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College Station, Texas

College Station is a city in Brazos County, situated in East-Central Texas in the heart of the Brazos Valley, in the center of the region known as Texas Triangle. It is 83 miles northwest of Houston and 87 miles east northeast of Austin; as of the 2010 census, College Station had a population of 93,857, which had increased to an estimated population of 122,671 as of November 2019. College Station and Bryan together make up the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area, the 13th-largest metropolitan area in Texas with 273,101 people as of 2019. College Station is home to the main campus of Texas A&M University, the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System; the city owes both its existence to the university's location along a railroad. Texas A&M's triple designation as a Land-, Sea-, Space-Grant institution reflects the broad scope of the research endeavors it brings to the city, with ongoing projects funded by agencies such as NASA, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research.

Due to the presence of Texas A&M University, College Station was named by Money magazine in 2006 as the most educated city in Texas, the 11th-most educated city in the United States. The origins of College Station date from 1860, when the Houston and Texas Central Railway began to build through the region. Eleven years the site was chosen as the location for the proposed Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, a land-grant school. In 1876, as the nation celebrated its centennial, the school opened its doors as the first public institution of higher education in the state of Texas; the population of College Station grew reaching 350 in 1884 and 391 at the turn of the century. However, during this time, transportation improvements took place in the town. In 1900, the I&GN Railroad was extended to College Station, 10 years electric interurban service was established between Texas A&M and the neighboring town of Bryan; the interurban was replaced by a city bus system in the 1920s. In 1930, the community to the north of College Station, known as North Oakwood, was incorporated as part of Bryan.

College Station did not incorporate until 1938 with John H. Binney as the first mayor. Within a year, the city established a zoning commission, by 1940, the population had reached 2,184; the city grew under the leadership of Ernest Langford, called by some the "Father of College Station", who began a 26-year stretch as mayor in 1942. Early in his first term, the city adopted a council-manager system of city government. Population growth accelerated following World War II as the nonstudent population reached 7,898 in 1950, 11,396 in 1960, 17,676 in 1970, 30,449 in 1980, 52,456 in 1990, 67,890 in 2000; the population for the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area crossed 270,000 people in 2018. In the 1990s, College Station and Texas A&M University drew national attention when the George Bush Presidential Library opened in 1997 and, more tragically, when 12 people were killed and 27 injured when the Aggie Bonfire collapsed while being constructed in 1999. College Station is located south of the center of Brazos County at 30°36′5″N 96°18′52″W.

It is bordered by the city of Bryan to the northwest. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 49.6 sq mi, of which 49.4 sq mi is land and 0.19 sq mi, or 0.35%, is covered by water. College Station does have an official flag, however it is not used; the city has a proposed flag, designed by Wyatt Galbreath. The local climate is subtropical and temperate and winters are mild with periods of low temperatures lasting less than two months. Snow and ice are rare. Summers are humid with occasional showers being the only real variation in weather. Average annual rainfall: 39 in Average elevation: 367 ft above sea level Average Temperature: 69.0 °F Agricultural Resources: Cattle, cotton, hay, sorghum Mineral Resources: Sand, lignite, oil As of the census of 2000, 67,890 people, 24,691 households, 10,370 families resided in the city. Of the 24,691 households, 21.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 58.0% were not families.

About 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 2.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was distributed as 14.4% under the age of 18, 51.2% from 18 to 24, 21.3% from 25 to 44, 9.4% from 45 to 64, 3.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,180, for a family was $53,147. Males had a median income of $38,216 versus $26,592 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,170. About 15.4% of families and 37.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. The city of College Station has a council-manager form of government. Voters elect the members of a city council, who make policy; the council hires a professional city manager, responsible for day-to-day operations of the city and its public services.

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Bryan District Parole Office in College S

USS R-13 (SS-90)

USS R-13 was an R-class coastal and harbor defense submarine of the United States Navy. Her keel was laid down by the Fore River Shipbuilding Company in Quincy, Massachusetts on 27 March 1918, she was launched on 27 August 1919 sponsored by Miss Fanny B. Chandler, commissioned on 17 October 1919 with Lieutenant Commander Walter E. Boyle in command. Following shakedown in New England waters, R-13 operated out of New London, Connecticut. In the spring of 1920 she conducted training patrols off Bermuda prepared for transfer to the Pacific, she departed the East Coast in mid-June. Given hull classification symbol SS-90 at midmonth, she continued up the west coast to San Pedro, whence she headed for Hawaii on 26 August. R-13 arrived at Pearl Harbor on 6 September and for the next nine years assisted in the development of submarine warfare tactics. Ordered back to the Atlantic with the new decade the submarine stood out from Pearl Harbor 12 December 1930 and on 9 February 1931 arrived back at New London.

There, she served as a training ship until 1941. However, she was in Annapolis, Maryland on 30 June 1932. On 26 May 1941, R-13 headed south to Key West, Florida. Arriving at the end of the month, she returned to New London in July, but was back off southern Florida in August. During the fall she conducted operations in the Gulf of Mexico assumed training duties for the Sound School at Key West. Through World War II, she continued the work there and out of Port Everglades and conducted patrols in the Yucatán Channel and the Florida Straits. With the cessation of hostilities, R-13 decommissioned 14 September 1945, was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 11 October 1945, was sold 13 March 1946; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS R-13 at NavSource Naval History

Shawnee, Louisville

Shawnee is a neighborhood in western Louisville, Kentucky. Its boundaries are the Ohio River on the West, Bank Street and the Portland neighborhood on the North, I-264 on the East, West Broadway on the South. Maps sometimes identify the area as Shawneeland. Shawnee Park was completed in 1892 and residential districts sprung up around it quickly. In 1895, Louisville annexed extended street car lines; the land between Shawnee and Louisville was subdivided and many whites moved in during the early 20th century. The wealthiest areas were near the park and golf course, with middle- and working-class neighborhoods further east; the Flood of 1937, as well as air pollution problems caused many white families to move further east. The neighborhood became integrated in the 1960s and was predominantly black following the 1968 riots when many longtime white residents moved. Many of the homes in Shawnee are examples of late-19th century architecture; the grand homes are still in good to excellent condition. The size and quality of these homes rival those found in other areas of the city Crescent Hill.

As Louisville's West End is economically depressed and lacks many amenities, the housing costs are lower than other areas of the city. Like other Southern cities, many of Louisville's public facilities were segregated; the park system was no exception to this rule. Shawnee Park was a segregated whites-only public park, while Chickasaw Park, to the south, was a public park for blacks until the 1950s. Fontaine Ferry Park, an early amusement park located at the end of Market Street from 1905 to 1969, was restricted to whites, with the exception of "negro days", a common occurrence for opening segregated facilities limited to whites in the south; the park was integrated in 1963 and operated without incident until opening day 1969 when a race riot erupted which resulted in the amusement park being closed by its owners citing safety concerns. In 1973 it reopened as Ghost Town On The River and as River Glen Park until it closed due to poor patronage in 1977. Following a series of fires which destroyed portions of the park in 1978 the park was demolished.

Aubrey Dude Ranch remained until 1983. In September 2007, Shawnee residents voted to ban liquor sales in four precincts of the neighborhood in an effort to combat crime. Shawnee suffered from a rash of unsolved murders in 2005; as of 2000, the population of Shawnee was 12,630. Though not recorded, the race breakdown is estimated to be around 90% Black or African-American, 5% White, 5% Hispanic. Shawnee has a branch of the Louisville Free Public Library. Street map of Shawnee Up to 115 Shawnee homes being renovated over five years—Louisville.gov October 30, 2013 US Department of Housing and Urban Development approves Shawnee Neighborhood Revitalization Plan—Louisville.gov September 29, 2013 Images of Shawnee in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections "Shawnee: Farms of the 1800s Gave Way to Park and Dignified Homes. Pillow of The Courier-Journal