Eleanora Fagan, better known as Billie Holiday, was an American jazz singer with a career spanning nearly thirty years. Nicknamed "Lady Day" by her friend and music partner Lester Young, Holiday had a seminal influence on jazz music and pop singing, her vocal style inspired by jazz instrumentalists, pioneered a new way of manipulating phrasing and tempo. She was known for her vocal delivery and improvisational skills, which made up for her limited range and lack of formal music education. After a turbulent childhood, Holiday began singing in nightclubs in Harlem, where she was heard by the producer John Hammond, who commended her voice, she signed a recording contract with Brunswick in 1935. Collaborations with Teddy Wilson yielded the hit "What a Little Moonlight Can Do", which became a jazz standard. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Holiday had mainstream success on labels such as Decca. By the late 1940s, she was beset with legal troubles and drug abuse. After a short prison sentence, she performed at a sold-out concert at Carnegie Hall, but her reputation deteriorated because of her drug and alcohol problems.
Though she was a successful concert performer throughout the 1950s with two further sold-out shows at Carnegie Hall, Holiday's bad health, coupled with a string of abusive relationships and ongoing drug and alcohol abuse, caused her voice to wither. Her final recordings were met with mixed reaction, owing to her damaged voice, but were mild commercial successes, her final album, Lady in Satin, was released in 1958. Holiday died of cirrhosis on July 17, 1959, she won four Grammy Awards, all of them posthumously, for Best Historical Album. She was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1973. Lady Sings the Blues, a film about her life, starring Diana Ross, was released in 1972, she is the primary character in the play Lady Day at Grill. In 2017 Holiday was inducted into the National Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame. Eleanora Fagan was born on April 7, 1915, in Philadelphia, the daughter of unwed teenage couple Sarah Julia "Sadie" Fagan and Clarence Holiday. Sarah moved to Philadelphia aged 19, after she was evicted from her parents' home in the Sandtown-Winchester neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland for becoming pregnant.
With no support from her parents, she made arrangements with her older, married half-sister Eva Miller for Eleanora to stay with her in Baltimore. Not long after Eleanora was born, Clarence abandoned his family to pursue a career as a jazz banjo player and guitarist. Holiday had a difficult childhood, her mother took what were known as "transportation jobs", serving on passenger railroads. Holiday was raised by Eva Miller's mother-in-law Martha Miller, suffered from her mother's absences and being in others' care for her first decade of life. Holiday's autobiography, Lady Sings the Blues, first published in 1956, is sketchy on details of her early life, but much was confirmed by Stuart Nicholson in his 1995 biography of the singer; some historians have disputed Holiday's paternity, as a copy of her birth certificate in the Baltimore archives lists her father as "Frank DeViese." Other historians consider this an anomaly inserted by a hospital or government worker. DeViese lived in Philadelphia, Sadie Harris may have known him through her work.
Sadie Harris known as Sadie Fagan, married Philip Gough, but the marriage ended in two years. Eleanora was left with Martha Miller, she skipped school, her truancy resulted in her being brought before the juvenile court on January 5, 1925, when she was nine years old. She was sent to the House of the Good Shepherd, a Catholic reform school, where she was baptized on March 19, 1925. After nine months in care, she was "paroled" on October 1925, to her mother, she had opened a restaurant, the East Side Grill, mother and daughter worked long hours there. By the age of 11, Holiday had dropped out of school. On December 24, 1926, Sadie came home to discover a neighbor, Wilbur Rich, attempting to rape Eleanora, she fought back, Rich was arrested. Officials placed Eleanora in the House of the Good Shepherd under protective custody as a state witness in the rape case. Holiday was released in February 1927, she found a job running errands in a brothel, she scrubbed marble steps and kitchen and bathroom floors of neighborhood homes.
Around this time, she first heard the records of Bessie Smith. By the end of 1928, Holiday's mother moved to Harlem, New York, again leaving Eleanora with Martha Miller. By early 1929, Holiday had joined her mother in Harlem, their landlady was a sharply-dressed woman named Florence Williams, who ran a brothel at 151 West 140th Street. Holiday's mother became a prostitute, within a matter of days of arriving in New York, not yet 14 became a prostitute at $5 a client; the house was raided on May 2, 1929, Holiday and her mother were sent to prison. After spending time in a workhouse, her mother was released in July, Holiday was released in October; as a young teenager, Holiday started singing in nightclubs in Harlem. She took her professional pseudonym from Billie Dove, an actress she admired, the musician Clarence Holiday, her probable father. At the outset of her career, she spelled her last name "Halliday", her father's birth surname, but changed it to "Holiday", his performing name; the young singer teamed up with tenor saxophone player Kenneth Hollan.
They were a team from 1929 to 1931, performing at clubs such as the Grey Dawn, Pod's and Jerry's on 133rd
Ross and Macdonald
Ross and Macdonald was one of Canada's most notable architecture firms in the early 20th century. Based in Montreal, the firm operated as a partnership between George Allen Ross and David MacFarlane from 1907 to 1912. MacFarlane withdrew from the firm in 1912, Robert Henry Macdonald became a partner; the Ross and Macdonald name was used until 1944, after which it became Ross & Ross, when John Kenneth Ross joined his father as partner. Following George Allen Ross's death in 1946, the firm continued as Ross, Townsend & Heughan. By 1970, the firm was known as Ross, Duschenes & Barrett. Since 2006, it has operated as DFS Inc. Architecture & Design. Ross was born in Montreal, studied at the High School of Montreal, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Ross was apprenticed to Brown, MacVicar & Heriot in Montreal, become a draftsman for the Grand Trunk Railway, he did work with Parker & Thomas in Boston and Carrere & Hastings in New York before partnering with MacFarlane in Montreal.
He was a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. He was a member of the Royal Institute of British Architects, becoming an Associate in 1904 and a Fellow in 1913. Macdonald was born in Australia, he articled to Richard B. Whitaker, M. S. A. of Melbourne, became a junior draftsman to Robert Findlay in Montreal in 1895. After positions as a draftsman for George B. Post starting in 1903, a senior draftsman with Crighton & McKay in Wellington, New Zealand in 1905, head draftsman with W. W. Bosworth in New York in 1906, Macdonald joined Ross and MacFarlane in Montreal as a junior partner and draftsman in 1907, he became a partner of the firm in 1912. He was a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and of the Royal Institute of British Architects, he served as president of the Quebec Association of Architects in 1939, was a recipient of the association's Award of Merit. Commercial Buildings: Bank of Toronto branch, Montreal, 1908 Complexe Les Ailes, Montreal, 1925-27 Saskatoon Board of Education offices, Saskatoon, 1928-29 Calgary Eaton's Store, Calgary, 1928-29 Dominion Square Building, Montreal, 1928–1930 College Park, Toronto, 1928-30 Holt Renfrew Montreal at 1300 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, 1937Hotels: Château Laurier Hotel, Ottawa, 1909-12 Lord Elgin Hotel, Ottawa, 1940–41 Royal York Hotel, Toronto, 1927-29 Fort Garry Hotel, Winnipeg, 1910–14 Hotel Saskatchewan, Regina, 1926–27 Hotel Macdonald, Edmonton, 1912–14 Les Cours Mont-Royal, Montreal, 1920-24 Public Buildings: Government Conference Centre, Ottawa, 1911-1912 Union Station, Toronto 1914-1920 Office Buildings: Architects' Building, Montreal, 1929-34 Confederation Building, Montreal, 1927–28 Castle Building, Montreal, 1924–27 Dominion Square Building, Montreal, 1928–40 Montreal Star Building, Montreal, 1926–31 Royal Bank Building, Toronto, 1913–15 Édifice Price, Quebec City, 1929-1930.
Medical Arts Building, Montreal, 1922Residential: Le Chateau Apartments, Montreal, 1926 The Gleneagles, Montreal, 1929Other: Central Technical School, Toronto, 1915 The Hydrostone, Halifax, 1918 Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, 1931–32 Le fantasme métropolitain: l'architecture de Ross et Macdonald: bureaux, magasins et hôtels 1905‑1942 Ross career summary Ross bio, McGill University Macdonald career summary Macdonald bio, McGill University Photos of Ross and MacDonald buildings in Montreal
Toronto Eaton Centre
The Toronto Eaton Centre is a shopping mall and office complex in Downtown Toronto, Canada. It is managed by Cadillac Fairview, it was named after the Eaton's department store chain that once anchored it before the chain became defunct in the late 1990s. The Toronto Eaton Centre attracts the most visitors of any of Toronto's tourist attractions, it is North America's busiest shopping mall, due to extensive transit access, its downtown location and tourist traffic. With 48,969,858 visitors in 2015 alone, the centre sees more annual visitors than either of the two busiest malls in the United States, or Central Park in New York City; the number of visitors to the Toronto Eaton Centre in 2015 exceeds the total 2015 passenger counts at Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada's largest and busiest airport. The main portion of the Toronto Eaton Centre complex is bounded by Yonge Street on the east, Queen Street West on the south, Dundas Street West on the north, to the west by James Street and Trinity Square.
The flagship location of the Hudson's Bay department store chain, part of the complex since Cadillac Fairview's purchase of the building in 2014, is connected to the rest of the complex by a skywalk over Queen Street West, itself is bounded by Yonge Street to the east, Queen Street West to the north, Richmond Street West to the south, Bay Street to the west. The main retail mall in the centre is organized around a long arcade, running parallel to Yonge Street; the Toronto Eaton Centre's interior passages form part of Toronto's PATH underground pedestrian network, the centre is served by two subway stations: Dundas and Queen on Line 1 Yonge–University. The complex contains four office buildings and the Ryerson University Ted Rogers School of Management. Additionally, the Eaton Centre is linked to a 17-storey Marriott hotel; the Sears Canada headquarters were inside an eight-storey Sears location within the Toronto Eaton Centre. The headquarters moved there from 222 Jarvis Street; the lower four floors of the Eaton Centre location housed a retail store while the upper four floors housed the headquarters.
Timothy Eaton founded a dry goods store on Yonge Street in the 19th century that revolutionized retailing in Canada, became the largest department store chain in the country. By the 20th century, the Eaton's chain owned most of the land bounded by Yonge, Queen and Dundas streets, with the notable exceptions of Old City Hall and the Church of the Holy Trinity; the Eaton's land, once the site of Timothy Eaton's first store, was occupied by Eaton's large Main Store, the Eaton's Annex and a number of related mail order and factory buildings. As the chain's warehouse and support operations were shifting to cheaper suburban locales in the 1960s, Eaton's wanted to make better use of its valuable downtown landholdings. In particular, the chain wanted to build a massive new flagship store to replace the aging Main Store at Yonge and Queen and the Eaton's College Street store a few blocks to the north. In the mid-1960s, Eaton's announced plans for a massive office and shopping complex that would occupy several city blocks.
Eaton's sought to demolish the Church of the Holy Trinity. The plan required the closing of a number of small city streets within the block: Albert Street, Louisa Street, Terauley Street, James Street, Albert Lane, Downey's Lane and Trinity Square. At one point the Old City Hall clock tower was to be demolished. After a fierce local debate over the fate of the city hall and church buildings, Eaton's put its plans on hiatus in 1967; the Eaton Centre plans were resuscitated in 1971, although these plans allowed for the preservation of Old City Hall. Controversy erupted anew, however, as the congregation of the Church of the Holy Trinity exhibited an increased willingness to fight the demolition plans for its church; the Eaton Centre plans were revised to save Old City Hall and the church, revised further when Holy Trinity's parishioners fought to ensure that the new complex would not block all sunlight to the church. These amendments to the plans resulted in three significant changes to the proposed centre from the 1960s concept.
First, the new Eaton's store was shifted north to Dundas Street, as the new store would be too large to be accommodated in its existing location on Queen Street as a result of the preservation of Old City Hall. This resulted in the mall being constructed with Eaton's and Simpson's acting as anchors at either end; the second significant change was the reduction in the size of the office component, so that the Eaton Centre project no longer represented an attempt to extend the City's financial district north of Queen Street, as the Eaton family had contemplated in the 1960s. The bulk of the centre was shifted east to the Yonge Street frontage, the complex was designed so that it no longer had any frontage along Bay Street. Old City Hall and the church were thus saved, as was the Salvation Army headquarters building by virtue of its location between the two other preserved buildings. At the time of the centre's opening in 1977, the complex was markete
The Carlu is an historic event space in Toronto, Canada. Opened in 1930 and known as the eponymous "Eaton's Seventh Floor", the venue was restored and reopened in 2003, renamed for its original architect; the Carlu is one of Toronto's best examples of Art Moderne architecture. The venue is owned by restaurant firm Bonacini. In 1930, the Eaton's department store chain, at the time Canada's dominant retailer, opened "Eaton's College Street", an imposing Art Deco store at the intersection of Yonge Street and College Street; the matriarch of the Eaton family, Lady Eaton, was a member of Eaton's board of directors, the Eaton's restaurants were one of her responsibilities. She retained the noted French architect Jacques Carlu to design the seventh floor of the edifice, to contain the 1300-seat Eaton Auditorium, the Round Room restaurant, lounges and a private dining room. All of the facilities were to be connected by a long foyer, designed in the style of the ocean liners of the day. Between 1931 and 1965, the theatre was home to the Eaton Operatic Society.
The newly opened Auditorium was used for radio broadcasts on CKGW during holidays and special events. During Christmastime, one could hear the Cassavant organ being played by Frederick C. Silvester or a May Day organ recital by Harold Frost, it played motion pictures accompanied by organ music, for example showing Snow White in April 1931 with organ music by Kathleen Stokes. With the opening of the Toronto Eaton Centre in 1977, Eaton's College Street was closed to make way for the new Eaton's flagship store at Yonge Street and Dundas Street; the store was sold to new owners, was rechristened College Park. Although the new owners had agreed to preserve the Seventh Floor, they determined that its preservation and restoration was not financially feasible, they applied for a demolition permit to convert the entire floor to office space. After a lengthy court battle with the City of Toronto, the Court of Appeal for Ontario ruled in 1986 that the 1975 designation of the building under the Ontario Heritage Act protected the Seventh Floor from demolition.
Despite several changes in building ownership, the efforts of local heritage advocates, the Seventh Floor was sealed off for 27 years and allowed to deteriorate. The Seventh Floor was restored, after years of neglect, was reopened in 2003 to much acclaim as "The Carlu" event venue; the restoration process began in 2001 with no tenant. But that year, new tenants Jeffry Roick and Mark Robert came into the picture with an increased budget. Scott Weir of ERA Architects and Hadi Khouzam of WZMH Architects led the restoration of the space; the raked floors were removed from the auditorium to return the space's original movable seating. Other modifications had to be made to the auditorium so that modern acoustical equipment could be used; the original Lalique fountain, which had long been believed lost, was restored to its place at the centre of the Round Room. The large kitchen in the Carlu was replaced with two smaller ones in different areas of the seventh floor; this made room for a new entertainment space to be added, the Sky Room.
The venue's new name was chosen to honour the architect that had designed the space. Upgrades were needed in the HVAC system; these updates were done without removing the original vents from the space. In 2008, The Clipper Rooms were renovated by HGTV designer Sarah Richardson. Today, the space acts as a special events venue. Concerts, galas, fashion shows and the presentation of the annual Polaris Music Prize are among the events that take place at the Carlu. Itself an Art Moderne masterpiece, the Eaton's Seventh Floor was at the heart of Toronto's cultural life for many years; the Auditorium played host to the major performers of its day, including Billie Holiday, Duke Ellington and Frank Sinatra. The first performance of the National Ballet of Canada was on the stage of the Eaton Auditorium. Canada's own Glenn Gould, fond of the Auditorium's excellent acoustics, used the hall for a number of his recordings; the Round Room was, as the name suggests, a circular room, with circular mouldings in the domed ceiling and recessed alcoves in the corners.
At the centre of the room stood a Lalique fountain, lit from below. Carlu was responsible for all aspects of the dining room's design, from the lighting fixtures to the Royal Worcester china, the stemware, the waitresses' black uniforms. Carlu's wife, designed the murals on the walls, depicting various scenes of pastoral life. For years, the Round Room was one of the most elegant places to dine in Toronto. Inside of the Carlu, monel, a steel-nickel alloy, was used for many accents; the monel can be found in the light fixtures, vents and the fountain. It helps to play up the sleek lines in the Art Moderne style. Marble paneling was used at both ends of the foyer; the colour palette for the Carlu was spread throughout most of the floor. The entire building at 444 Yonge St. is designated under Part IV of the Ontario Heritage Act since 1975. The City holds a Heritage Easement Agreement, registered on January 10, 2012 as Instrument #: AT2915699, on the property; the venue itself is listed as a National Historic Site of Canada since 1983.
Eaton's Ninth Floor Restaurant in Montreal Anderson and Mallinson, Lunch With Lady Eaton: Inside the Dining Rooms of a Nation, Toronto: ECW Press, 2004. Official website City of Toronto Archives - The Eaton News
Barbara Ann Scott
Barbara Ann Scott was a Canadian figure skater. She was the 1948 Olympic champion, a two-time World champion, a four-time Canadian national champion in ladies' singles. Known as "Canada's Sweetheart", she is the only Canadian to have won the Olympic ladies' singles gold medal, the first North American to have won three major titles in one year and the only Canadian to have won the European Championship. During her forties she was rated among the top equestrians in North America, she received many honours and accolades, including being made an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1991 and a member of the Order of Ontario in 2008. Scott was born on May 9, 1928, the youngest of three children born to Canadian Army Colonel Clyde Rutherford Scott and Mary of Sandy Hill, Ottawa, she began skating at the age of seven with the Minto Skating Club, coached by Otto Gold and Sheldon Galbraith. At age nine, Scott switched from regular schooling to tutoring 2 1/2 hours a day in order to accommodate her seven hours of daily ice training.
At the age of ten she became the youngest skater to pass the "gold figures test" and at eleven years won her first national junior title. By the age of fifteen, Scott became Canada's senior national champion, she held the Canadian Figure Skating championship title from 1944-46. In 1947, with funding raised by the community, Scott traveled overseas and became the first North American to win both the European and World Figure Skating championships, remains the only Canadian to have won the European title; this led to her being voted Canadian Newsmaker of the Year in 1947. On her return to Ottawa during a parade she was given a yellow Buick convertible. During the 1948 season, Scott was able to defend both the World Figure Skating and the European Skating Championships, reacquired the Canadian Figure Skating Championship, becoming the first North American to win all three in the same year and the first to hold consecutive World titles, she was featured as a Time magazine cover story on February 2, 1948, one week before her Olympic debut in St. Moritz, Switzerland.
At the 1948 Winter Olympics, Scott became the first and only Canadian in history to win the ladies' singles figure skating gold medal. After the Olympic win she received a telegram from Prime Minister Mackenzie King, stating that she gave "Canadians courage to get through the darkness of the post-war gloom"; when Scott returned to Ottawa on March 9, 1948, the car that she relinquished in 1947 was given back, she received the "Key" to the city. She was referred to as "Canada's Sweetheart" in the press at this time, so much so that a collectible doll was issued in her honour in 1948. Scott relinquished her amateur status in the summer of 1948 and began touring North America and Europe, headlining in a variety of shows over the next five years. Among her early successes was Tom Arnold's Rose Marie on Ice at the Harringay Arena in London, UK, she went on to replace her childhood idol Sonja Henie in the starring role with the "Hollywood Ice Revue" in Chicago, which became the subject of a Life cover story on February 4, 1952.
The grueling schedule of a professional skater took its toll, at the age of twenty-five she retired from professional skating. In 1955, aged 27, she married publicist and former professional basketball player Tom King at Rosedale Presbyterian Church in Toronto; the couple settled in Chicago, where she opened a beauty salon for a short time became a distinguished horse trainer and equestrian rider by her forties. During this time, Scott founded and became chancellor of the International Academy of Merchandising and Design in Toronto. In 1996, the couple retired to Florida, she remained an influential figure in skating throughout her life. As a Canadian sports icon and marking the fortieth anniversary of her Olympic win, she was asked to carry the Olympic torch in the lead-up to the 1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary. In December 2009, she again carried the Olympic torch, this time to Parliament Hill and into the House of Commons, in anticipation of the 2010 Winter Olympics, she subsequently was one of the Olympic flag bearers during the opening ceremonies in Vancouver on February 12, 2010.
In 2012, the city of Ottawa announced the creation of the Barbara Ann Scott Gallery, which displays photographs, her championship awards, the Olympic gold medal that Scott formally donated to the city in 2011. Scott died on September 30, 2012 at her home in Fernandina Beach, Amelia Island, Florida at age 84, her obituary listed her name as Barbara Ann Scott King. A local arena was named after her in Ontario, as part of the Pinecrest Recreation Centre. Scott was made an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1991, a member of the Order of Ontario in 2008 for her contributions to sports and charitable endeavours, she was inducted into the Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame in 1948, Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 1955, the Ottawa Sports Hall of Fame in 1966, the Skate Canada Hall of Fame in 1991, the International Women's Sports Hall of Fame in 1997, the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame in 1997, was in 1998 named to Canada's Walk of Fame. Her first major honour came in the form of the Lou Marsh Trophy as Canada's Top Athlete of the Year in 1945, which she subsequently won in both 1947 and 1948.
Barbara Ann Scott. Skate with me. A. Redm
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Maple Leaf Gardens
Maple Leaf Gardens is a historic building located at the northwest corner of Carlton Street and Church Street in Toronto, Canada. The building was constructed as an arena to host ice hockey games, but has since been reconstructed for other uses. Today, Maple Leaf Gardens is a multi-purpose facility, with Loblaws occupying retail space on the lower floors and an arena for Toronto's Ryerson University, known as Mattamy Athletic Centre at the Gardens, occupying the top level. Considered one of the "cathedrals" of ice hockey, it was home to the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League from 1931 to 1999; the Leafs won the Stanley Cup 11 times from 1932 to 1967 while playing at the Gardens. The first NHL All-Star Game, albeit an unofficial one, was held at the Gardens in 1934 as a benefit for Leafs forward Ace Bailey, who had suffered a career-ending head injury; the first official annual National Hockey League All-Star Game was held at Maple Leaf Gardens in 1947. It was home to the Toronto Huskies in their single season in the Basketball Association of America, the Toronto Marlboros of the Ontario Hockey League, the Toronto Toros of the World Hockey Association, the Toronto Blizzard of the North American Soccer League, the Toronto Shooting Stars of the National Professional Soccer League, the Toronto Rock of the National Lacrosse League.
The NBA's Buffalo Braves played a total of 16 regular season games at Maple Leaf Gardens from 1971 to 1975. The NBA's Toronto Raptors played six games at the Gardens from 1997 to 1999 when SkyDome was unavailable, it was one of the few venues outside the United States where Elvis Presley performed in concert. In 1972, Maple Leaf Gardens hosted game 2 of the famous Summit Series between Team Canada and the USSR. Team Canada won the game 4–1; the Toronto Maple Leafs had been playing in the Arena Gardens on Mutual Street. It was held 7,500 spectators for ice hockey. By 1930, Leafs managing director Conn Smythe decided the Arena was too small and he wanted to build a new arena and more impressive. After considering various sites, the site at the corner of Carlton and Church was purchased from The T. Eaton Co. Ltd. for $350,000, a price said to be $150,000 below market value. The new 12,473 seat arena was designed by the architectural firm of Macdonald. To finance the construction, Smythe launched Maple Leaf Gardens Limited, a management company that would own the arena and the Maple Leafs.
A public offering of shares in MLGL was made at C$10 each, with a free common share for each five preferred shares purchased. Ownership of the hockey team was transferred to MLGL in return for shares. Intending right from the start that the Gardens would host other events, W. A. Hewitt, sports editor of the Toronto Star, was hired as general manager of Maple Leaf Gardens to oversee all events other than professional hockey, his son, Foster Hewitt, was hired to run the radio broadcasts, oversaw the construction of the radio broadcast facilities. The contract to construct the building was awarded to Thomson Brothers Construction of Port Credit in Toronto Township. Thomson Bros bid just under $990,000 for the project, the lowest of ten tenders received due to the fact that amongst the Thomson Brothers' various enterprises they had much of the sub contract work covered, others could not compete in this manner; that price did not include steel work, estimated at an additional $100,000. Additional savings were made through deals with labour unions, in exchange for shares in MLGL.
Construction began at midnight on June 1, 1931. In what is to this day considered to be a remarkable accomplishment, the Gardens was constructed in five months and two weeks at a cost of C$1.5 million. Team owner Harold Ballard lived in the owner's suite built into the arena's top northeast corner; the Gardens opened on November 1931, with the Maple Leafs losing 2 -- 1 to the Chicago Blackhawks. Reported attendance on opening night was 13,542; the Leafs would go on to win their first Stanley Cup as the Maple Leafs that season. The first professional wrestling show at the Gardens was held on November 19, 1931 and attracted 15,800 people to see world champion Jim Londos in the main event; the show was promoted by Jack Corcoran, who passed the reins to Frank Tunney and his Maple Leaf Wrestling promotion in 1939. Under Tunney and the Gardens was for decades a thriving centre for professional wrestling. Local hero Whipper Billy Watson became the city's top wrestling attraction in the 1950s; the last WWE-promoted event to be held at Maple Leaf Gardens was on September 17, 1995.
Boxing was a regular offering at the Gardens for many years. The first world title bout in the building was on September 19, 1932, with bantamweight champion Panama Al Brown knocking out challenger Émile Pladner in the first round. Winston Churchill addressed a large audience at the Gardens in March 1932. Victory Loan rallies were held at the Gardens during World War II. On November 1, 1946, Maple Leaf Gardens was the site of the first game in the history of the Basketball Association of America, with the Toronto Huskies playing the New York Knickerbockers