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Collins English Dictionary

The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow; the edition of the dictionary in 1979 with Patrick Hanks as editor and Laurence Urdang as editorial director, was the first British to typeset from output from a computer database in a specified format. This meant that every aspect of an entry was handled by a different editor using different forms or templates. Once all the entries for an entry had been assembled, they were passed on to be keyed into the assembled dictionary database, completed for the typesetting of the first edition. } In a edition, they used the Bank of English established by John Sinclair at COBUILD to provide typical citations rather than examples composed by the lexicographer. The current edition is the 13th edition, published in November 2018; the previous edition was the 12th edition, published in October 2014. A special "30th Anniversary" 10th edition was published in 2010, with earlier editions published once every 3–4 years.

The unabridged Collins English Dictionary was published on the web on 31 December 2011 on CollinsDictionary.com, along with the unabridged dictionaries of French, German and Italian. The site includes example sentences showing word usage from the Collins Bank of English Corpus, word frequencies and trends from the Google Ngrams project, word images from Flickr. In August 2012, CollinsDictionary.com introduced crowd-sourcing for neologisms, whilst still maintaining overall editorial control to remain distinct from Wiktionary and Urban Dictionary. This followed an earlier launch of a discussion forum for neologisms in 2004. In May 2015, CollinsDictionary.com added 6500 new Scrabble words to their Collins Official Scrabble Wordlist. The words are based on terms related to and influenced by slang, social media, food and more. CollinsDictionary.com – Collins English Dictionary, American English Dictionary, French, German and Spanish

Underwater speed record

In 1968 there was an incident when a Soviet November-class submarine tracked an American carrier group traveling at 31 knots. This led the United States Navy to develop the Los Angeles-class submarines, whose reported speed is 30–32 knots. There are established reports and manufacturer's claims that would indicate two submarines are capable of speeds exceeding 30 knots. In 1965, USS Albacore reported a speed of 33 knots; the Akula -class vessel is capable of travelling submerged at 35 knots, its predecessor, the Alfa class, could attain short speed bursts of 40–45 knots while submerged. There are claims that the Russian titanium submarine K-162 reached 44.7 knots on sea trials submerged, in 1969. However, due to the rather secretive nature of these vessels, confirmations of these numbers are not present; the British Spearfish torpedo designed to counter high-speed Russian submarines, such as the Alfa-class submarine, is reputed to have a speed in excess of 70 knots. The Russian rocket-powered supercavitating torpedo VA-111 Shkval is capable of speed in excess of 200 knots.

German press reports of an underwater anti-torpedo missile named Barracuda that reaches 430 knots. The United States Navy has contracted with the General Dynamics Electric Boat Division to support development of the Underwater Express, an undersea transport capable of controllable speeds up to 100 knots through supercavitation. Among animals, the black marlin has been known to reach speeds of over 56 knots. See fastest animals. Submarine navigation USS Nautilus

BRD (Germany)

BRD. It has been used in the Federal Republic itself since its foundation; the East German regime had used the term "German Federal Republic" to refer to its western counterpart. While the English equivalent FRG was used as an IOC country code and a FIFA trigramme, the use of BRD was discouraged by the authorities of the Federal Republic of Germany itself during the 1970s, because it was considered to be a derogatory communist term following its widespread use in East Germany since 1968; the term was not banned by law, but its use was discouraged or forbidden in schools in Western Germany in the 1970s. After German reunification, the country is referred to as Germany, hence the need for abbreviations is diminished. However, so is the need for distancing from communism, the term "BRD" has been listed in the preeminent German dictionary Duden as an "unofficial abbreviation" for the Federal Republic of Germany since the 1990s, is used by national newspapers across the political spectrum; the most used abbreviation for West Germany was its ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code "DE", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany.

The official name is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. The name though in the beginning referring only to the republic established in the Trizone, was to reflect a name for all of Germany, therefore it was to include the term Deutschland; this corresponded to the spirit of the West German constitution, the Basic Law, allowing all states or Länder under Allied control, to join the new Federal Republic. In 1949 the original eleven states in the Trizone and West Berlin did so; however the latter was prevented by Allied objection on account of the city being a quadripartite allied occupation area. The Saarland joined with effect from 1 January 1957, while the "new states" of the East did so with effect from 3 October 1990, including reunited Berlin. Therefore, the term Germany had an importance as part of the official name, reflected in the naming conventions which developed in the Cold War. Starting in June 1949 the abbreviation was sometimes used in the Federal Republic of Germany without any special connotations.

The initialism BRD began to enter into such regular usage in West German scientific and ministerial circles, that it was added to the western edition of the German language dictionary Duden in 1967. The German Democratic Republic at first used the name Westdeutschland or "West Germany" for the Federal Republic of Germany, but since the 1950s the East German government insisted on calling West Germany Deutsche Bundesrepublik or "German Federal Republic", because they considered East Germany part of Germany, thus would not permit the West German government to use the name "Germany"; this changed in 1968 with the new constitution of the German Democratic Republic. The communists no longer strove for German reunification, the name BRD was introduced as a propaganda counter-term to the term DDR, trying to express the equality of the states; the West would speak of the sogenannte DDR or "so-called'DDR'" when intending to belittle East German statehood. At that time, the initialism BRD had been adopted by Neues Deutschland, the ruling Socialist Unity Party's daily newspaper, while East German official sources adopted that initialism as standard in 1973.

The East German decision to abandon the idea of a single German nation was accompanied by omitting the terms Deutschland and deutsch in a number of terms, for example: The governing National Front of Democratic Germany became the National Front of the German Democratic Republic in 1973 The words of the national anthem, Auferstanden aus Ruinen, which referred to Deutschland, einig Vaterland ceased to be sung following Erich Honecker succeeding Walter Ulbricht as party leader in 1971 The state television service, Deutscher Fernsehfunk became "Fernsehen der DDR" in 1972, its radio counterpart having always been called Rundfunk der DDR or "Radio of the GDR" The North German Plain, covering the north of East and West Germany, appeared in East German atlases as Nördliches Tiefland der DDR. The GDR sent a separate team to the 1972 Summer Olympics, at which its flag and anthem were used for the first time Until 1959, the GDR had used an identical flag to that of the Federal Republic, before adopting a version with the national emblem in the centre.

However, the ruling party's full name, Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands or "Socialist Unity Party of Germany" remained unchanged, as did that of its newspaper Neues Deutschland. Therefore, using the abbreviation BRD fitted into the official East German policy of downplaying the concept of a united Germany. In 1974, the GDR had replaced the vehicle registration code D, hitherto shared with the Federal Republic, for DDR and demanded that West Germany recognise the division by accepting BRD; this was rejected by the West, where some motorists displayed bumper stickers with the slogan BRD - Nein Danke!. Thus in the West the initialism became more objectionable and using it was considered either unreflecting or expressing naïve Communist sympathies; as a resu