University of Western Ontario
The University of Western Ontario, corporately branded as Western University as of 2012 and shortened to Western, is a public research university in London, Canada. The main campus is located on 455 hectares of land, surrounded by residential neighbourhoods and the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion; the university operates twelve academic schools. It is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as "The Western University of London Ontario". It incorporated Huron University College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. The Western University of London became non-denominational in 1908. Beginning in 1919, the university has affiliated with several denominational colleges; the university grew in the post-World War II era, as a number of faculties and schools were added to university. Western is a co-educational university, with more than 24,000 students, with over 306,000 living alumni worldwide.
Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders, Nobel Laureates, Rhodes Scholars, distinguished fellows. Western's varsity teams, known as the Western Mustangs, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of U Sports; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as The Western University of London Ontario, its first chancellor was Chief Justice Richard Martin Meredith. It incorporated Huron College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. There were only 15 students when classes began in 1881. Although the university was incorporated in 1878, it was not until 20 June 1881 that it received the right to confer degrees in Arts and Medicine. In 1882, the name of the university was revised to The Western University and College of London, Ontario; the first convocation of graduates was held on 27 April 1883. Affiliated with the Church of England, Western became non-denominational in 1908.
In 1916, the university's current site was purchased from the Kingsmill family. There are two World War I memorial plaques in University College; the first lists the 19 students and graduates of the University of Western Ontario who lost their lives. A third plaque lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. In 1923, the university was renamed The University of Western Ontario; the first two buildings constructed by architect John Moore and Co. at the new site were the Arts Building and the Natural Science Building. Classes on the university's present site began in 1924; the University College tower, one of the university's most distinctive features, was named the Middlesex Memorial Tower in honour of the men from Middlesex County who fought in World War I. In 1919, the Ursuline Sisters had established Brescia College as a Roman Catholic affiliate, in the same year Assumption College in Windsor affiliated with the university.
Before the end of the affiliation, Assumption College was one of the largest colleges associated with the university. Waterloo College of Arts became affiliated with Western in 1925. St. Peter's College seminary of London, Ontario was became affiliated with Western in 1939, it became King's College, an arts college. Today, King's, Brescia colleges are all still affiliates of Western. Two World War II memorial honour rolls are hung on the Physics and Astronomy Building: the first lists the UWO students and graduates who served in the Second World War, the second lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. Although enrollment was small for many years, the university began to grow after World War II, it added a number of faculties in the post-war period, such as the Faculty of Graduate Studies, the School of Business Administration, the Faculty of Engineering Science, the Faculty of Law, Althouse College for education students and the Faculty of Music.
In 2012, the university rebranded itself as "Western University" to give the school less of a regional or national identity. "We want to be international," president Dr. Amit Chakma told The Globe and Mail; the university's legal name, remains "The University of Western Ontario" and is used on transcripts and diplomas. The University of Western Ontario is in the city of London, Ontario, in the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the majority of the campus is surrounded by residential neighbourhoods, with the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion. Western Road is the university's major transportation artery, going north to south; the central campus of Western, which includes most of the University's student residences and teaching facilities is 170.8 hectares. Student residences make up the largest portion of Western's building area, with 31 percent of all building space allocated for residential use. Teaching and research facilities take up the second largest portion of building space, with 28 percent of all buildin
Ontario Medical Association
The Ontario Medical Association is a membership organization that represents the political and economic interests of Ontario physicians. Practising physicians and medical students enrolled in any of the six Ontario faculties of medicine are eligible for OMA membership; the OMA runs programs to encourage illness prevention. The OMA was founded in 1880 by physicians across the province of Ontario who encouraged the profession to unite and form a provincial medical association; the Ontario Medical Association is governed by a Board of Directors. The council comprises 270 physician delegates from districts across the province and sections of the profession, while the Board comprises physician representatives from eleven districts, one representative for Ontario’s six medical schools, five directors elected by Council; the Ontario Medical Association represents more than 34,000 physicians and medical students across the province. While membership is voluntary, as of 1991, all practising physicians in Ontario are mandated by law to pay dues to the organization, regardless of whether or not they choose to be members.
While the Ontario Medical Association is not a union, the Ministry of Health recognizes the organization as the sole negotiator on behalf of physicians in Ontario. The Ontario Medical Review, published 11 times a year, is the flagship publication of the OMA; the OMR acts as the primary means of dissemination and promotion regarding OMA programs and initiatives. The publication provides in-depth coverage of the issues and developments that affect the practice of medicine in Ontario, including legislative affairs, health policy, professional issues, health technology and finance, practice management; the Review is distributed to all OMA Members, as well as to medical students and physicians outside the province who are members of the Ontario Medical Association. Scrub-In is the OMA’s award-winning medical student publication, is the only provincial publication of its kind in Canada. Published three times a year, Scrub-In provides coverage of the issues and developments affecting 4,000 medical students in Ontario.
The magazine contains a wide array of student-generated content. Queen's School of Medicine University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry Northern Ontario School of Medicine Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine Faculty of Medicine – University of Ottawa Canadian Medical Association Professional Association of Internes and Residents of Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario Canadian Medical Association Journal Official website
McMaster University is a public research university in Hamilton, Canada. The main McMaster campus is on 121 hectares of land near the residential neighbourhoods of Ainslie Wood and Westdale, adjacent to the Royal Botanical Gardens, it operates six academic faculties: the DeGroote School of Business, Health Sciences, Social Science, Science. It is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the university bears the name of William McMaster, a prominent Canadian senator and banker who bequeathed C$900,000 to its founding. It was incorporated under the terms of an act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1887, merging the Toronto Baptist College with Woodstock College, it opened in Toronto in 1890. Inadequate facilities and the gift of land in Hamilton prompted its relocation in 1930; the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec controlled the university until it became a chartered, publicly funded non-denominational institution in 1957. McMaster University is co-educational, has over 25,000 undergraduate and over 4,000 post-graduate students.
Alumni and former students reside in 139 countries. Its athletic teams are known as the Marauders, are members of U Sports. Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders, Rhodes Scholars, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Nobel laureates. McMaster University resulted from the outgrowth of educational initiatives undertaken by Baptists as early as the 1830s, it was founded in 1881 as Toronto Baptist College. Canadian Senator William McMaster, the first president of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, bequeathed funds to endow a university, incorporated through a merger of Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College, Ontario. In 1887 the Act to unite Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College was granted royal assent, McMaster University was incorporated. Woodstock College and Moulton Ladies' College, were maintained in close connection; the new university, housed in McMaster Hall in Toronto, was sponsored by the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec as a sectarian undergraduate institution for its clergy and adherents.
The first courses—initially limited to arts and theology leading to a BA degree—were taught in 1890, the first degrees were conferred in 1894. As the university grew, McMaster Hall started to become overcrowded; the suggestion to move the university to Hamilton was first brought up by a student and Hamilton native in 1909, although the proposal was not considered by the university until two years later. By the 1920s, after previous proposals between various university staff, the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce launched a campaign to bring McMaster University to Hamilton; as the issue of space at McMaster Hall became more acute, the university administration debated the future of the university. The university nearly became federated with the University of Toronto, as had been the case with Trinity College and Victoria College. Instead, in 1927, the university administration decided to move the university to Hamilton; the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec secured $1.5 million, while the citizens of Hamilton raised an additional $500,000 to help finance the move.
The lands for the university and new buildings were secured through gifts from graduates. Lands were transferred from Royal Botanical Gardens to establish the campus area; the first academic session on the new Hamilton campus began in 1930. McMaster's property in Toronto was sold to the University of Toronto when McMaster moved to Hamilton in 1930. McMaster Hall is now home to the Royal Conservatory of Music. Professional programs during the interwar period were limited to nursing. By the 1940s the McMaster administration was under pressure to modernize and expand the university's programs. During the Second World War and post-war periods the demand for technological expertise in the sciences, increased; this problem placed a strain on the finances of. In particular, the institution could no longer secure sufficient funds from denominational sources alone to sustain science research. Since denominational institutions could not receive public funds, the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec decided to reorganize the university, creating two federated colleges.
The arts and divinity programs were reconstituted as University College and science was reorganized under the newly incorporated Hamilton College as a separate division capable of receiving provincial grants. Hamilton College was incorporated in 1948 by letters patent under The Companies Act, although it remained only affiliated with the university; the university traditionally focused on undergraduate studies, did not offer a PhD program until 1949. Through the 1950s increased funding advanced the place of sciences within the institution. In 1950, the university had completed the construction of three academic buildings for the sciences, all designed by local architect William Russell Souter. Public funding was necessary to ensure the humanities and social sciences were given an equal place. Thus, in 1957 the university reorganized once again under The McMaster University Act, 1957, dissolving the two colleges, its property was vested to McMaster and the university became a nondenominational institution eligible for public funding.
The historic Baptist connection was continued through McMaster Divinity College, a separately chartered affiliated college of the university. In 1957, PhD programs were consolidated in a new Faculty of Graduate Studies. Construction of the McMaster Nuclear Reactor began in 1957, was the first university-based research react
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Northern Ontario School of Medicine
The Northern Ontario School of Medicine is a medical school in the Canadian province of Ontario, created through a partnership between Laurentian University in Sudbury and Lakehead University in Thunder Bay. Mandated both to educate doctors and to contribute to care in Northern Ontario's urban and remote communities, the Northern Ontario School of Medicine has campuses in both Sudbury and Thunder Bay; the school is known for its small class size, its distributed model of education, heavy emphasis on enabling technologies, problem-based and self-directed learning, early exposure to clinical skills. The school describes its campus as "Northern Ontario"; this is evidenced by the close relationship between the school and various communities and First Nations throughout the region. All students complete a month-long placement in an Aboriginal or Métis community in May of their first year. In second year, they travel to smaller communities for month-long placements; the third year is clerkship and is spent living in one of the medium-sized communities for the entire year.
The fourth year of studies is completed in Thunder Bay. Before the creation of NOSM, Northern Ontario had for several years been designated as "underserviced", meaning that the region's ratio of medical professionals to the general population was not meeting the standards set by the Ministry of Health; as a result, a multifaceted plan was adopted by the province, including the creation of NOSM and the adoption of special recruitment strategies. A study of medical services in Ontario, released in August 2005, found that for the first time in many years, the region's level of medical services had improved over the previous year. Construction on both campuses began in mid-2004, the buildings were completed in August 2005. NOSM accepted its charter class of 56 students in September of that same year and the school was opened by Premier Dalton McGuinty on 13 September 2005; the school received full accreditation from the Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Schools and the Liaison Committee on Medical Education in February 2009.
The fictional Boréal Medical School, the setting of the Canadian medical drama television series Hard Rock Medical, is based on the Northern Ontario School of Medicine. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine is one of only two medical schools in Canada outside of Quebec that does not require an MCAT score to be considered for admission. Furthermore, the only academic prerequisite is a university undergraduate degree with a minimum GPA of 3.0 out of 4.0. To help further its social accountability mandate, NOSM does take into account where candidates are from and whether they have studied or worked in Northern Ontario or other rural or remote places. For each entering class since the schools inception in 2005 90-95% were from Northern Ontario; each year 2000 applicants compete for the 64 spots in each class. Applicants request their preferred campus at the time of their interview. Affiliated teaching hospitals: Health Sciences North – Sudbury Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre – Thunder BayLarger community teaching hospitals: South Muskoka Memorial Hospital – Bracebridge LaVerendrye Hospital – Fort Frances Huntsville District Memorial Hospital – Huntsville Lake of the Woods District Hospital – Kenora Temiskaming Hospital – New Liskeard North Bay General Hospital – North Bay West Parry Sound Health Centre – Parry Sound Sault Area Hospital – Sault Ste.
Marie Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre – Sioux Lookout Timmins and District Hospital – TimminsSensenbrenner Hospital- Kapuskasing The students go to communities in the north such as Hearst, Smooth Rock Falls, Cochrane. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine operates the Health Sciences Library known as the Northern Ontario Virtual Library to northern health-care professionals, the Health Information Resource Centre to faculty and residents; the HSL aims to meet the traditional and expanding information needs of NOSM's learners and faculty, as well as registered health professionals throughout the region of Northern Ontario. It sponsors in-person and technologically mediated instruction on the latest health sciences resources and information technology, among other topics; the explicit aim is to further the practice of evidence-based medicine in the North, with special focus on the physicians, nurses, occupational therapists and other health care professionals in northern and/or rural communities.
Centre for Rural and Northern Health Research Northern Ontario School of Medicine Northern Ontario School of Medicine Faculty & Staff Association & OPSEU Local 677 Northern Ontario School of Medicine Student Society NOSM's Health Sciences Library
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h