Mutiny on the Bounty
The mutiny on the Royal Navy vessel HMS Bounty occurred in the south Pacific on 28 April 1789. Disaffected crewmen, led by Acting Lieutenant Fletcher Christian, seized control of the ship from their captain Lieutenant William Bligh and set him and 18 loyalists adrift in the ship's open launch; the mutineers variously settled on Pitcairn Island. Bligh meanwhile completed a voyage of more than 3,500 nautical miles in the launch to reach safety, began the process of bringing the mutineers to justice. Bounty had left England in 1787 on a mission to collect and transport breadfruit plants from Tahiti to the West Indies. A five-month layover in Tahiti, during which many of the men lived ashore and formed relationships with native Polynesians, proved harmful to discipline. Relations between Bligh and his crew deteriorated after he began handing out harsh punishments and abuse, Christian being a particular target. After three weeks back at sea and others forced Bligh from the ship. Twenty-five men remained on board afterwards, including loyalists held against their will and others for whom there was no room in the launch.
After Bligh reached England in April 1790, the Admiralty despatched HMS Pandora to apprehend the mutineers. Fourteen were captured in Tahiti and imprisoned on board Pandora, which searched without success for Christian's party that had hidden on Pitcairn Island. After turning back towards England, Pandora ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef, with the loss of 31 crew and four prisoners from Bounty; the 10 surviving detainees reached England in June 1792 and were court martialled. Christian's group remained undiscovered on Pitcairn until 1808, by which time only one mutineer, John Adams, remained alive. All his fellow-mutineers, including Christian, had been killed, either by each other or by their Polynesian companions. No action was taken against Adams; the accepted view of Bligh as an overbearing monster and Christian as a tragic victim of circumstances, as depicted in well-known film accounts, has been challenged by late 20th- and 21st-century historians from whom a more sympathetic picture of Bligh has emerged.
His Majesty's Armed Vessel Bounty, or HMS Bounty, was built in 1784 at the Blaydes shipyard in Hull, Yorkshire as a collier named Bethia. She was renamed after being purchased by the Royal Navy for £1,950 in May 1787, she was three-masted, 91 feet long overall and 25 feet across at her widest point, registered at 230 tons burthen. Her armament was four short four-pounder carriage guns and ten half-pounder swivel guns, supplemented by small arms such as muskets; as she was rated by the Admiralty as a cutter, the smallest category of warship, her commander would be a lieutenant rather than a post-captain and would be the only commissioned officer on board. Nor did a cutter warrant the usual detachment of Marines that naval commanders could use to enforce their authority. Bounty had been acquired to transport breadfruit plants from Tahiti, a Polynesian island in the south Pacific, to the British colonies in the West Indies; the expedition was promoted by the Royal Society and organised by its president Sir Joseph Banks, who shared the view of Caribbean plantation owners that breadfruit might grow well there and provide cheap food for the slaves.
Bounty was refitted under Banks' supervision at Deptford Dockyard on the River Thames. The great cabin the ship's captain's quarters, was converted into a greenhouse for over a thousand potted breadfruit plants, with glazed windows, a lead-covered deck and drainage system to prevent the waste of fresh water; the space required for these arrangements in the small ship meant that the crew and officers would endure severe overcrowding for the duration of the long voyage. With Banks' agreement, command of the expedition was given to Lieutenant William Bligh, whose experiences included Captain James Cook's third and final voyage in which he had served as sailing master, or chief navigator, on HMS Resolution. Bligh was born in Plymouth in 1754 into a family of naval and military tradition—Admiral Sir Richard Rodney Bligh was his third cousin. Appointment to Cook's ship at the age of 21 had been a considerable honour, although Bligh believed that his contribution was not properly acknowledged in the expedition's official account.
With the 1783 ending of the eight-year American War of Independence and subsequent renewal of conflict with France—which had recognised and allied with the new United States in 1778—the vast Royal Navy was reduced in size, Bligh found himself ashore on half-pay. After a period of idleness, Bligh took temporary employment in the mercantile service and in 1785 was captain of the Britannia, a vessel owned by his wife's uncle Duncan Campbell. Bligh assumed the prestigious Bounty appointment on 16 August 1787, at a considerable financial cost; because of the limited number of warrant officers allowed on Bounty, Bligh was required to act as the ship's purser. His sailing orders stated that he was to enter the Pacific via Cape Horn around South America and after collecting the breadfruit plants, sail westward through the Endeavour Strait and across the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans to the West Indies islands in the Caribbean. Bounty would thus complete a circumnavigation of the Earth in the Southern Hemisphere.
Bounty's complement was 46 men. Directly
Northumberland is a county in North East England. The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a 64 miles path; the county town is Alnwick. The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400, when the city became a county of itself. Northumberland expanded in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572. Islandshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Lying on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles; the county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the least densely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.
Northumberland meant'the land of the people living north of the River Humber'. The present county is the core of that former land, has long been a frontier zone between England and Scotland. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall, it was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium; as evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including those at Alnwick, Dunstanburgh and Warkworth. Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south; the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which united with Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century.
The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts reclaimed the land invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth, was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. Northumberland is called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels, it became the home of St Cuthbert, buried in Durham Cathedral. Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century; the Earldom of Northumberland was held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217.
Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York. The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions. Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North against Elizabeth I of England; these revolts were led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur, the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1; the Percys were aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped of all power and titles after the English Civil War of 1642–1651. After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where Border Reivers hid from the law.
However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603. Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Blyth, Netherton and Pegswood; the region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s. Northumberland remains rural, is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its historical sites. Northumberland has a diverse physical geography, it is low and flat near the North Sea coast and mountainous toward the northwest.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Some barges are not self-propelled and must be towed or pushed by towboats, canal barges or towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath. Barges contended with the railway in the early Industrial Revolution, but were outcompeted in the carriage of high-value items due to the higher speed, falling costs and route flexibility of railways. Barge is attested from Old French barge, from Vulgar Latin barga; the word could refer to any small boat. Bark, "small ship", is attested from Old French barque, from Vulgar Latin barca; the more precise meaning "three-masted ship" arose in the 17th century, takes the French spelling for disambiguation. Both are derived from the Latin barica, from Ancient Greek: βάρις, translit. Báris, lit.'Egyptian boat', from Coptic: ⲃⲁⲁⲣⲉ bāri "small boat", hieroglyphic Egyptian and similar ba-y-r for "basket-shaped boat". By extension, the term "embark" means to board the kind of boat called a "barque".
The long pole used to maneuver or propel a barge has given rise to the saying "I wouldn't touch that with a barge pole." On the British canal system, the term'barge' is used to describe a boat wider than a narrowboat, the people who move barges are known as lightermen. On the UK canal system, boats wider than seven feet are referred to as widebeam. In the United States, deckhands are supervised by a leadman or the mate; the captain and pilot steer the towboat, which pushes one or more barges held together with rigging, collectively called'the tow'. The crew live aboard the towboat as it travels along the inland river system or the intracoastal waterways; these towboats travel between ports and are called line-haul boats. Poles are used on barges to fend off the barge as it nears a wharf; these are called'pike poles'. Barges are used today for low-value bulk items, as the cost of hauling goods by barge is low. Barges are used for heavy or bulky items; the most common European barge can carry up to about 2,450 tonnes.
As an example, on June 26, 2006, a 565-short-ton catalytic cracking unit reactor was shipped by barge from the Tulsa Port of Catoosa in Oklahoma to a refinery in Pascagoula, Mississippi. Large objects are shipped in sections and assembled onsite, but shipping an assembled unit reduced costs and avoided reliance on construction labor at the delivery site. Of the reactor's 700-mile journey, only about 40 miles were traveled overland, from the final port to the refinery. Self-propelled barges may be used as such when traveling upstream in placid waters. Canal barges are made for the particular canal in which they will operate. Many barges Dutch barges, which were designed for carrying cargo along the canals of Europe, are no longer large enough to compete in this industry with larger newer vessels. Many of these barges have been renovated and are now used as luxury hotel barges carrying holidaymakers along the same canals on which they once carried grain or coal. In primitive regions today and in all pre-development regions worldwide in times before industrial development and highways, barges were the predominant and most efficient means of inland transportation in many regions.
This holds true today, for many areas of the world. In such pre-industrialized, or poorly developed infrastructure regions, many barges are purpose-designed to be powered on waterways by long slender poles – thereby becoming known on American waterways as poleboats as the extensive west of North America was settled using the vast tributary river systems of the Mississippi drainage basin. Poleboats use muscle power of "walkers" along the sides of the craft pushing a pole against the streambed, canal or lake bottom to move the vessel where desired. In settling the American west it was faster to navigate downriver from Brownsville, Pennsylvania, to the Ohio River confluence with the Mississippi and pole upriver against the current to St. Louis than to travel overland on the rare primitive dirt roads for many decades after the American Revolution. Once the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroads reached Chicago, that time dynamic changed, American poleboats became less common, relegated to smaller rivers and more remote streams.
On the Mississippi riverine system today, including that of other sheltered waterways, industrial barge trafficking in bulk raw materials such as coal, timber, iron ore and other minerals is common. Such barges need to be pushed by towboats. Canal barges, towed by draft animals on a waterway adjacent towpath were of fundamental importance in the early Industrial Revolution, whose major early engineering projects were efforts to build viaducts and canals to fuel and feed raw materials to nascent factories in the early industrial takeoff and take their goods to ports and cities for distribution; the barge and ca
Bucket (machine part)
A bucket is a specialized container attached to a machine, as compared to a bucket adapted for manual use by a human being. It is a bulk material handling component; the bucket has an inner volume as compared to other types of machine attachments like blades or shovels. The bucket could be attached to the lifting hook of a crane, at the end of the arm of an excavating machine, to the wires of a dragline excavator, to the arms of a power shovel or a tractor equipped with a backhoe loader or to a loader, or to a dredge; the name "bucket" may have been coined from buckets used in water wheels, or used in water turbines or in similar-looking devices. Buckets in mechanical engineering can have a distinct quality from the traditional bucket whose purpose is to contain things. Larger versions of this type of bucket equip bucket trucks to contain human beings, buckets in water-hauling systems in mines or, for instance, in helicopter buckets to hold water to combat fires. Two other types of mechanical buckets can be distinguished according to the final destination of the device they equip: energy-consumer systems like excavators or energy-capturer systems like water bucket wheels or turbines.
Buckets exist in a variety of shapes. They can be quite large like those equipping Hulett cranes, used to discharge ore out of cargo ships in harbours or small such as those used by deep-sea exploration vehicles; the shape of the bucket can vary from the truncated conical shape of an actual bucket to more scoop-like or spoon-like shapes akin to water turbines. The cross section can be square; this is the same shape of a domestic form, the one-piece-standing single element, but with an augmented size. In early developments of mining, a large simple bucket allowed easy insertion of both miners and construction materials such as pit props, extraction of miners and ore. Common terms used in various parts of the world include: Bowk. Latterly they have been called sinking buckets, as they are now only used when sinking new mine shafts before insertion of the cage, or for emergency rescue. Concrete buckets help deliver concrete on a specific site of a building by the means of a tower crane, they have a bottom opening to allow concrete to flow out of the bucket.
See tremie. They are placed at the end of an excavator-like arm and have to be made from a material that provides isolation from electricity, like fiber glass, to help the workers protect themselves. There may be a door on the side of the bucket. Excavator buckets are made of solid steel and present teeth protruding from the cutting edge, to disrupt hard material and avoid wear-and-tear of the bucket. Subsets of the excavator bucket are: the ditching bucket, trenching bucket, A ditching bucket is a wider bucket with no teeth, 5–6 feet used for excavating larger excavations and grading stone. A trenching excavator bucket is 6 to 24 in wide and with protruding teeth; the clamshell bucket is a more sophisticated articulated several-piece device, including two elementary buckets associated on a hinged structure forming a claws-like appendage with an internal volume. The design is used in bucket-wheel excavators; the buckets in the wheel have to be made of solid material to withstand the resistance of the material it cuts through.
The bucket wheel design is used to capture the water energy in water-wheels or water turbines like Pelton wheels. The buckets have to be made of solid material to withstand the force of the water flow, their shape is optimized according to their purpose. Other designs include. In this case, the buckets have to be made of a light material; the buckets-ladders are used in bucket elevators or in the dredge design of some dredgers
A livestock carrier is a large ship used in the live export of sheep and goats. They are specially converted from container ships. Seagoing vessels modified or purpose-hansing carry built for the transportation of live animals. Subject to appropriate regulation, live animals may be transported as part of the cargo on various classes of ship; that particular method of transportation is more common on short sea crossings and involves small numbers of animals. Livestock carriers are those ships, which specialise in the transportation of large numbers of live animals together with their requirements for the voyage.. Voyages on livestock carriers last from three days to three to four weeks. Open livestock carriers - in which all, or most, of the animal pens are installed on open decks. In theory, this provides continuous natural ventilation of the pen areas and avoids reliance on mechanical ventilation systems. Ventilation is a key factor in the transport of live animals; when animal pens become poorly ventilated, oxygen depletion and a build-up of toxic gases, develops rapidly.
Circumstances vary according to ambient conditions but a failure of ventilation systems in some tropical conditions can result in asphyxiation of animals in as little as two or three hours. In practice, natural ventilation alone isn't adequate for all situations. One obvious limiting factor would be in following wind conditions at sea, when the air moves at the same speed as the ship. In that condition the natural air flow ventilating the animal pens can be insufficient. On most open livestock carriers there is some type of supplementary mechanical ventilation installed in critical zones, along with appropriate back-up equipment for emergencies. Closed livestock carriers - in which more or less all of the animals pens are located within the holds and internal decks of the ship; this has the advantage of providing a more controlled environment in which the animals and their feeding and watering arrangements are sheltered from adverse weather. However, ventilation is entirely dependent on mechanical systems and construction rules require specific ventilation standards for the internal spaces.
These stipulate the minimum number of air changes per hour. Regulations require back-up systems and auxiliary power arrangements which are separate from the main engine room; this is to ensure that adequate ventilation, lighting and feeding can be maintained for the animals in the event of fire or machinery failure in the main engine spaces. Various species have been transported in this way, but by far the most numerous are the domesticated breeds of sheep and cattle. During the latter half of the twentieth century, millions of sheep and many thousands of cattle were transported on livestock carriers. Other domesticated species which have been transported, though in smaller numbers, include horses, deer, goats and, on at least one occasion, ostriches; the transportation of live fish, on small specialised vessels, is a similar trade which has developed in association with fish farming National authorities which permit the export or import of live animals and monitor the ships and the associated aspects of the trade closely.
The size of this type of ship varies, according to market demands in different parts of the world at different times. In the latter half of the twentieth century, the principal livestock exporting nations were Australia and New Zealand and the main importers were nations in the Middle East. Vessels engaged in that trade have ranged in size from 2,000 tonnes deadweight to 25,000 DWT; the limiting factors on ship size are complex. Bigger vessels can achieve economies of scale in their operations but require more extensive port facilities to handle the larger numbers of livestock to be loaded or discharged. Livestock carriers carry more crew members than conventional cargo ships of a similar size. Experienced stockmen are an essential part of the crew; the total number of stockmen required varies according to the number of animals and depends on factors such as the arrangement of the livestock pens and the extent of automated systems installed for feeding and watering. During the last three decades of the twentieth century there was a progressive trend towards large vessels carrying greater numbers of animals.
Prior to that, a significant limitation had been fresh water storage capacity on ships. To maintain condition, average-sized cattle require at least forty litres of water per head, per day. Sheep require at least four litres per head - per day. Developments in water production technology led to livestock carriers with equipment capable of producing up to 600 tonnes of fresh water per day. Sheep and cattle require fodder amounting to at least 2% of their body weight per day. Livestock carriers are required to carry sufficient feedstuffs for the maximum length of the voyage plus adequate reserves for emergencies.'Medium'-sized vessels with capacity for about 30,000 to 40,000 sheep are a common size for this type of ship. However, during the last two decades of the twentieth century there were a small number of sheep carriers which had capacity for 130,000 sheep. There were at least two other large livestock carriers which specialised in combined cargoes of cattle and sheep. One had capacity for about 7,000 cattle plus 70,000 sheep and the other could carry 14,000 cattle plus 20,000 sheep.
In 2007 the livestock carrier Deneb Prima was loading cargoes amounting to 20,000 cattle plus 2000 sheep. The numbers detailed above are only general indications; the space allocated to animals on livestock carriers is o
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles south of Edinburgh and 277 miles north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the UK Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University; the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year; the first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD; this rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius is estimated at 2,000.
Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields; the extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, was known throughout this period as Munucceaster. Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left its settlements in ruin. After the conflicts with the Danes, following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux; because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. The town was henceforth known as New Castle; the wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087. The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.
Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. Incorporated first by Henry II, the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589. A 25-foot high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century, to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland; the Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in 1400. From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen; this monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in 1538; the phrase itself means a pointless pursuit.
In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him. In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families, they were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population. Within the year 1636, it is estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the population of Newcastle died from the epidemic. During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King. In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege. and the city was besieged for many months.
It was storm
A cargo ship or freighter ship is a merchant ship that carries cargo and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are specially designed for the task being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, come in all sizes. Today, they are always built by welded steel, with some exceptions have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped. Cargo ships/freighters can be divided into six groups, according to the type of cargo they carry; these groups are: General cargo vessels Container ships Tankers Dry bulk carriers Multi-purpose vessels Reefer shipsGeneral cargo vessels carry packaged items like chemicals, furniture, motor- and military vehicles, garments, etc. Tankers carry other liquid cargo. Dry bulk carriers carry coal, grain and other similar products in loose form. Multi-purpose vessels, as the name suggests, carry different classes of cargo – e.g. liquid and general cargo – at the same time.
A Reefer ship is designed and used for shipping perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled fruits, fish, dairy products and other foodstuffs. Specialized types of cargo vessels include container ships and bulk carriers. Cargo ships fall into two further categories that reflect the services they offer to industry: liner and tramp services; those on a fixed published schedule and fixed tariff rates are cargo liners. Tramp ships do not have fixed schedules. Users charter them to haul loads; the smaller shipping companies and private individuals operate tramp ships. Cargo liners run on fixed schedules published by the shipping companies; each trip a liner takes is called a voyage. Liners carry general cargo. However, some cargo liners may carry passengers also. A cargo liner that carries 12 or more passengers is called a combination or passenger-run-cargo line; the earliest records of waterborne activity mention the carriage of items for trade. The desire to operate trade routes over longer distances, throughout more seasons of the year, motivated improvements in ship design during the Middle Ages.
Before the middle of the 19th century, the incidence of piracy resulted in most cargo ships being armed, sometimes quite as in the case of the Manila galleons and East Indiamen. They were sometimes escorted by warships. Piracy is still quite common in some waters in the Malacca Straits, a narrow channel between Indonesia and Singapore / Malaysia, cargo ships are still targeted. In 2004, the governments of those three nations agreed to provide better protection for the ships passing through the Straits; the waters off Somalia and Nigeria are prone to piracy, while smaller vessels are in danger along parts of the South American, Southeast Asian coasts and near the Caribbean Sea. The words cargo and freight have become interchangeable in casual usage. Technically, "cargo" refers to the goods carried aboard the ship for hire, while "freight" refers to the compensation the ship or charterer receives for carrying the cargo; the modern ocean shipping business is divided into two classes: Liner business: container vessels, operating as "common carriers", calling a published schedule of ports.
A common carrier refers to a regulated service where any member of the public may book cargo for shipment, according to long-established and internationally agreed rules. Tramp-tanker business: this is private business arranged between the shipper and receiver and facilitated by the vessel owners or operators, who offer their vessels for hire to carry bulk or break bulk to any suitable port in the world, according to a drawn contract, called a charter party. Larger cargo ships are operated by shipping lines: companies that specialize in the handling of cargo in general. Smaller vessels, such as coasters, are owned by their operators. A category designation appears before the vessel's name. A few examples of prefixes for naval ships are "USS", "HMS", "HMCS" and "HTMS", while a few examples for prefixes for merchant ships are "RMS", "MV", "MT" "FV" Fishing Vessel and "SS". "TS", sometimes found in first position before a merchant ship's prefix, denotes that it is a Turbine Steamer. Famous cargo ships include the Liberty ships of World War II based on a British design.
Liberty ship sections were prefabricated in locations across the United States and assembled by shipbuilders in an average of six weeks, with the record being just over four days. These ships allowed the Allies to replace sunken cargo vessels at a rate gr