Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore and captain, and below that of a vice admiral. It is generally regarded as the lowest of the admiral ranks, in many navies it is referred to as a two-star rank. It originated from the days of naval sailing squadrons and can trace its origins to the Royal Navy, each naval squadron would be assigned an admiral as its head, who would command from the centre vessel and direct the activities of the squadron. The admiral would in turn be assisted by a vice admiral and this has survived into the modern age, with the rank of rear admiral the most-junior of the admiralty ranks of many navies. In some European navies, and in the Canadian Forces French rank translations, in the German Navy the rank is known as Konteradmiral, superior to the flotilla admiral. In the Royal Netherlands Navy, this rank is known as schout-bij-nacht, denoting the role junior to the squadron admiral, the Royal Australian Navy maintains a rank of rear admiral, refer to Australian Defence Force ranks and insignia.
Since the mid-1990s, the insignia of a Royal Australian Navy rear admiral is the Crown of St. Edward above a crossed sword and baton, like the Royal Navy version, the sword is a traditional naval cutlass. The stars have eight points, unlike the four pointed Order of the Bath stars used by the army, prior to 1995, the RAN shoulder board was identical to the Royal Navy shoulder board. The Royal Navy shoulder board changed again in 2001 and the Australian, rear Admiral Robyn Walker AM, RAN became the first female admiral in the Royal Australian Navy when she was appointed Surgeon-General of the Australian Defence Force on 16 December 2011. In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank of rear-admiral is the Navy rank equivalent to major-general of the Army, a rear-admiral is a flag officer, the naval equivalent of a general officer. A rear-admiral is senior to a commodore and brigadier-general, and junior to a vice-admiral and lieutenant-general, the service dress features a wide strip of gold braid around the cuff and, since June 2010, above it a narrower strip of gold braid embellished with the executive curl.
On the visor of the cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Konteradmiral is an OF-7 two-star rank equivalent to the Generalmajor in the German Army, see The Guyana Defence Force Coast Guard is the naval component of the Military of Guyana. As such, the ranks of the Coast Guard are naval ranks similar to the practice in the respective Coast Guards of Jamaica and Trinidad, the rank of rear admiral was first awarded to chief of staff commodore Gary Best on August 19,2013. The rank insignia consists of two silver pips with green highlights, beneath a crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by the gold-colored Caciques crown with red, the Indian Navy maintains a rear admiral rank senior to commodore and captain ranks and junior to vice admiral ranks. The rank insignia for a rear-admiral is two stars beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by Emblem of India, worn on shoulder boards, before Islamic Revolution The Iranian Imperial Navy. After Islamic Revolution The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy, known as the Iranian Navy, a rear admiral in the Pakistani Navy is a senior and two-star rank naval officer, appointed in higher naval commands.
Like most Commonwealth navies, the rear admiral rank is superior to commodore, the rank is junior to the three-star rank vice-admiral and four-star rank admiral, who is generally a Chief of Naval Staff of the Navy
Captain (armed forces)
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery, in the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army, a captain may command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1, the rank of captain is generally considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field. The rank of captain should not be confused with the rank of captain or with the British-influenced air force rank of group captain. The term ultimately goes back to Late Latin capitaneus meaning chief, prominent, in Middle English adopted as capitayn in the 14th century, the military rank of captain was in use from the 1560s, referring to an officer who commands a company. The naval sense, an officer who commands a man-of-war, is earlier, from the 1550s.
He would in turn receive money from another nobleman to serve as his lieutenant, the funding to provide for the troops came from the monarch or his government, the captain had to be responsible for it. If he was not, or was otherwise court-martialed, he would be dismissed, the only pension for the captain was selling the right to another nobleman when he was ready to retire. In most countries, the air force is the junior service, such as the United States Air Force, use a rank structure and insignia similar to those of the army. However, the United Kingdoms Royal Air Force, many other Commonwealth air forces, a group captain is OF-5 and was derived from the naval rank of captain. In the unified system of the Canadian Forces, the air force rank titles are pearl grey, a variety of images illustrative of different forces insignia for captain are shown below, Captain Captain Senior captain Staff captain
This article is about the OF-5 rank Polkovnik in mostly Slavophone countries. For the equivalent rank in Anglophone armed forces see Colonel, in Austria, Polkovnik is a military rank in Slavic countries mostly which corresponds to a colonel in English-speaking states, and oberst in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries. The term originates from an ancient Slavic word for a group of soldiers, however, in Cossack Hetmanate and Slobozhanshchyna, polkovnyk was an administrative rank similar to a governor. Usually this word is translated as colonel, however the transliteration is in common usage, Polkovnik began as a commander of a distinct group of troops, arranged for battle. The rank of polkovnik was used in the Estonian army until 1924, the rank was legalized by Table of Ranks that placed it in the 6th grade as the second-top field officer, right under the brigadier. A promotion to the rank of polkovnik gave a privilege of hereditary nobility, the Red Army reintroduced the polkovnik rank in 1935, together with a number of other former Russian ranks, and it has been used in many ex-USSR countries, including Russia, to the present day.
The Rank insignia to Polkovnik is as follows and rank insignia of the Russian armed forces until 1917 Ranks and rank insignia of the Red Army 1935–1940, 1940–1943 Ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Army 1943–1955, and. By the end of the 17th century, the title of the assignment became a de facto rank as such and started to denote the commanding officer of the entire regiment. During the rule of Sanacja in the period between World War I and World War II, a number of officers were promoted to the rank. During the Invasion of Poland in 1939, the Polish divisions were commanded by officers of many grades, in fact 22 divisions out of 42 were commanded by colonels in 1939. The pułkownicy commanded units of all sizes, from divisions down to mere battalions, in the 18th century, a polkovnyk was a leader of a palanka, a territorial unit of the Zaporozhian Host. The military council elected a palanka polkovnyk to serve for a term of one year and he represented the Kosh Otaman in the palanka and had significant powers, including the right to condemn Cossacks to the death penalty.
At the time of liquidation of the Zaporozhian Host by the Russian government in 1775, as symbol of office a polkovnyk wore a pernach in his belt. In the Registered Cossack Army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th and 17th centuries, a polkovnyk commanded a regiment, after the reform of the Cossack army by hetman Mykhailo Doroshenko in the 1620s there were six Cossack regiments, each comprising one thousand Cossacks. Polkovnyks were elected by the Cossack Council subject to the approval of the Polish government, a polkovnyk obtained a salary for his service, and enjoyed considerable privileges. After the Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth adopted the Ordination of 1638, during Khmelnytsky Uprising and in the Cossack Hetmanate, a polkovnyk headed a territorial administrative unit, the regiment. In modern Ukraine, the rank of polkovnyk resembles the similar rank of the former Soviet Army. Історія України в особах, термінах, назвах і поняттях. -Луцьк, Вежа,2000
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In this sense, officers are not enlisted, but hold appointments from their government that typically remain in force indefinitely unless resigned, the proportion of officers varies greatly. Officers typically make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel, in 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, and the senior 13. 7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, however, armed forces have generally had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers, in the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12. 5%. Within a nations armed forces, armies tend to have a proportion of officers. For example,13. 9% of British army personnel and 22. 2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, having officers is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though these officers need not have obtained an official commission or warrant.
Commissioned officers are typically the only persons, in an armed forces environment, a superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, who is a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se, many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning, even from the enlisted ranks. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel, the IDF often sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers, the first, and primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. The third route is similar to the second, in that they convert from an enlisted to a commission, but these are taken from the highest ranks of SNCOs.
LE officers, whilst holding the same Queens Commission, generally work in different roles from the DE officers, in the infantry, a number of Warrant Officer Class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 30-week period at RAF College Cranwell, Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a grueling 15-month course. The courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, etiquette, until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least socially mobile, AOCS also included the embedded Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate and Naval Aviation Cadet programs. NAVCADs were personnel who held associates degrees, but lacked bachelors degrees, nAVCADs would complete the entire AOCS program, but would not be commissioned until completion of flight training and receiving their wings.
After their initial tour, they would be assigned to a college or university full-time for no more than two years in order to complete their bachelors degree
An airman is a member of the air component of a nations armed service. In the United States Air Force, it can refer to a specific enlisted rank. More informally, it can refer to any member of an air force, or to any pilot, aviator, or aircrewman, military or civilian, the equivalent in the British Royal Air Force and some other Commonwealth countries is aircraftman/woman. In civilian aviation usage, the airman is analogous to the term sailor in nautical usage. In the American Federal Aviation Administration usage, an airman is any holder of an airmans certificate and this certificate is issued to those who qualify for it by the Federal Aviation Administration Airmen Certification Branch. In the U. S. Air Force, airman is a term which can refer to any member of the United States Air Force. The rank of airman is the enlisted rank from the bottom, just above the rank of airman basic. Since the Air Force was established 1947, all of the ranks of airman have always included females, and in this context.
Former U. S. Air Force ranks included airman second class, the current E-2 paygrade rank of airman was called airman third class from 1952 to 1967. These programs are sponsored and taught by four of the services at hundreds of the high schools in the United States. Having achieved the Eagle Scout level from the Boy Scouts of America, having earned 20 college semester credit hours. They receive their retroactive pay increment that brings them up to the pay grade for an airman upon their completion of basic training. While at the rank of airman, the duties of enlisted personnel include adjusting to the Air Force way of military life, for airmen with high aptitudes, some of these training programs include more than one school and take one year or more to complete. In the U. S. Navy, airman is the rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Navys aviation field. In the U. S. Coast Guard, the ranks are similar or identical to the ones in the U. S. Navy. Coast Guard airman is the rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Coast Guards aviation field.
Military pilot Soldier Seaman U. S. Air Force enlisted rank insignia U. S. Navy enlisted rate insignia RAF enlisted ranks Aircraftman
Leading Seaman is a junior non-commissioned rank or rate in navies, particularly those of the Commonwealth. When it is used by NATO nations, Leading Seaman has the code of OR-4. It is often equivalent to the army and air force rank of corporal and some navies use Corporal rather than Leading Seaman. The rank is used in the navies of Australia, Canada, Ghana, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka and it is senior to able seaman but junior to petty officer. Leading seaman or leading hand, which it is known as, is the equivalent of corporal in the Royal Australian Air Force. Leading seamen are addressed as leader, and informally known as killicks from the anchor which is the symbol of their rank. In the Royal Canadian Navy, leading seaman is senior to the rank of able seaman and its Army and Air Force equivalent is corporal and it is part of the cadre of junior non-commissioned officers. Leading seamen are generally addressed as Leading Seaman Smith. The same rank title is used for female members, the slang term for the rank is killick, as in the Royal Navy.
The term is used even though the old-style insignia of a fouled anchor is no longer used for this rank in the RCN. Leading seamen generally mess and billet with other seamen and their army and air force equivalents, privates and their mess on naval bases or installations is generally named the junior ranks mess. Leading seaman is an enlisted rank of the Navy of the Russian Federation. It is senior to the lowest rank of seaman, the rank was introduced to the Soviet Navy in 1946 and inherited by the Russian state in 1991. The former Soviet republics of Belarus and Ukraine maintain similar ranks with the same pronunciation but slightly different orthography - старшы матрос, the rate of leading seaman, leading hand or leading rating in the Royal Navy is senior to able seaman and junior to petty officer. It is equivalent, but junior, to corporal in the other services, the badge is the fouled anchor, worn on the upper arm in formal uniform and on the shoulder slides in working dress. Specialists use the word leading before their speciality, a leading rating is often called a killick, referring to the rank insignia of a fouled anchor.
In the United States Navy, the position of leading seaman is usually that of the seniormost seaman in the division. The rank equivalent of a Leading Seaman is a Petty Officer Third Class, though it should be noted that the leading seaman only has the authority of a PO3, the leading seaman position is usually used when a PO3 or PO2 is not available
Bombardier is a military rank that has existed since the 16th century in artillery regiments of various armies, such as in the British Army and the Royal Prussian Army. It is today equivalent to the rank of corporal in other branches, the rank of lance-bombardier is the artillery counterpart of lance-corporal. Bombardier and lance-bombardier are used by the British Army in the Royal Artillery, the same applies to the Royal Australian Artillery, the Royal New Zealand Artillery, the South African Army Artillery and the Armed Forces of Malta. The Royal Canadian Artillery uses the ranks of master bombardier and bombardier, the Royal Artillery had corporals, but not lance-corporals. Unlike a lance-corporal, a bombardier held full non-commissioned rank and not an acting appointment, the rank was equivalent to second corporal in the Royal Engineers and Army Ordnance Corps. In 1920 corporals were abolished in the Royal Artillery, bombardiers became the equivalent, the rank of lance bombardier originated as acting bombardier, an appointment similar to lance-corporal and was indicated by a single chevron.
The appointment was renamed lance-bombardier in February 1918 and became a rank, as did lance-corporal. Bomb is widely used as a form of address for both full bombardiers and lance-bombardiers. They may be referred to as a screw or a lance jack. As with other common military abbreviations, such as sarnt, these terms are not used on formal occasions, until the advent of smart bombs and guided missiles, bomber aircraft carried crew members responsible for aiming bombs. In Commonwealth air forces this crew member was the bomb aimer, British Army Other Ranks rank insignia Comparative military ranks Canadian Forces ranks and insignia Texts on Wikisource, Bombardier
For more information on commandant when used as a position, see Commandant. Commandant is a military or police rank, in the French, Spanish and Monegasque armed forces it is a rank equivalent to major. In South Africa for most of the half of the 20th century. In the Canadian Forces, “commandant” is the French-language title for a major of any unit, however, in English, “commandant” is used exclusively to identify those commanding officers responsible for units that provide a service or oversight to some lodger population. Prior to its amendment in 2014, the National Defence Act identified “Commandant daviation” as the French translation for the rank of squadron leader, Commandant is a military rank in both the Irish Army and Irish Air Corps. It is equivalent to major or squadron leader in armed forces. In the Irish Naval Service, the equivalent rank is lieutenant commander, Commandant, is an officer-grade rank of the Military of France, specifically the French Army and the French Air Force, which is equivalent to major.
The commandant is styled chef de bataillon in the infantry, chef descadrons in the cavalry and chef descadron in the artillery. Commandant is the style, but not the rank, of the officers of the French Navy. Prior to the French Revolution, the major was the appointed by the King to keep track of the expenditures. He could have a deputy and could be either a commoner or a nobleman, a major was graded as a commissar, not an officer. The officer at commandant rank level was the chef de bataillon or chef descadron, major is now, the most senior warrant officer rank, above adjudant-chef. Comandante is an officer rank used in some Latin American countries. The Chilean Air Force uses the rank of comandante de escuadrilla as an equivalent to the British rank of squadron leader. The Peruvian Air Force uses the rank of comandante as an equivalent to lieutenant-colonel or wing commander, comandante can be translated into English either as commandant or as commander. The rank may be found in numerous organizations, such as the Sandinistas.
The rank comandante en jefe, may be found in the nation of Cuba as a military rank held by Raúl Castro. The rank of comandante en jefe is the equivalent of a marshal or general of the army
A midshipman is an officer cadet or a commissioned officer candidate of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Canada, Bangladesh, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Kenya. Beginning in the 18th century, an officer candidate was rated as a midshipman. After serving at least three years as a midshipman or masters mate, he was eligible to take the examination for lieutenant, promotion to lieutenant was not automatic, and many midshipmen took positions as masters mates for an increase in pay and responsibility aboard ship. Midshipman began to mean an officer cadet at a naval college, trainees now spent around four years in a college and two years at sea prior to promotion to commissioned officer rank. Between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, time at sea declined to less than a year as the age was increased from 12 to 18. Ranks equivalent to midshipman exist in other navies.
Using US midshipman or pre-fleet board UK midshipman as the basis for comparison, using post-fleet board UK midshipman for comparison, the rank would be the most junior commissioned officer in the rank structure, and similar to a US ensign in role and responsibility. Today, these ranks all refer to cadets, but historically they were selected by the monarchy. The first published use of the term midshipman was in 1662, the word derives from an area aboard a ship, but it refers either to the location where midshipmen worked on the ship, or the location where midshipmen were berthed. By the 18th century, four types of midshipman existed, midshipman extraordinary, midshipman, by 1794, all midshipmen were considered officer candidates, and the original rating was phased out. Beginning in 1661, boys who aspired to become officers were sent by their families to serve on ships with a letter of service from the crown, and were paid at the same rate as midshipmen. Their official rating was volunteer-per-order, but they were known as Kings letter boys.
Beginning in 1677, Royal Navy regulations for promotion to lieutenant required service as a midshipman, by the Napoleonic era, the regulations required at least three years of services as a midshipman or masters mate and six years of total sea time. Sea time was earned in various ways, most boys served this period at sea in any lower rating, either as a servant of one of the ships officers, a volunteer, or a seaman. By the 1730s, the rating volunteer-per-order was phased out and replaced with a system where prospective midshipmen served as servants for officers. For example, a captain was allowed four servants for every 100 men aboard his ship, the school was unpopular in the Navy, because officers enjoyed the privilege of having servants and preferred the traditional method of training officers via apprenticeship. Volunteers were paid £6 per year, by 1816, the rating of midshipman ordinary was phased out, and all apprentice officers were rated as midshipmen
Wing commander (rank)
It is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. It ranks immediately above squadron leader and immediately below group captain. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-4, and is equivalent to Commander in the Royal Navy and to Lieutenant Colonel in the British Army, the Royal Marines, and the US Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps. The equivalent rank in the Womens Auxiliary Air Force, Womens Royal Air Force, the equivalent rank in the Royal Observer Corps was observer commander which had a similar rank insignia. In response to the proposal that the RAF should use its own titles, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navys officer ranks. For example, the rank that became wing commander would have been air commander and it was suggested that RAF lieutenant colonels might be entitled reeves or wing-leaders. However, the rank wing commander was chosen as wings were typically commanded by RAF lieutenant colonels.
The rank of wing commander has been used continuously since 1 August 1919, in the early years of the RAF, a wing commander commanded a flying wing, typically a group of three or four aircraft squadrons. In current usage a wing commander is more likely to command a wing which is an administrative sub-division of an RAF station, a flying squadron is normally commanded by a wing commander but is occasionally commanded by a squadron leader for small units. In the Air Training Corps, a commander is usually the officer commanding of a wing. The rank insignia is based on the three bands of commanders in the Royal Navy and consists of three narrow light blue bands over slightly wider black bands. This is worn on both the sleeves of the tunic or on the shoulder of the flying suit or the casual uniform. The command pennant is two triangular command pennants used in the RAF, two thin red lines differentiate this one from the other. It is used in the Egyptian Air Force, Hellenic Air Force, Royal Air Force of Oman, the Royal Canadian Air Force used the rank until the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968, when army-type rank titles were adopted.
A Canadian wing commander became a lieutenant colonel. In official French Canadian usage, a wing commanders rank title was lieutenant-colonel daviation, the rank of wing commander continues to be used as a cadet rank at the Royal Military College of Canada. In the 1990s, the Canadian Forces Air Command altered the structure of those bases under its control, the commander of such an establishment was re-designated as the wing commander. Like the United States Air Force usage, the wing commander is an appointment
Lieutenant (junior grade)
The rank is used in the United States Maritime Service. The NOAA Corpss predecessors, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, promotion to LTJG is governed by Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980. DOPMA guidelines suggest all fully qualified ensigns should be promoted to LTJG, the time for promotion to LTJG is a minimum of two years after commissioning in the Navy or 18 months in the Coast Guard. Lieutenants, junior grade typically lead petty officers and non-rated personnel, a LTJGs usual shipboard billet is as a division officer. Lieutenant, junior grade is referred to colloquially as JG. Prior to March 3,1883, this rank was known in the Navy as Master, solid Snake was disguised as this U. S. Navy SEAL. S
Air chief marshal
Air chief marshal is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank. Air chief marshal is an air officer rank and has a NATO ranking code of OF-9. An air chief marshal is equivalent to an admiral in the Royal Navy or a general in the British Army or the Royal Marines, in other forces, such as the United States Armed Forces and the Canadian Armed Forces, the equivalent four-star rank is general. The rank of air marshal is immediately senior to the rank of air marshal. Air chief marshals are sometimes considered to be air marshals. Prior to the adoption of RAF-specific rank titles in 1919, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navys officer ranks, for example, the rank that became air chief marshal would have been air admiral. However, air marshal was preferred and was adopted on 1 August 1919. The rank was first used on 1 April 1922 with the promotion of Sir Hugh Trenchard, with Trenchards promotion to marshal of the RAF on 1 January 1927, no officer held the rank until Sir John Salmond was promoted on 1 January 1929.
It has been used ever since. In the RAF, the rank of air marshal is held by the serving Chief of the Air Staff. Throughout the history of the RAF,139 RAF officers have held the rank and it has awarded in an honorary capacity to senior members of the British Royal Family. Additionally, Lord Stirrup was granted a promotion to marshal of the Royal Air Force in 2014. The marshals are still to be found on the RAFs active list even though they have for all practical purposes retired, the rank insignia consists of three narrow light blue bands over a light blue band on a broad black band. This is worn on the sleeves of the service dress jacket or on the shoulders of the flying suit or working uniform. The command flag for an RAF air chief marshal is defined by the two red bands running through the centre of the flag. The vehicle star plate for an RAF air chief marshal depicts four stars on an air force blue background. The rank of air marshal is used in the air forces of many countries which were under British influence around the time their air force was founded.
This includes many the air forces of many Commonwealth countries and it is instituted as a rank in the Ghana Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force as member of the Commonwealth of Nations, however not in practice