Province of Carolina
The Province of Carolina was an English and a British colony of North America. Carolina was founded in. Carolina expanded south and, at its greatest extent, nominally included the present-day states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama and Mississippi, parts of modern Florida and Louisiana. Sir Robert Heath, attorney-general of King Charles I of England, was granted the Cape Fear region of America, incorporated as the Province of Carolana, in 1629; the charter was unrealized and ruled invalid, a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, on March 24, 1663. It was not until 1663 that the province became known as "Carolina." Charles II granted the land to the eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. Charles II intended for the newly created province to serve as an English bulwark to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida and prevent their northward expansion. Led informally by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, the Province of Carolina was controlled from 1663 to 1729 by these lords and their heirs.
In 1669, the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina divided the colony of Carolina into two provinces, Albemarle province in the north and Clarendon province in the south. Due to dissent over the governance of the colony, the distance between settlements in the northern half and settlements in the southern half, in 1691 a deputy governor was appointed to administer the northern half of Carolina. In 1712, the two provinces became separate colonies, the colony of North Carolina and the colony of South Carolina. Although the division between the northern and southern governments became complete in 1712, both colonies remained in the hands of the same group of proprietors. A rebellion against the proprietors broke out in 1719 which led to the appointment of a royal governor for South Carolina in 1720. After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729. On October 30, 1629, King Charles I of England granted a patent to Sir Robert Heath for the lands south of 36 degrees and north of 31 degrees, "under the name, in honor of that king, of Carolana."
Carolus is Latin for'Charles'. Heath wanted the land for French Huguenots, but when Charles restricted use of the land to members of the Church of England, Heath assigned his grant to George, Lord Berkeley. King Charles I was executed in 1649 and Heath fled to France. Following the 1660 restoration of the monarchy, Heath's heirs attempted to reassert their claim to the land, but Charles II ruled the claim invalid. On March 24, 1663, Charles II issued a new charter to a group of eight English noblemen, granting them the land of Carolina, as a reward for their faithful support of his efforts to regain the throne of England; the eight were called Lords Proprietors or Proprietors. The 1663 charter granted the Lords Proprietor title to all of the land from the southern border of the Virginia Colony at 36 degrees north to 31 degrees north. In 1665, the charter was revised with the northerly boundary extended to 36 degrees 30 minutes north to include the lands of settlers along the Albemarle Sound who had left the Virginia Colony.
The southern boundary was moved south to 29 degrees north, just south of present-day Daytona Beach, which had the effect of including the existing Spanish settlement at St. Augustine; the charter granted all the land, between these northerly and southerly bounds, from the Atlantic, westward to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. The Lords Proprietors named in the charter were Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. Of the eight, the one who demonstrated the most active interest in Carolina was Lord Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury, with the assistance of his secretary, the philosopher John Locke, drafted the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina, a plan for government of the colony influenced by the ideas of the English political scientist, James Harrington; some of the other Lords Proprietors had interests in other colonies: for instance, John Berkeley and George Carteret held stakes in the Province of New Jersey, William Berkeley had an interest in Virginia. The Lords Proprietors, operating under their royal charter, were able to exercise their authority with nearly the independence of the king himself.
The actual government consisted of a governor, a powerful council, on which half of the councillors were appointed by the Lords Proprietors themselves, a weak, popularly elected assembly. Within three generations of Columbus, the Spanish from their Florida base had started to emigrate up the coast of modern North Carolina. A hostile Virginia tribe drove them back to Georgia. A Scottish contingent had meanwhile settled in South Carolina only to be extirpated by the Spanish, who inhabited Parris Island, SC, as late as 1655; the Spanish were again beaten back to Georgia. Although the Lost Colony on Roanoke Island was the first English attempt at settlement in the Carolina territory, the first permanent English settlement was not established until 1653, when emigrants from the Virginia Colony, with others from New England and Bermuda, settled at the mouths of the Chowan and Roanok
Colleton State Park
Colleton State Park is a 35-acre state park located along U. S. Highway 15 between St. George and Walterboro, South Carolina, United States. One of the smallest state parks in the South Carolina, Colleton's main attraction is recreational access to the Edisto River in the form of paddling or fishing. Several campsites for RVs and tents as well as some team-sport recreation facilities are located in the site. For many years, the park was underutilized due in part to an adjacent SCE&G coal-fire power plant, which discouraged many potential visitors from the park; the power plant was closed by SCE&G at the end of 2012. Local officials hope to acquire the site and expand the park. Official state park website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Beaufort County, South Carolina
Beaufort County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 162,233, its county seat is Beaufort. Beaufort County is part of the Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Beaufort County is one of the South's fastest-growing counties because of development south of the Broad River clustered along the U. S. Highway 278 corridor; the county's northern portions have grown due in part to the strong federal military presence around the city of Beaufort. The county's two portions are connected by the Broad River Bridge, which carries South Carolina Highway 170. From the early days of plantations, African slaves outnumbered the European minority in the colony; the plantations on the Sea Islands had large concentrations of slaves, limited interaction with whites. The islands were sites of the development of the Gullah culture, which preserved elements from a variety of West African roots; the county was majority black nearly to the mid-20th century.
Union troops took control of Beaufort County and occupied the area beginning in 1861. Many slaves went to Union lines. In some cases, planters had moved inland for refuge. Slaves began to organize schools and other parts of their communities early in the war in this county on the islands; the Army founded Mitchellville on Hilton Head by March 1863 as a village where blacks could practice self-governance, in 1865 it had 1500 residents. After the war, the Drayton family reclaimed this land for their use. In some cases the Union Army allocated plots for blacks for housing and cultivating crops; when freedmen were granted citizenship and the franchise after the American Civil War by constitutional amendments, most joined the Republican Party. Although not the only black majority state, South Carolina was the only southern state during Reconstruction to elect a black majority of representatives to the state legislature. Beaufort County had many prominent black leaders, such as Robert Smalls, Jonathan Jasper Wright, William James Whipper, Julius I.
Washington, Thomas E. Miller. Increasing violence during election campaigns in the state from 1868 on was used by white insurgents and paramilitary groups to suppress black voting. In 1876, the Democrats regained control of the state legislature and governor's office, although results were disputed. While black Republicans continued to be elected to local office in Beaufort County and other areas through the next decades, in 1895 the Democrat-dominated state legislature passed a new constitution that disfranchised most blacks through making voter registration and voting more difficult, they were kept in second-class status for decades. In 1903 the county "was reported to have 3,434 literate black males to 927 whites," but due to the discriminatory practices, nearly all blacks were barred from voting. From 1900 through 1950, Beaufort County's economy suffered from the decline in agriculture, which together with oppressive social conditions of Jim Crow contributed to the blacks making a Great Migration out of the South.
African Americans went to northern and midwestern industrial cities for jobs and became an urbanized population. The total county population of 35,495 in 1900 dropped by more than one third to 1930, did not reach the 1900 population level again until well after 1950, when the population was 26,933. Southern Democrats in Congress helped gain the establishment of military installations in the county and state, which added more population and stimulated area jobs in the second half of the 20th century. In addition and resort areas were developed that attracted increasing numbers of tourists through the winter season, others all year-round as retirees. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 923 square miles, of which 576 square miles is land and 347 square miles is water. Colleton County - north Jasper County - west Hampton County - northwest Ernest F. Hollings ACE Basin National Wildlife Refuge Pinckney Island National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 120,937 people, 45,532 households, 33,056 families residing in the county.
The population density was 206 people per square mile. There were 60,509 housing units at an average density of 103 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.66% White, 23.98% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.79% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.84% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. 6.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 45,532 households out of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 21.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 12.00% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 15.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 102.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,992, the median income for a family was $52,704. Males had a median income of $30,541 versus $25,284 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,377. About 8.00% of families and 10.70% of th
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Allendale County, South Carolina
Allendale County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,419, making it the second-least populous county in South Carolina, its county seat is Allendale. Allendale County was formed in 1919 from southwestern portions of Barnwell County, along the Savannah River, it is the location of the Topper Site, an archeological excavation providing possible evidence of a pre-Clovis culture dating back 50,000 years. The site is near a source of chert on private land in Martin owned by Clariant Corporation, a Swiss chemical company with a plant there; the site, named after John Topper, a local resident who discovered it, has been under excavation by archeologists from the University of South Carolina for about one month a year since 1999, after an initial exploratory dig in the mid-1980s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 412 square miles, of which 408 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. The Savannah River forms the county's western border with Georgia.
Allendale is 62 miles from Georgia. Before interstate highways were built, Allendale had several motels serving travelers going between Northeastern states and Florida. Traffic that traveled U. S. 301 through Allendale now uses Interstate-95. Bamberg County – northeast Colleton County – east Hampton County – southeast Screven County, Georgia – southwest Burke County, Georgia – west Barnwell County – northwest US 278 US 301 US 321 As of the census of 2000, there were 11,211 people, 3,915 households and 2,615 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 4,568 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.0 percent Black or African American, 27.37 percent White, 0.12 percent Asian, 0.09 percent Native American, 0.06 percent Pacific Islander, 0.85 percent from other races, 0.51 percent from two or more races. 1.61 percent of the population were Latino of any race. There were 3,915 households out of which 30.3 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8 percent were married couples living together, 25.8 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2 percent were non-families.
30.0 percent of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3 percent had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.21. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.6 percent under the age of 18, 9.8 percent from 18 to 24, 28.2 percent from 25 to 44, 22.8 percent from 45 to 64, 12.7 percent who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 108.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,898, the median income for a family was $27,348. Males had a median income of $25,930 versus $20,318 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,293. About 28.4 percent of families and 34.5 percent of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.1 percent of those under age 18 and 26.00 percent of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,419 people, 3,706 households, 2,333 families residing in the county.
The population density was 25.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,486 housing units at an average density of 11.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.6% black or African American, 23.7% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 5.6% were American. Of the 3,706 households, 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.5% were married couples living together, 26.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.0% were non-families, 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.14. The median age was 38.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $20,081 and the median income for a family was $25,146. Males had a median income of $30,440 versus $28,889 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,190. About 35.7% of families and 42.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 53.8% of those under age 18 and 27.4% of those age 65 or over.
The county has been Democratic in Presidential voting since 1976 and was among the counties to be carried by Walter Mondale in 1984. In the 2008 U. S. presidential election Barack Obama received 75.1 percent of the county's vote. In the 2012 U. S. presidential election Barack Obama received 78.3 percent of the county's vote. Allendale is an agricultural rural county, its primary products are cotton, soybeans and cantaloupe. Timbering is important for paper pulp. Robert McNair, Democratic Governor of South Carolina from 1965 to 1971, moved to Allendale County as an adult because his wife was from there; because of McNair's influence, USC-Salkahatchie was located in the town of Allendale. The county is the site of WEBA, Channel 14, a broadcast outlet of the South Carolina Educational Television Network. Ranking 45th in population among the state's 46 counties, it is the smallest county to have either a state-supported college or an ETV station. Allendale County School District includes one high school: Allendale-Fairfax High School.
The former C. V. Bing High School served African-American students during the time of segregation
South Carolina's 1st congressional district
The 1st Congressional District of South Carolina is a coastal congressional district in South Carolina, represented by Democrat Joe Cunningham since January 3, 2019. He succeeded Republican Mark Sanford, defeated by Katie Arrington in the Republican primary; the district has been based in Charleston. It has included Myrtle Beach, which became a major tourist destination in the late 20th century, as well as other coastal areas that have attracted retirees and seasonal visitors. From 1993 to 2013, the district boundaries extended from Seabrook Island in the south to the North Carolina border and included parts of Charleston, Dorchester and Georgetown counties and all of Horry County to the North Carolina line. In 2010, the state received another seat in Congressional apportionment due to an increase in population; the state's districts had to be redrawn, completed in 2013. In the final plan, the 1st congressional district was redrawn to reach from Hilton Head to mid-coast South Carolina, ending at the Santee River and comprising parts of Charleston, Berkeley and Beaufort counties.
This configuration is similar to the one. Horry County was included in the new 7th congressional district. Following the Civil War and granting of citizenship to former slaves, in 1870, Charleston's population was 53 percent black; the city's large population of free people of color had developed many leaders who advanced in the changing society. These population majorities protected freedmen against some of the election-related violence that occurred in other parts of the state in the 1870s as white Democrats worked to suppress black voting and regain political control of the state. During Reconstruction, the black Republicans from this district supported Republican candidates, including four terms for Joseph H. Rainey as US Representative to Congress, a record by an African-American legislator not surpassed until the 1950s. After the Democrats regained control of the state in 1876, during an election season marked by violence and fraud, Reconstruction ended in 1877, they passed laws establishing racial segregation and making voter registration and voting more difficult, such as the "eight-box law."
African-American George W. Murray won in the disputed 1894 congressional election from this district, but passage of a new state constitution by Democrats in 1895 disfranchised most African-American citizens in 1896. Their participation in the political system was ended for seven decades; the white Democrats established a one-party state and used various devices to maintain the exclusion of blacks until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Party realignments in the late 20th century resulted in many new black voters supporting the national Democratic Party. White conservatives in the South shifted and joined the Republican Party, in 1980 electing the first Republican congressman from the state to be elected in the 20th century. Since the buildup of the military in this region the Navy, the area's white voters have supported conservative candidates. Given the crippling of the Republican Party by the disfranchisement of blacks, a Republican was not elected to a full term in this district in the 20th century until 1980, when Tommy Hartnett was swept in by Reagan's coattails.
But, his election represented a different party and was the result of a major realignment of white conservative voters in the late 20th century to the Republican, rather than the Democratic Party. Starting with national candidates in the late 1960s and 1970s, white voters in South Carolina began to shift to the Republican Party; as after every decennial census, the state legislature conducted redistricting after the 1990 census. The white Republican-controlled legislature shifted most of Charleston's African-American majority areas into South Carolina's 6th Congressional District, creating a majority-minority district. To make up for the loss of population, the 1st was extended all the way up the Atlantic coast to Myrtle Beach; the 2010 redistricting cut the district back to the southeastern corner of the state. Since that time, the 1st Congressional District has had a majority-white population. But, in 2008, with the appeal of the Barack Obama presidential campaign, Democrat Linda Ketner came within two points of winning the 1st district congressional seat.
In the following off-year election of 2010, Republican Tim Scott, a conservative African American, won the seat with 65 percent of the vote. During the 2018 South Carolina primaries on June 12, 2018, Mark Sanford lost re-nomination to the seat; the Republicans would go on to lose the seat to the Democrats after the district swung to the Democrats in the 2018 midterm elections. As noted, Tim Scott, a Republican from North Charleston, was elected as the 1st district's representative in 2010, he was appointed by Governor Nikki Haley to the United States Senate after Jim DeMint resigned on January 1, 2013. The district boundaries had been redrawn in 2011. A special election was held on May 7, 2013 to determine the district's Representative to the US House to fill the new vacancy. In a Primary Election held on March 19, 2013, Elizabeth Colbert-Busch, the sister of comedian Stephen Colbert, won the Democratic nomination. Former Governor Mark Sanford, who represented the district from 1995 to 2001, former Charleston County Councilman Curtis Eilliott Bostic faced each other in a runoff Primary for the Republican nomination on April 2, 2013.
Sanford won the nomination, defeated challengers Colbert-Busch and South Carolina Green Party candidate E