, Arthur St. Clair. From 1801 to 1805, Cutler was a Federalist representative in Congress. Cutler was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1781.
Besides being proficient in the theology and medicine of his day, he conducted painstaking astronomical and meteorological investigations and was one of the first Americans to conduct significant botanical research. He is considered a founder of Ohio University and the National Historic Landmark Cutler Hall on that campus is named in his honor, he received the degree of Doctor of Laws from Yale University in 1789. Manasseh was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1813. Cutler died in 1823 at Massachusetts. Three his descendants were members of the U. S. Congress-and one vice president: William P. Cutler son of Ephraim Cutler Rufus Dawes son of Congressman Rufus Dawes Ephraim Cutler William P. Cutler This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cutler, Manasseh". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 671. United States Congress. "Manasseh Cutler". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Manasseh Cutler at Ohio History Central Cutler, W.
P.. P.. Life Journals and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler 2 vols. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Company. Potts, Louis W.. "Manasseh Cutler, Lobbyist". Ohio History. 96: 101–123. "Manasseh Cutler". Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography. 2. 1887. P. 47
The Toledo War known as the Michigan–Ohio War, was an bloodless boundary dispute between the U. S. state of Ohio and the adjoining territory of Michigan. Poor geographical understanding of the Great Lakes helped produce conflicting state and federal legislation between 1787 and 1805, varying interpretations of the laws led the governments of Ohio and Michigan to both claim jurisdiction over a 468-square-mile region along the border, now known as the Toledo Strip; the situation came to a head when Michigan petitioned for statehood in 1835 and sought to include the disputed territory within its boundaries. Both sides passed legislation attempting to force the other side's capitulation, while Ohio's Governor Robert Lucas and Michigan's 24-year-old "Boy Governor" Stevens T. Mason helped institute criminal penalties for citizens submitting to the other's authority. Both states deployed militias on opposite sides of the Maumee River near Toledo, but besides mutual taunting, there was little interaction between the two forces.
The single military confrontation of the "war" ended with a report of shots being fired into the air, incurring no casualties. During the summer of 1836, Congress proposed a compromise whereby Michigan gave up its claim to the strip in exchange for its statehood and about three-quarters of the Upper Peninsula; the compromise was considered a poor outcome for Michigan. Voters in a state convention in September soundly rejected the proposal, but in December, the Michigan government, facing a dire financial crisis and pressure from Congress and President Andrew Jackson, called another convention which accepted the compromise that resolved the Toledo War. In 1787, the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance, which created the Northwest Territory in what is now the upper Midwestern United States; the Ordinance specified that the territory was to be divided into "not less than three nor more than five" future states. It was determined that the north-south boundary for three of these states was to be "an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan".
At the time, the actual location of this extreme was unknown. The most regarded map of the time, the "Mitchell Map", placed it at a latitude near the mouth of the Detroit River; this meant that the entire shoreline of Lake Erie west of Pennsylvania would have belonged to the state, to become Ohio. When Congress passed the Enabling Act of 1802, which authorized Ohio to begin the process of becoming a U. S. state, the language defining Ohio's northern boundary differed from that used in the Northwest Ordinance: the border was to be "an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east... until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid". Because the territorial boundary line between the U. S. and British North America ran through the middle of Lake Erie and up the Detroit River, combined with the prevailing belief regarding the location of the southern tip of Lake Michigan, the framers of the 1802 Ohio Constitution believed it was the intent of Congress that Ohio's northern boundary should be north of the mouth of the Maumee River, even of the Detroit River.
Ohio would thus be granted access to most or all of the Lake Erie shoreline west of Pennsylvania, any other new states carved out of the Northwest Territory would have access to the Great Lakes only via Lakes Michigan and Superior. During the Ohio Constitutional Convention in 1802, the delegates received reports from a fur trapper that Lake Michigan extended farther south than had been believed. Thus, it was possible that an east-west line extending east from Lake Michigan's southern tip might intersect Lake Erie somewhere east of Maumee Bay, or worse, might not intersect the lake at all. Addressing this contingency, the Ohio delegates included a provision in the draft Ohio constitution that if the trapper's report about Lake Michigan's position was correct, the state boundary line would be angled northeast so as to intersect Lake Erie at the "most northerly cape of the Miami Bay." This provision would guarantee that most of the Maumee River watershed and all of the southern shore of Lake Erie west of Pennsylvania would fall in Ohio.
The draft constitution with this proviso was accepted by the United States Congress, but before Ohio's admission to the Union in February 1803, the proposed constitution was referred to a Congressional committee. The committee's report stated that the clause defining the northern boundary depended on "a fact not yet ascertained", the members "thought it unnecessary to take it, at the time, into consideration."When Congress created the Michigan Territory in 1805, it used the Northwest Ordinance's language to define the territory's southern boundary, which therefore differed from that in Ohio's state constitution. This difference, its potential ramifications went unnoticed at the time, but it established the legal basis for the conflict that would erupt 30 years later; the location of the border was contested throughout the early 19th century. Residents of the Port of Miami—which would become Toledo—urged the Ohi
Connecticut Western Reserve
The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Colony of Connecticut and by the state of Connecticut in what is now the northeastern region of Ohio. The Reserve had been granted to the Colony under the terms of its charter by King Charles II. Connecticut relinquished claim to some of its western lands to the United States in 1786 following the American Revolutionary War and preceding the 1787 establishment of the Northwest Territory. Despite ceding sovereignty to the United States, Connecticut retained ownership of the eastern portion of its cession, south of Lake Erie, it sold much of this "Western Reserve" to a group of speculators who operated as the Connecticut Land Company. The phrase Western Reserve is preserved in numerous institutional names in Ohio, such as Western Reserve Academy, Case Western Reserve University, Western Reserve Hospital; the Reserve encompassed all of the following Ohio counties: Ashtabula, Cuyahoga and Huron, Lake, Medina, Trumbull. After the American Revolutionary War, Connecticut was forced by the federal government to surrender the Pennsylvania portion of its "sea-to-sea land grant" following the Yankee-Pennamite Wars.
The state held fast to its claim on the lands between the 41st and 42nd-and-2-minutes parallels that lay west of the Pennsylvania state border. The claim within Ohio was for a 120-mile -wide strip between Lake Erie and a line just south of present-day Youngstown, New London, Willard, about 3 miles south of present-day U. S. Highway 224; the claim beyond Ohio included parts of Michigan, Illinois, Nebraska, Utah and California. The eastern boundary of the reserve follows a true meridian along Ellicott's Line, the boundary with Pennsylvania; the western boundary veers more than four degrees from a meridian to maintain the 120-mile width, due to convergence. Connecticut gave up western land claims following the American Revolutionary War in exchange for federal assumption of its debt, as did several other states. From these concessions, the federal government organized the old Northwest Territory, earlier known as the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio"; the deed of cession was issued on 13 September 1786.
As population increased in portions of the Northwest Territory, new states were organized and admitted to the Union in the early 19th century. Connecticut retained 3,366,921 acres in Ohio, which became known as the "Western Reserve"; the state sold the Western Reserve to the Connecticut Land Company in 1796 for $1,200,000. The Land Company were a group of investors who were from Suffield, Connecticut; the initial eight men in the group planned to divide the land into homestead plots and sell it to settlers from the east. But the Indian titles to the Reserve had not been extinguished. Clear title was obtained east of the Cuyahoga River by the Greenville Treaty in 1795 and west of the river in the Treaty of Fort Industry in 1805; the western end of the reserve included the Firelands or "Sufferers' Lands," 500,000 acres reserved for residents of several New England towns, destroyed by British-set fires during the Revolutionary War. The next year, the Land Company sent surveyors led by Moses Cleaveland to the Reserve to divide the land into square townships, 5 miles on each side (25 square miles.
Cleaveland's team founded the city of Cleveland along Lake Erie, which became the largest city in the region. The territory was named "New Connecticut", settlers began to trickle in during the next few years. Youngstown was founded in 1796, Warren in 1798, Hudson in 1799, Ravenna in 1799, Ashtabula in 1803, Stow in 1804. Connecticut ceded sovereignty over the Western Reserve in 1800; the United States absorbed it into the Northwest Territory, which organized Trumbull County within the boundaries of the Reserve. Warren, Ohio, is the former county seat of the Reserve and identifies itself as "the historical capital of the Western Reserve." Several more counties were carved out of the territory. The name "Western Reserve" survives in the area in various institutions such as the "Western Reserve Historical Society" and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio; this area of Ohio became a center of resource development and industrialization through the mid-20th century. It was a center of the steel industry, receiving iron ore shipped through the Great Lakes from Minnesota, processing it into steel products, shipping these products to the east.
This industry stimulated the development of great freight lakers, as the steam ships were known, including the first steel ships in the 20th century. Railroads took over some of the commodity transportation from the lake ships. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these cities attracted hundreds of thousands of European immigrants and migrants from the rural South to its industrial jobs. At the request of Congress in 2011, the National Park Service prepared a feasibility study for declaring the 14-county region of the Western Reserve as a National Heritage Area; this is a means to encourage broad-based preservation of such historical sites and buildings that are related to a large historical theme. Such assessment and designation has been significant for recognizing assets, encouragi
Turnpike Lands were a group of land tracts granted by the United States Congress to the state of Ohio in 1827 along the path of a proposed road in the northwest corner of the state. With the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 the Indian Nations ceded southern and eastern Ohio to white settlement; the Treaty of Fort Industry in 1805 moved the boundary westward to a line 120 miles west of Pennsylvania, which coincided with the western boundary of the Firelands of the Connecticut Western Reserve. In 1807, the Treaty of Detroit called for the cession of lands northwest of the Maumee River, in Ohio, in the Michigan Territory; the area between the Maumee River and the 1805 boundary remained Indian Lands, thus, the United States could not build a road connecting settlements in Ohio and the Michigan Territory. This area was swampy, would require much engineering effort and funds to cross with a road. On November 25, 1808, at Brownstown in Michigan Territory, the United States and five nations of Indians signed the Treaty of Brownstown.
Article II of the treaty called for the Indian Nations to cede to the United States “…also a tract of land, for a road only, of one hundred twenty feet in weadth, to run southwardly from what is called Lower Sandusky, to the boundary line established by the Treaty of Greenville, with the privilege of taking at all times, such timber and other materials, from the adjacent lands as may be necessary for making and keeping in repair the said road, with the bridges that may be required along the same.” Lower Sandusky is now called Fremont and the boundary line of the Greenville Treaty lies in southern Marion County. Nothing was accomplished by Congress, so, in 1820, the Ohio legislature asked Congress to take action. All the land between the Maumee River and the Western Reserve was ceded by the Indians with the Treaty of Fort Meigs in 1817, surveyed into townships and sections in the Congress Lands South and East of the First Principal Meridian in 1819, North and East of the First Principal Meridian in 1821.
It became more desirable to run a road to Sandusky City on Lake Erie rather than Fremont. In 1827, clarified in 1828, Congress granted to the state of Ohio “forty-nine sections of land to be located in the Delaware Land District, in the following manner, to-wit: Every alternate section through which the road may run, the section next adjoining thereto on the west, so far as the said sections remain unsold, and, if any part of the sections shall have been disposed of a quantity equal thereto shall be selected by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, from the vacant lands in the sections adjoining on the west of those appropriated.”The road was constructed by the Columbus and Sandusky Turnpike Company. The grant of 31,596.09 acres was declared for the use and benefit of the turnpike company by the state legislature in 1828 for the purpose of building the road, authorized the company to sell the land and the governor to execute the deeds to the purchasers. Ohio State Route 4 north of Bucyrus in Seneca and Crawford counties, Ohio State Route 98 south of Bucyrus in Crawford and Marion counties are situated along the path of the Columbus and Sandusky Turnpike where the 1828 grant was made.
Ohio Lands Peters, William E. Ohio Lands and Their Subdivision. W. E. Peters. "Turnpike Lands". Ohio History Central
South and East of the First Principal Meridian
South and East of the First Principal Meridian is a land description in the American Midwest. In 1812, Congress authorized the Surveyor General to survey the northern and western border of Ohio “as soon as the consent of the Indians can be obtained.“ In 1817, the northern portion of the Ohio-Indiana border was surveyed and became known as the First Principal Meridian for lands surveyed in the northwest part of Ohio. The 41st parallel north latitude became the base line. Congress Lands lying east of the meridian and south of the base line were first surveyed in 1819 under the direction of Edward Tiffin, Surveyor General of the United States; the tract included. This survey used the standard six-mile-square township. Surveyed ranges were numbered west to east. Before this, land had been surveyed using several inconsistent and less satisfactory systems Allen, Crawford, Van Wert, Wyandot counties as well as portions of Hardin, Marion, Mercer and Putnam counties are included in the survey; the Act of March 3, 1819 established the Piqua Land District, with a Land Office in that town for sale of lands in this survey within 48 miles of the state of Indiana.
For lands in this survey more than 48 miles from Indiana, a land office and land district were established at Delaware. The Piqua office was moved to ”Wapaughkoneta“ on March 3, 1835, to Lima, on March 3, 1843, to a consolidated land district at Upper Sandusky. Sales were conducted from the nation’s capital at the General Land Office. Local offices were closed; the State of Ohio eventually sold lands granted to them by the federal government, such as section 16 of each township, the Turnpike Lands. Ohio Lands North and East of the First Principal Meridian Historic regions of the United States