Krowodrza is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the western part of the city. The name Krowodrza comes from a village of same name, now a part of the district. According to the Central Statistical Office data, the district's area is 5.62 square kilometres and 31 870 people inhabit Krowodrza. Krowodrza is divided into smaller subdivisions. Here's a list of them. Cichy Kącik Czarna Wieś Krowodrza Łobzów Miasteczko Studenckie AGH Nowa Wieś Official website of Krowodrza Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej
Grzegórzki is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the central part of the city. The name Grzegórzki comes from a village of same name, now a part of the district. According to the Central Statistical Office data, the district's area is 5.85 square kilometres and 28 960 people inhabit Grzegórzki. Grzegórzki is divided into smaller subdivisions. Here's a list of them. Dąbie Olsza Wesoła Grzegórzki Osiedle Oficerskie Official website of Grzegórzki Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej
Bronowice is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the western part of the city. The name Bronowice comes from a village of same name, now a part of the district. According to the Central Statistical Office data, the district's area is 9.56 square kilometres and 23 465 people inhabit Bronowice. Bronowice is divided into smaller subdivisions. Here's a list of them. Mydlniki Bronowice Małe Bronowice Małe Wschód Osiedle Bronowice Nowe Osiedle Widok Zarzecze Official website of Bronowice Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej
Jagiellonian University Medical College
Jagiellonian University Medical College is the oldest medical school in Poland. The Jagiellonian University's Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy are acclaimed as one of the largest medical academies in Poland; the school was established by King Casimir III of Poland in 1364. Jagiellonian University is the oldest institution of higher education in Poland. Established in 1364 by King Casimir III the Great, it is the second oldest university in Central-Eastern Europe, preceded by the University of Prague, founded in 1348. Called Studium Generale in its early years, it was modeled after the Universities of Bologna and Padua and was composed of three faculties: Liberal Arts and Law. After its restoration in 1400, changes to the Academy's statute made it more resemble the Paris Sorbonne. For over 600 years, many famous Poles and Europeans received their education within the walls of this University, it was here that Nicolaus Copernicus studied and in 1578 Walenty Fontana delivered the first academic lecture based on Copernicus' heliocentric theory, an inconceivable notion to many scholars at the time.
In 1938, Karol Wojtyła began his studies in Polish philology at Jagiellonian University, interrupted by the outbreak of World War II, when occupying forces closed the University. During the War, he participated in classes organized by the underground university. Upon taking Holy Orders and returning from his doctoral studies in Rome, he received his post-doctoral degree from Jagiellonian University in 1953, continuing to work at the University until 1954. In 1983 as Pope, he was honored by University authorities with an Honorary Doctorate. After Poland regained independence following World War I, new institutions of higher education were established and older institutions were able to recover their Polish identity. With its famous University, Kraków possessed adequate intellectual potential to help these new institutions. Despite numerous challenges economic, sustained scientific development continued at the University until the outbreak of World War II and Nazi German occupation. On November 6, 1939, in room number 26 at Collegium Novum, the teaching staff was gathered on orders by SS-Sturmbahnfuhrer Bruno Muller, who accused university authorities of illegal activity.
On these false changes, all those present were arrested and deported to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Despite this grievous tragedy and loss of its greatest luminaries of science, on the initiative of Professor Mieczysław Małecki, Jagiellonian University established an underground university in 1942, the Rector of, Professor Władysław Szafer. After World War II, notwithstanding a shortage of teaching staff, the University resumed its functioning in 1945. However, despite the good will and sincere enthusiasm of all academic teachers and students, these efforts were soon stifled by ever-increasing political interference. Today Jagiellonian University combines tradition with the challenges of the modern world. In compliance with the principles of the Bologna Process, over 46 000 students study in 15 faculties on all three levels of study: Bachelor's, Master's, Doctoral. One may choose to study from nearly a hundred majors; the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System enables students to combine their studies at Jagiellonian University with coursework from other European universities.
Teaching staff includes over 3600 academic instructors. Its young academic staff and doctoral students are yearly awarded more than 10 percent of the prestigious Foundation for Polish Science scholarships. Researchers at Jagiellonian University compete for the grants through European research programs and as many as 6 European Centers of Excellence operate within the University. In recent years, cooperation between scientists at Jagiellonian University and the business community has increased; as a result, a number of research projects in the field of natural and exact sciences, have been introduced onto Polish and international markets. Jagiellonian University graduates do an excellent job of competing on both the domestic and foreign labor market; the University's legacy makes it not only an important center for scientific research and instruction, but a center of Polish and European culture. It gathers representatives from all artistic disciplines and continues to inspire both faculty and students alike.
The work of those connected with the University continues to influence the world in which we live and remains a part of Europe's humanistic landscape. When King Casimir III the Great in 1364 established the University of Kraków, there were three faculties; the Faculty of Medicine included two types of professors: Professor of Medicine, or lector ordinarius in medicines, a Professor of Astronomy, who would lecture on astrology, which for a long time remained an inextricable part of medicine. All lectures took place in the Royal Castle on Wawel Hill. King Władysław Jagiełło, using jewels donated by his wife, Queen Jadwiga, financed the restoration of the University in 1400. Stanisław of Skalbmierz, the first Rector of the University, stressed the importance of the Faculty of Medicine in his inauguration speech. Soon after the restoration process, famous Polish and foreign scholars began to arrive at the University. Jan Kro of Chociebuż was one of its first Professors, as well as the first physician to be chosen as Rector of the University, a position he assumed in 1419.
Other notable scholars include Jan of Pawia, who introduced the first statute of the Faculty of Medicine in 1433, Marcin Król of Żurawica, Piotr Gaszowiec of Loćmierz, who, in addition to medicine, displayed gr
Main Square, Kraków
The main square of the Old Town of Kraków, Lesser Poland, is the principal urban space located at the center of the city. It dates back to the 13th century, at 3.79 ha is one of the largest medieval town squares in Europe. The Project for Public Spaces lists the square as the best public space in Europe due to its lively street life, it was a major factor in the inclusion of Kraków as one of the top off-the-beaten-path destinations in the world in 2016; the main square is a square space surrounded by historic churches. The center of the square is dominated by the Cloth Hall, rebuilt in 1555 in the Renaissance style, topped by a beautiful attic or Polish parapet decorated with carved masks. On one side of the cloth hall is the Town Hall Tower, on the other the 10th century Church of St. Adalbert and 1898 Adam Mickiewicz Monument. Rising above the square are the Gothic towers of St. Mary's Basilica. Kraków Main Square does not have a town hall; the main function of the Market Square was commerce.
After the city was destroyed by the Mongol invasion in 1241, the Main Square was rebuilt in 1257 and its commercial role expanded with the Magdeburg rights location of the city by the prince of Kraków, Bolesław V the Chaste. The Main Square was designed in its current state with each side repeating a pattern of three, evenly spaced streets set at right angles to the square; the exception is Grodzka Street, much older and connects the Main Square with the Wawel Castle. The square was filled with low market stalls and administrative buildings and had a ring road running around it, it was King Casimir III the Great who built the original Gothic Cloth Hall and the town hall that filled nearly a quarter of the square. Kraków was the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League and the city flourished as an important European metropolis. In addition to its original merchant functions the Main Square witnessed many historical events, it was used to stage public executions of prisoners held in city Town Hall.
It was a place of regal ceremonies as part of the Royal Road, frequented by diplomats and dignitaries traveling to the Wawel Castle. In 1364 King Casimir held the Pan-European Congress of Kraków there. On 10 April 1525, Albert I, Duke of Prussia paid the Prussian Homage to Sigismund I the Old, king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania accepting Polish kings' suzerainty. In 1514 Lithuanian duke Konstanty Ostrogski held a victory parade over the Muscovy and in 1531 nobleman Jan Tarnowski celebrated another victory in the Muscovite wars. Jan III Sobieski, a King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, celebrated there his victory over the Turkish Empire in the 1683 Battle of Vienna. In 1596 King Sigismund III, of the Swedish House of Vasa, moved the capital of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Kraków to Warszawa. Kraków remained the place of royal funerals. On 24 March 1794, at the Main Square Tadeusz Kościuszko announced the general uprising and assumed the powers of the Commander in Chief of Polish armed forces, beginning the Kościuszko Uprising.
In 1848, in the Spring of Nations, civilians clashed with the Austrian army and it was where, next to Ratusz, Austrian eagles were piled up as a symbol of regained independence in 1918. Jews traded on the square as early as the 15th century. During the occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany, the square was renamed Adolf Hitler-Platz and the Adam Mickiewicz monument was destroyed along with historical commemorative plaques taken from buildings at the square. After the war, the monument was reconstructed. In 1978 UNESCO placed the Main Square as part of the Old Town Kraków on the list of World Heritage Sites. On 21 March 1980, in time of political tension and the run-up to the declaration of the Martial Law in Poland, Walenty Badylak, retired baker and a veteran of Poland's wartime underground Home Army, set himself alight chained to a well in the Main Square. Badylak was protesting the communist government's refusal to acknowledge the Katyn's war crime; the Main Square was central in staging mass demonstrations of the Solidarity movement.
In 2013 Lonely Planet travel guides rated Kraków's Main Market Square as the most beautiful in the world. The Main Square is located on the Royal Road once traversed during the Royal Coronations at Wawel Cathedral, between the Kraków barbican to the north, the Wawel Castle to the south. Since its creation the square has been considered the center of the city; the Main Square is surrounded by old brick buildings and palaces all of them several centuries old. Most buildings have acquired a neoclassical look over time, but the basic structures are older and can be seen in their doorways, architectural details and interiors. Vast medieval cellars of the buildings are used as pubs and cabarets; the square is lined with many cafes. One of the most renowned, Pod Palmą at Krzysztofory Palace, was opened in 1876 by Antoni Hawełka, a purveyor to the imperial court in Vienna, it is the location of the Historical Museum of Kraków, above. Among the many tourism-oriented venues there is the International Centre of Culture.
The most famous of the oldest establishments is the Wierzynek's restaurant, remembered for the great feast of 1364 which, according to the legend, lasted for twenty one days and helped to reach a consensus between the monarchs of Europe. Among the square's landmarks is the cloth hall, designed in the 14th century as a center for cloth trade, it was gutted by fire in 1555 and rebuilt in the Renaissan
Kraków Old Town
Kraków Old Town is the historic central district of Kraków, Poland. It is one of the most famous old districts in Poland today and was the center of Poland's political life from 1038 until King Sigismund III Vasa relocated his court to Warsaw in 1596; the entire medieval old town is among the first sites chosen for the UNESCO's original World Heritage List, inscribed as Cracow's Historic Centre. The old town is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments chosen in the first round, as designated September 16, 1994, tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland; the Old Town is known in Polish as Stare Miasto. It is part of the city's first administrative district, named "Stare Miasto," although it covers a wider area than the Old Town itself. Medieval Kraków was surrounded by a 1.9 mile defensive wall complete with 46 towers and seven main entrances leading through them. The fortifications around the Old Town were erected over the course of two centuries; the current architectural plan of Stare Miasto – the 13th-century merchants' town – was drawn up in 1257 after the destruction of the city during the Tatar invasions of 1241 followed by raids of 1259 and repelled in 1287.
The district features the centrally located Rynek Główny, or Main Square, the largest medieval town square of any European city. There is a number of historic landmarks in its vicinity, such as St. Mary's Basilica, Church of St. Wojciech, Church of St. Barbara, as well as other national treasures. At the center of the plaza, surrounded by kamienice and noble residences, stands the Renaissance cloth hall Sukiennice with the National Gallery of Art upstairs, it is flanked by the Town Hall Tower. The whole district is bisected by the Royal Road, the coronation route traversed by the Kings of Poland; the Route begins at St. Florian's Church outside the northern flank of the old city walls in the medieval suburb of Kleparz, it leads down Floriańska Street through the Main Square, up Grodzka to Wawel, the former seat of Polish royalty overlooking the Vistula river. In the 19th century most of the Old Town fortifications were demolished; the moat encircling the walls was turned into a green belt known as Planty Park.
The first mention of Kraków dates back to the second half of the 9th century. By the end of 10th century the city was incorporated into the Polish state under the rule of Piast dynasty; the episcopal bishopric was awarded to Kraków in 1000 and around that time, it became the residence of Polish kings for centuries to come. The history of the old city of Kraków revolves around its Old Town District of today. Here, the regalia were stored and, back in early a cathedral school was erected. Around 700 A. D. local tribes initiated the process of forming the Vistulan State by uniting with each other. Numerous remains of a once massive earth embankment encircling Wawel Hill survived till this day. A chest with 4,200 iron axes weighing about 4 tons was found in a basement of a house at Kanoniczna 19 street; these axes were known under the name of "płacidłos", a word derived from the Polish verb "płacić" – to pay. As it happens the axes were a main legal tender in the neighboring Great Moravian State; the value of the treasure chest is the greatest to be discovered thus far and testifies to Kraków's significant wealth and power in the region.
At Wawel's foot, in the place where now Kanoniczna and other neighboring streets are located, remains of a Vistulan settlement called Okół were found. This settlement, the beginnings of which can be dated at least back to the early 9th century, was surrounded by an enormous oak palisade and, in the place where now the Straszewska and St. Gertrude's streets run, by one of Vistula's arms. Near Main Market Square – near Church of St. Wojciech and Church of St. Mary and Bracka street - another discovery was made. Found were the relics of craft workshops and of dwelling houses which were raised near Vistula. What is more, under St. Wojciech's Church parts of a wooden temple were discovered. In those days Vistula had many arms. Kazimierz was one of such islands, it is possible that Okół, Wawel and the Main Market Square were islands separated from the main land by moats or Vistula's arms. Many structures were found on Wawel but it is difficult to establish when they were built; the bishops residing at Wawel and the prince's court provided a strong intellectual atmosphere.
Since the 14th century, Kraków was the site of royal coronations. Under Casimir III the Great the Jagiellonian University, one of Europe's oldest institutions of higher learning, was founded. In 1386 the Polish throne was entrusted to Lithuanian prince Władysław Jagiełło, husband of Queen Jadwiga. Jagiełło founded the Jagiellon dynasty. Kraków became the capital of a large monarchy which propelled the city's political and cultural development. Many great artists did their work in Kraków at that time; the Old Town saw considerable development during the Renaissance. It was when, for instance, Wawel Cathedral was rebuilt to include the architectural features of the Italian Reneissance. Bona Sforza, the second wife of Sigismund I of Poland, asked Bartolommeo Berrecci, Francisco the Florentian, Giovanni Maria Padovano, Santi Gucci and others to do this task; as a result, Kanoniczna Street became a part of the Old Town. It carries many features. With the passing of the last Jagiellon king, the po
Dębniki is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the southwest part of the city. The name Dębniki comes from a village of same name, now a part of the district. According to the Central Statistical Office data, the district's area is 46.19 square kilometres and 59 395 people inhabit Dębniki. Dębniki is divided into smaller subdivisions. Here's a list of them. Ruczaj Osiedle Europejskie Osiedle Interbud Osiedle Zielona Galicja Osiedle Kolejowe Osiedle Panorama Kliny Zacisze Mochnaniec Official website of Dębniki Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej