click links in text for more info


Colombey-les-Deux-Églises is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France. The municipality Colombey-les-Deux-Églises was created administratively in 1793, it became part of the district of Chaumont and the canton Blaise. In 1801, under the name Colombey, it passed to the canton Juzennecourt. In 1972, it absorbed the communes Argentolles, Blaise, Harricourt and Lavilleneuve-aux-Fresnes. On 1 January 2017, the former commune of Lamothe-en-Blaisy was merged into Colombey-les-Deux-Églises. Colombey achieved fame as the home and burial site of the 20th-century soldier and statesman Charles de Gaulle, who acquired a substantial property on the southwestern edge of the village in 1934. De Gaulle withdrew to Colombey when his political fortunes waned, first on the establishment of the Fourth Republic in 1946, between 1953 and 1958, before he became President again at the height of the Algerian Crisis, his final withdrawal to Colombey came in 1969 and he died there the following year.

"Colombey" became used as a political metaphor for a statesman's temporary withdrawal from political life until his country came calling for him again. De Gaulle is buried in the cemetery in Colombey, in a humble grave with the inscription "Charles de Gaulle 1890-1970". In addition, a 145 ft high Cross of Lorraine was built at the western exit of the village, commemorating his distinguished wartime role as commander of the Free French Forces. A memorial museum was inaugurated in October 2008 by Angela Merkel; this joint Franco-German act marked the fiftieth anniversary of talks in Colombey on 14 September 1958 between Charles de Gaulle and Konrad Adenauer, as part of the process of post-war reconciliation. The River Blaise flows through the commune. Communes of the Haute-Marne department Official website, Colombey-les-Deux-Églises Official website, Mémorial Charles de Gaulle Mémorial Charles de Gaulle and other connected exhibitions

The Very Best of Fleetwood Mac

The Very Best of Fleetwood Mac is an enhanced compilation album released by British-American rock band Fleetwood Mac in 2002 to promote their then-upcoming album Say You Will. It was released as a double album in the US, as a single disc in the UK, it debuted on the Billboard 200 album chart at number 12 on 2 November 2002 and spent 42 weeks on the chart. It was certified gold on 12 November 2002, platinum on 10 January 2003, 4x Platinum on 11 September 2018, by the RIAA; the US version contained the successful Californian era of Fleetwood Mac's work. It featured the B-side "Silver Springs", the unreleased The Dance performance of "Go Insane", several rare single remixes of key tracks, such as "Rhiannon" and "Sisters of the Moon"; the enhanced section contained rare live performances, music videos and footage of the band making their next album. The UK version of 2002 was not enhanced, contained three songs from the Peter Green-led blues era of Fleetwood Mac. In October 2009, the two-disc US version was released in the UK and many other territories in Europe and New Zealand, to coincide with the European and Australasian legs of the group's'Unleashed' world tour.

The re-released version features a different picture on the outer slipcase to previous releases, but does not contain the enhanced material of the 2002 US release. The re-release has proven to be as successful in the UK as the previous 2002 release, it re-entered the UK album chart at No. 6. Sales of both the 2002 edition and the 2009 edition combined have achieved 6× Platinum status by December 2018; the album has spent more than two years within the top 40, 360 weeks in the UK Top 100 by December 2018. The album sold over 89,000 copies in the UK in 2013 having reached as high as #34 on the album chart earlier in the year; the Very Best reached No. 1 on the Australian ARIA Catalogue Chart in December 2009, achieved platinum status in New Zealand within only five weeks of release. Entry on

William Burdet

Sir William Burdet of Loseby in Leicestershire, was a Member of Parliament for the county seat of Leicestershire. The Burdet family had been dedicated supporters of the Order of St Lazarus's English headquarters at Burton Lazars since its earliest days but relations soured in 1294 when the Order appropriated the tithes to Lowesby parish for themselves; this was not popular with the villagers and sporadic riots broke out over the following few years. The vicar was excommunicated and in 1297 the churchyard was "polluted by bloodshed" by the actions of Sir William Burdet; the dispute was resolved in 1298 when William agreed to pay for the reconsecration of the church and to reconfirm his family's former grants to the Order of St Lazarus but the former good relationship was never re-established. Sir William was summoned to Parliament in London on 6 Oct 1297 shortly after the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Stirling Bridge and was mustered for service in the Scottish Wars on 24 Oct 1299. Sir William died before 8 Mar 1309 when his Inquisition post mortem was held to distribute his estate.

He held lands at Branteston, Friseby, Loseby and Norton in Leicestershire and at Maidford, Northamptonshire. He had at least one son: John Burdet, his nephew Sir Robert Burdet was a Member of Parliament for Warwickshire. Harleian; the Knights of Edward I. I. London: Harleian Society. Marcombe, David. Leper Knights. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-067-1. Nichols, John; the History and Antiquities of the County of Leicester. Leicester: John Nichols. Parliamentary Writs. I. London: Public Record Office. 1827

Jan Jagla

Jan-Hendrik Jagla is a former German professional basketball player. Though he stands 7 feet tall, Jagla has the game of a 2-guard, his game somewhat resembles that of Dirk Nowitzki. Jagla was known to be a point forward in his college days, he is married to Ivana, a daughter of Svetislav Pešić. He spent three seasons at the Pennsylvania State University in University Park, before turning pro, he finished his Penn State career with 813 points, 504 rebounds and ranks third in school history with 110 blocked shots. Jagla holds the Penn State record for consecutive missed three point shots, 33, he played one year of high school basketball as an exchange student at Highland High School in Granger Township of Medina, where he led the Hornets to their first Suburban League Championship in 1998. He played for Türk Telekom B. K. of the Turkish Basketball League during the 2006–07 season. He played for Joventut Badalona in Spain. Polish champion Asseco Prokom Gdynia signed him on 22 September 2009. In December, 2010 he returned to Türk Telekom B.

K. until the end of the 2010-11 season. In July 2011 he returned to Germany by signing with Bayern Munich a two-year contract. In August 2013, he returned after 12 years to his former club Alba Berlin. In August 2014, he signed a one-year deal with Bayern Munich. On 16 July 2015, he retired from professional basketball. Jagla participated in the 2008 Olympics with the German national team. List of Pennsylvania State University Olympians Jan Jagla at Jan Jagla at Jan Jagla at

Sociology of language

Sociology of language is the study of the relations between language and society. It is related to the field of sociolinguistics, which focuses on the effect of society on language. One of its longest and most prolific proponents was Joshua Fishman, founding editor of the International Journal of the Sociology of Language, in addition to other major contributions; the sociology of language studies society in relation to language, whereas Sociolinguistics studies language in relation to society. For the former, society is the object of study, for the latter, language is the object of study. In other words, sociolinguistics studies language and how it varies based on the user's sociological background, such as gender and socioeconomic class. On the other hand, sociology of language studies society; as Trent University professor of global politics Andreas Pickel states, "religion and other symbolic systems shaping social practices and shaping political orientations are examples of the social significance such languages can have."

The basic idea is that language reflects, among several other things, attitudes that speakers want to exchange or that just get reflected through language use. These attitudes of the speakers are the sociologist's information. Sociology of language seeks to understand the way that social dynamics are affected by individual and group language use. According to National Taiwan University of Science and Technology Chair of Language Center Su-Chiao Chen, language is considered to be a social value within this field, which researches social groups for phenomena like multilingualism and lingual conflict, it has to do with. It has to do with how an individual or group identity is established by the language that they have available for them to use, it seeks to understand individual expression, which the investment in the linguistic tools that one has access to in order to bring oneself to other people. Sociology of language American sociolinguistics, was regarded to have been founded in the early 1960s by William Labov, who developed much of the methodology.

Linguistic relativity known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, is named after Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin Lee Whorf, although neither scholar used the term. Strong versions of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggest that an individual's language has a profound impact on the way the individual thinks and acts, while the weaker version proposes that language has a small influence on an individual's behavior; some linguists argue that if individuals were so profoundly different as a result of their languages it would be immensely difficult to translate works between cultures and languages. However, there are Linguistic universals. Cross-linguistic and cross-cultural translations happen everyday, some in a fraction of a second thanks to Artificial intelligence linguistic models such as Google Translate. Further criticism was met from fellow linguist Steven Pinker, skeptical of Whorf's evidence based on the Hopi language. According to Pinker, Whorf is "an amateur scholar of Native American languages" whose claims are not credible and do not make sense.

It has been asserted that there are "many hundreds" of words for snow in the Inuit language due to an improper paraphrase of Franz Boas on Benjamin Whorf's part that changed the meaning of the original text. Although there may not be hundreds of distinct Inuit words for snow, snow expert Matthew Sturm agrees that the English snow lexicon is overall "clearly inferior" to the Inuit snow lexicon. Despite having several words for snow, such as'snowdrift','snowflake', and'flurries', the vast majority of English snow-related words all have the same root:'snow'. Meanwhile, in Inuit, there are multiple independent terms for snow. For example, aput means'snow on the ground', qana means'falling snow', piqsirpoq means'drifting snow', qimuqsuq means'a snowdrift'. All four of these terms for snow have independent roots of each other; this is similar to how there are several independent terms use to describe water in English, such as'water','river','ocean', and'dew'. Since snow is such a vital part of Inuit society, it is natural that their language has more nuance for snow than does the English language.

Mandarin Chinese is a language. In other words, it is not necessary to specify the temporal location of an event in Mandarin. Instead, one or two words can be added to the end of a sentence to denote tense, it is assumed that the speaker is using present tense, but the listener may have to depend on context clues to determine the tense. Researchers Yang Li, Manon Jones, Guillaume Thierry from Bangor University have conducted a study that suggests that fluent Chinese-English speakers did not explicitly recognize time misalignments in complex English sentences, as opposed to native English speakers; the study involved analyzing N400 modulations to determine when the participants took additional semantic processing effort to recognize tense misalignments. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Mouton de Gruyter. Editor: Ofelia Garcia Otheguy. ISSN 0165-2516. Fishman, Joshua A.. Readings in the Sociology of Language. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110805376. Guardado, Martin. Discourse and Heritage Language Socialization: Micro and Macro Perspectives.

Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-1-61451-384-1

Carl Truscott

Carl Joseph Truscott is a security expert and was the sixth Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives in the United States Department of Justice under George W. Bush, a position he held from 2004 to 2006. Truscott earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Criminal Justice from the University of Delaware in 1979, attended an executive program at Harvard University. Truscott began his law enforcement career in 1980 as an Investigator for the New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety. Soon after, he joined the United States Secret Service where he served for 22 years rising to the position Assistant Director of the Office of Protective Research. Truscott served as Special Agent in Charge of the Presidential Protective Division and was responsible for the overall security of the President, the First Family and the White House, he served two tours of duty in the Presidential Protective Division at the White House and protected Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, William J. Clinton and George W. Bush.

Attorney General John Ashcroft appointed Truscott head of ATF in 2004. Truscott was the subject of an Inspector General's Office Investigation in early 2006 in regards to lavish spending and misuse of agency resources, he resigned six months later. Truscott is a senior executive at ASERO Worldwide, a security consulting firm. Office of the Inspector General oversight and Review Division 2006 Report of Investigation Concerning Alleged Mismanagement and Misconduct by Carl J. Truscott, Former Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives