Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Guildhall is a Grade I-listed building in the City of London, England. It is situated off Basinghall streets, in the wards of Bassishaw and Cheap; the building has been used as a town hall for several hundred years, is still the ceremonial and administrative centre of the City of London and its Corporation. It should not be confused with the administrative centre for Greater London; the term "Guildhall" refers both to the whole building and to its main room, a medieval great hall. The building is traditionally referred to as Guildhall, never "the" Guildhall; the nearest London Underground stations are Bank, Moorgate. The great hall is believed to be on a site of an earlier Guildhall. Possible evidence for this derivation may be in a reference to John Parker, the sergeant of "Camera Guyhalde", London, in 1396. During the Roman period, it was the site of an amphitheatre, the largest in Britannia, partial remains of which are on public display in the basement of Guildhall Art Gallery and the outline of whose arena is marked with a black circle on the paving of the courtyard in front of the hall.
Indeed, the siting of the Saxon Guildhall here was due to the amphitheatre's remains Excavations by MOLA in 2000 at the entrance to Guildhall Yard exposed remains of the great 13th-century gatehouse built directly over the southern entrance to the Roman amphitheatre, which raises the possibility that enough of the Roman structure survived to influence the siting not only of the gatehouse and Guildhall itself but of the church of St Lawrence Jewry whose strange alignment may shadow the elliptical form of the amphitheatre beneath. The first documentary reference to a London Guildhall is dated 1128 and the current hall's west crypt may be part of a late-13th century building. Legend describes the Guildhall site as being the location of the palace of Brutus of Troy, who according to Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae is said to have founded a city on the banks of the River Thames, known as Troia Nova, or New Troy; the current building began construction in 1411 and completed in 1440, it is the only non-ecclesiastical stone building in the City to have survived through to the present day.
The complex contains several other historic interiors besides the hall, including the large medieval crypts, the old library, the print room, all of which are now used as function rooms. Trials in this hall have included those of Anne Askew, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, Lady Jane Grey, Guildford Dudley, Francis Dereham and Thomas Culpeper, Thomas Cranmer, Henry Peckham and John Daniel, John Felton, Roderigo Lopez, Henry Garnet, Gervase Helwys, it played a part in Jack Cade's 1450 rebellion. The 1783 hearing of the infamous Zong case, the outcome of which focused public outrage about the transatlantic slave trade took place at Guildhall. On 16 November 1848, the pianist Frédéric Chopin made his last public appearance on a concert platform here. Guildhall contains memorials to Pitt the Elder, Pitt the Younger, Admiral Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, William Beckford, Winston Churchill; the Great Hall did not escape damage in the Great Fire of London in 1666. The present grand entrance, in "Hindoostani Gothic", was added in 1788 by George Dance.
A more extensive restoration than that in 1670 was completed in 1866 by the City of London architect Sir Horace Jones, who added a new timber roof in close keeping with the original hammerbeam ceiling. This replacement was destroyed during the Second Great Fire of London on the night of 29/30 December 1940, the result of a Luftwaffe fire-raid, it was replaced in 1954 during works designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, but the original hammerbeam design was not retained. The day-to-day administration of the City of London Corporation is now conducted from modern buildings to the north of Guildhall, but Guildhall itself and the adjacent historic interiors are still used for official functions, it is open to the public during the annual London Open House weekend. Guildhall Art Gallery was added to the complex in the 1990s. Guildhall Library, a public reference library with specialist collections on London, which include material from the 11th century onwards, is housed in the complex; the Clockmakers' Museum was located at Guildhall but as of 2015 has been relocated to the Science Museum.
The marathon route of the 2012 Summer Olympics passed through Guildhall Yard. Two giants and Magog, are associated with Guildhall. Legend has it that the two giants were defeated by Brutus and chained to the gates of his palace on the site of Guildhall. Carvings of Gog and Magog are kept in Guildhall and 7-foot high wicker effigies of them donated by the Worshipful Company of Basketmakers in 2007 lead the procession in the annual Lord Mayor's Show. Early versions of Gog and Magog were destroyed in Guildhall during the Great Fire of London, they were replaced in 1708 by a large pair of wooden statues carved by Captain Richard Saunders. These giants, on whom the current versions are based, lasted for over two hundred years before they were destroyed in the Blitz. They, in turn, were replaced by a new pair carved by David Evans in 1953 and given to the City of London by Alderman Sir George Wilkinson, Lord Mayor in 1940 at the time of the destruction of
Birgitte, Duchess of Gloucester
Birgitte, Duchess of Gloucester, is the wife of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. Birgitte was born Birgitte Eva Henriksen, in Odense, the younger daughter of Asger Preben Wissing Henriksen, a lawyer, his wife, Vivian van Deurs, she was educated at finishing schools in Lausanne and Cambridge. She took her mother's ancestral name van Deurs on 15 January 1966. After studying for three years in Copenhagen, she moved back to England in 1971 to work at the Danish Embassy in London. Birgitte first met Prince Richard of Gloucester, the younger son of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, in the late 1960s in Cambridge. In February 1972, they became engaged; the groom designed her silver engagement ring. They married on 8 July 1972 at St Andrew's Church, Northamptonshire; the bride's wedding dress was designed by Norman Hartnell. It had a "high collar, simple skirt and small train, long sleeves all done in white Swiss organdie with a floral embossing."
Instead of wearing a tiara, the bride wore stephanotis flowers on her hair. Six weeks after their wedding, Prince Richard's elder brother, Prince William, was killed in a flying accident. Prince Richard unexpectedly became heir apparent to the dukedom and upon his father's death in 1974, the couple became the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester; the couple have three children: Alexander and Rose. The Duchess of Gloucester has accompanied the Duke of Gloucester on his official visits overseas: her first visit was in 1973, when they represented the Queen at the 70th birthday celebrations of King Olav V of Norway. Other joint visits have included Australia, China, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sweden, Tonga and the United States. Birgitte has travelled overseas in support of her own patronages and military units, including a visit to Iraq in December 2008, she and her husband represented the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh at the state funeral of King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV of Tonga on 19 September 2006.
They represented the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh at the coronation of King George Tupou V of Tonga on 1 August 2008 in Nukuʻalofa. Birgitte is sponsor of two Royal Navy ships: HMS Sandown, she is the Royal Patron of the Bermuda Regiment. She is patron of a charity for people with learning disabilities and sight loss, she attends functions at schools of which she is president or patron: St Paul's Cathedral School. After the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, Birgitte became President of the Royal Academy of Music, she is the patron of Prostate Cancer UK, in March 2006, she opened the Prostate Centre. The Duke and Duchess live in London at their official royal residence. 20 June 1946 – 15 January 1966: Miss Birgitte Eva Henriksen 15 January 1966 – 8 June 1972: Miss Birgitte Eva van Deurs 8 June 1972 – 10 June 1974: Her Royal Highness Princess Richard of Gloucester 10 June 1974 – present: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Gloucester 1973: Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II 1974: Dame of Justice of the Order of St. John 23 June 1989: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order 1975: Service Medal of the Order of St John 6 February 1977: Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal 6 February 2002: Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal 6 February 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal 24 February 1975: Nepalese Coronation Medal 1978: Solomon Islands Independence Medal 1 August 2008: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Tonga Australia Colonel-in-Chief, of the Royal Australian Army Educational Corps Bermuda Colonel-in-Chief, of the Royal Bermuda Regiment Canada Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Canadian Dental Corps New Zealand Colonel-in-Chief, of the Royal New Zealand Army Educational Corps United Kingdom Colonel-in-Chief, of the Royal Army Dental Corps Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, of the Adjutant General's Corps Royal Colonel, of the 7th Battalion The Rifles The Duchess of Gloucester at the Royal Family website Birgitte, Duchess of Gloucester on IMDb
Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers
The Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London, UK. The Company was founded by a Royal Charter of Charles I in 1629 AD; the Company was empowered to set standards for optical devices. The Company acquired the right, however, to set examinations that opticians had to pass before practising; the opticians that passed the examinations were designated F. S. M. C. and this credential stood for Fellowship in Optometry of the Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers. This power was surrendered to the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians in 1979, who took over the examination of optometrists, in 1986 power of examination for dispensing opticians was surrendered to the Association of British Dispensing Opticians. In 1986, the power of examination for dispensing opticians was surrendered to the Association of British Dispensing Opticians. Now, the Spectacle Makers' Company supports charities, including Vision Aid Overseas, research in the field of optics and conducts training and professional development including the two-year correspondence course for optical technicians that has national accredication in the British National Qualifications Framework.
The Spectacle Makers' Company ranks sixtieth in the order of precedence for Livery Companies. The Spectacle Makers' Company College of Optometrists Association of British Dispensing Opticians
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
National Heritage List for England
The National Heritage List for England is England’s official list of buildings, monuments and gardens, wrecks and World Heritage Sites. It is maintained by Historic England and brings together these different designations as a single resource though they vary in the type of legal protection afforded to each. Conservation areas do not appear on the NHLE since they are designated by the relevant local planning authority; the passage of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 established the first part of what the list is today, it established a list of 50 prehistoric monuments which were protected by the state. Further amendments to this act increased the levels of protection and added more monuments to the list; the Town and Country Planning Acts created the first listed buildings and the process for adding properties to it. As of 2018, more than 600,000 properties are listed individually; each year additional properties are added to the National Register as part of the different constituent registers that are part of the list.
The National Heritage List for England was launched in 2011 as the statutory list of all designated historic places including listed buildings and scheduled monuments. The list is managed by Historic England, is available as an on-line database with 400,000 listed buildings, registered parks and battlefields, protected shipwrecks and scheduled monuments. A unique reference number, the NHLE Code, is used to refer to the related database entry, such as 1285296 – this example is for Douglas House. Template:National Heritage List for England — the template used for generating a formatted citation containing the targeted external link. Historic England.org: National Heritage List for England