Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Harmon County, Oklahoma
Harmon County is a county located in the southwest corner of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,922, making it the second-least populous county in Oklahoma, behind only Cimarron County, it has lost population in every census since the first in 1910, except 1930. The county seat is Hollis. Following an election on May 22, 1909, Harmon County was created by proclamation of Governor Lee Cruce on June 2. Carved from adjacent Greer County, the new county was named in honor of Judson Harmon, Governor of Ohio at the time; the area now covered by Harmon County had been a part of Texas until the U. S. Supreme Court awarded it to Oklahoma Territory in 1896. Another election held September 1, 1909, confirmed Hollis as the county seat. There were two other contestants: the towns of Rosser. County offices operated in rented space until a courthouse was built in Hollis in 1926. In 1930, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma was 3,800 feet farther east than believed.
It returned the disputed land to Texas. A railroad built from Altus, Oklahoma to the Texas state line came to Hollis and Gould in 1910; the line was built by Wichita Falls and Hollis Railway. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 539 square miles, of which 537 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. It lies in the Gypsum Hills physiographic region, is drained by the Red River and its tributaries, the Salt and Elm forks of the Red River and Lebos and Turkey creeks. U. S. Highway 62 State Highway 5 State Highway 9 State Highway 30 Beckham County Greer County Jackson County Hardeman County, Texas Childress County, Texas Collingsworth County, Texas Common to many rural counties in the Great Plains the population of Harmon county has declined since 1930. Between 1930 and 2010, Harmon County lost a greater percentage of its population than any other Oklahoma county, from 13,834 in 1930 to 2,922 in 2010, a decrease of 78.8 percent. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,283 people, 1,266 households, 863 families residing in the county.
The population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 1,647 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 72.65% White, 9.78% Black or African American, 1.13% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 14.32% from other races, 1.92% from two or more races. 22.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,266 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families. 29.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 24.10% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 21.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,365, the median income for a family was $29,063. Males had a median income of $21,530 versus $16,658 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,464. About 23.50% of families and 29.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.20% of those under age 18 and 19.90% of those age 65 or over. Agriculture has been the main component of the county economy. Cotton and sorghum have been the principal crops. By 1930, farmers had sizable holdings of cattle, horses, swine and goats. Arnett Gould Hollis McQueen Vinson National Register of Historic Places listings in Harmon County, Oklahoma Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Harmon County Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
Cooke County, Texas
Cooke County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. At the 2010 census, its population was 38,437; the county seat is Gainesville. The county was founded in 1848 and organized the next year, it is named for a soldier during the Texas Revolution. It is a part of the Texoma region. Cooke County comprises the Gainesville, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Dallas–Fort Worth, TX-OK Combined Statistical Area. Republican Drew Springer, Jr. a businessman from Muenster, has represented Cooke County in the Texas House of Representatives since January 2013. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 898 square miles, of which 875 square miles is land and 24 square miles is covered by water. Interstate 35/U. S. Highway 77 U. S. Highway 82 Farm to Market Road 51 Love County, Oklahoma Grayson County Denton County Wise County Montague County According to statistical data from 2016, Cooke County has a population of 39,141 people, nearly 14,000 households, over 10,000 families.
The population density was 42 per square mile. The 15,061 housing units averaged 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.84% White, 3.06% Black or African American, 1.00% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 5.16% from other races, 1.61% from two or more races. About 10% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the more than 14,000 households in Cooke County, 33.90% had children under the age of 18 living in the home, 59.60% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were not families. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.07. The population was distributed as 27.30% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.80 males. While 2015 estimates place the median household income for Cooke County at $53,552, past estimates showed the median household income to be $37,649, with the median family income being $44,869.
Males had a median income of $32,429 and females $22,065. The per capita income was $17,889. About 10.90% of families and 14.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.80% of those under age 18 and 10.70% of those age 65 or over. Median house values in 2015 were $118,254; the Texas Juvenile Justice Department operates the Gainesville State School in an unincorporated area in Cooke County, east of Gainesville. Callisburg Gainesville Lindsay Muenster Valley View Oak Ridge Lake Kiowa List of museums in North Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Cooke County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Cooke County Cooke County Library Cooke County government's website Cooke County from the Handbook of Texas Online
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Muenster is a German Catholic city in western Cooke County, United States, along U. S. Route 82; the population was 1,544 at the 2010 census. In 1887, the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad constructed a line from Gainesville to Henrietta that passed through the site that would become Muenster; the town was subsequently founded in 1889 by German Catholic settlers Carl and Emil Flusche, who invited other German Catholics to join them. The town was to be called "Westphalia", but since the name Westphalia, was taken, Muenster was selected instead in honor of Münster, the capital of Westphalia, but these cities are not sister-cities. Many residents still spoke German in day-to-day life up until the First World War, after which the language was no longer taught in the schools and declined in use. With more than 90% of the population German and Catholic, the city has preserved many German customs, still produces traditional foods at the local meat market and Bäckerei. An annual festival in April, includes beer, BBQ, German food and bike and footraces.
A Christkindlmarkt is held each year on Thanksgiving weekend. Catholicism was so important to the early settlers that they built a school before a church was established; that school, Sacred Heart Catholic School, still exists today, along with the public Muenster Independent School District. Muenster is located in western Cooke County at 33°39′03″N 97°22′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.5 square miles, of which 2.3 acres, or 0.14%, is covered by water. As of the census of 2000, 1,556 people, 588 households, 401 families resided in the city; the population density was 1,209.3 people per square mile. The 628 housing units averaged 488.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.62% White, 0.13% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.71% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races. About 2.19% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 588 households, 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were not families.
Around 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 17.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city, the population was distributed as 29.5% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $39,125, for a family was $48,000. Males had a median income of $29,688 versus $22,697 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,638. About 4.3% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. Augustine Danglmayr, Auxiliary Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas, was born in Muenster; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
According to the Köppen climate classification system, Muenster has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. City of Muenster official website Muenster from the Handbook of Texas Online
Wheeler County, Texas
Wheeler County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 5,410, its county seat is Wheeler. The county was formed in 1876 and organized in 1879, it is named for a chief justice of the Texas Supreme Court. Wheeler County was one of thirty prohibition or dry counties in the state of Texas. However, in 2010, the community of Shamrock, located in Wheeler County at the intersection of Interstate 40 and U. S. Highway 83, voted to allow liquor sales. Within the city limits of Shamrock is the only place to purchase liquor in Wheeler County. In 1876, the Texas State Legislature established Wheeler County. In 1879, Mobeetie was named the county seat. Mobeetie was known as "Sweetwater," but this name should not be confused with the Sweetwater, the seat of Nolan County west of Abilene. A stone courthouse was erected from locally quarried materials in 1880 but was replaced by a wooden structure in 1888; the town of Wheeler was designated as the county seat in 1908.
The wooden courthouse was moved to the current site but was replaced by the existing structure as a result of a 1925 bond election. The previous building was sold to a sheriff, Riley Price, who dismantled it and used it to build barns on his nearby ranch; the structure was designed by E. H. Eads of Shamrock and built by local contractors Hughes and Campbell, it features Palladian windows and Corinthian columns, characteristic of the Greek revival style of architecture. In the 1880s, Temple Lea Houston, the youngest son of Sam Houston, was the district attorney of the 35th Judicial District of Texas, when encompassed twenty-six counties in the Texas Panhandle; the district was based at the time in the courthouse at Mobeetie in Wheeler County. Houston was a member of the Texas State Senate from 1885 to 1889 and moved to Oklahoma, where he worked for statehood. An NBC television series, Temple Houston, which aired from 1963 to 1964, is loosely based on his life, with Jeffrey Hunter in the starring role.
The Pioneer West Museum, the Wheeler County historical museum, is located in Shamrock off U. S. Highway 83. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 915 square miles, of which 915 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water. Interstate 40 U. S. Highway 83 State Highway 152U. S. Highway 66 is no longer commissioned or signed, but has special brown historic signage at various points along its former routing. Hemphill County Roger Mills County, Oklahoma Beckham County, Oklahoma Collingsworth County Gray County Donley County Roberts County As of the census of 2000, there were 5,284 people, 2,152 households, 1,487 families residing in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 2,687 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.83% White, 2.78% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 6.64% from other races, 1.34% from two or more races. 12.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 2,152 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.00% were married couples living together, 7.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 29.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 22.50% from 25 to 44, 25.20% from 45 to 64, 20.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 92.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,029, the median income for a family was $36,989. Males had a median income of $26,790 versus $19,091 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,083. About 11.60% of families and 13.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.30% of those under age 18 and 16.80% of those age 65 or over.
Republican Drew Springer, Jr. a businessman from Muenster in Cooke County, has since January 2013 represented Wheeler County in the Texas House of Representatives. The representative from 1971 to 1979 was the Democrat Phil Cates a lobbyist in Austin. Mobeetie Shamrock Wheeler Allison Benonine Briscoe Kelton Twitty List of museums in the Texas Panhandle National Register of Historic Places listings in Wheeler County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Wheeler County Media related to Wheeler County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons Wheeler County Official Website Wheeler County from the Handbook of Texas Online Wheeler County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties Entry for Royal T. Wheeler from the Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas published 1880, hosted by the Portal to Texas History. Historic Wheeler County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History