Canadian Disruptive Pattern is the computer-generated digital camouflage pattern first issued in 2002, used by the Canadian Armed Forces. CADPAT TW is designed to reduce the likelihood of detection by night vision devices. Canada's desire for a new soldier system dates back to November 1988 and followed efforts in many NATO countries; the first research effort, called Integrated Protective Clothing and Equipment Technology Demonstration, was initiated in 1995 but was cancelled, due to high systems cost and failure to meet the majority of the requirements. Ongoing operations in the mid-1990s led to the creation of the Clothe the Soldier Project, which directly addressed the NATO soldier system capability areas of survivability and sustainability; the Canadian Disruptive Pattern was a part of ongoing research and implemented during the CTS Project. The use of the camo overseas was first reported in Afghanistan when Taliban prisoners of war were seen escorted by armed Canadian commandos in the camo, which nearly made things complicated with the Department of National Defence, since it had said that no Canadian commandos were in Afghanistan.
In development for the better part of a decade, the pattern comes in three varieties: temperate woodland, arid region, winter/arctic. The temperate woodland pattern became the standard issue for the Army in 2002, with the Air Force following suit in 2004. Uniforms and equipment in CADPAT material replaced the olive green material in use since the early 1960s; the temperate woodland pattern has four specific colours—light green, dark green and black—and was first introduced in 1996 on the helmet cover for the new CG634 helmet coming into service. At the same time, the pattern was introduced on a new soldier's individual camouflage net; the CADPAT TW uniform allows Canadian soldiers protection from observation by the naked eye and night vision devices. Concurrent with the trials of CADPAT TW, work was carried out to identify a uniform for operations in desert, near desert, savanna environmental conditions; this three-colour pattern, known as CADPAT arid regions, incorporates three different colours of brown.
The CADPAT design for arid regions has been approved, the transfer of this digital technology is ongoing to the textiles industry. CADPAT AR features two additional arm pockets and Velcro on the arms compared to the TW uniform. In light of the deployment of the Immediate Reaction Force to Afghanistan, the CADPAT AR project was expedited with the intent that it would be issued to soldiers in summer 2002; the winter/arctic pattern was introduced as an upgrade to the current monochrome winter whites to further enhance the Canadian soldier's camouflage capability by day and night. It includes near infra-red technology. Defence Research and Development Canada based at CFB Suffield has a requirement to develop a new urban pattern for the Canadian Forces based on the three major metropolitan areas of Canada: Toronto and Montreal; this new pattern is known as the Canadian urban environment pattern. Camouflage patterns similar but not identical to CADPAT are commercially available. Clothe the Soldier Programme Digital Camouflage History CA 2442558 US 6933023 US D474897
Canadian Army Command and Staff College
The Canadian Army Command and Staff College the Canadian Land Force Command and Staff College, is a school for officers of the Canadian Forces, specializing in staff and army operations courses. It is located at Fort Frontenac, in Kingston, Canada; the Canadian Army began staff training in England during the Second World War. Staff training moved to Canada, four-to-six-month courses were delivered for a short time at the Royal Military College of Canada. After the Canadian Army Staff College became a formal part of the Canadian Army, the college moved to Fort Frontenac in 1948. In 1975, the college was renamed Staff College. In 2011, the college was renamed the Canadian Army Staff College. Fort Frontenac Library Official website
Wing commander (rank)
Wing commander is a senior commissioned rank in the British Royal Air Force and air forces of many countries which have historical British influence, including many Commonwealth countries but not including Canada and South Africa. It is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure, it ranks above squadron leader and below group captain. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-4, is equivalent to commander in the Royal Navy and to lieutenant colonel in the British Army, the Royal Marines, the US Army, Air Force, Marine Corps; the equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force, Women's Royal Air Force, Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service was wing officer. The equivalent rank in the Royal Observer Corps was observer commander which had a similar rank insignia. With the Naval Wing of the Royal Flying Corps adopting the name of Royal Naval Air Service 1 July 1914, the Naval Air Service adopted appointments in addition to the naval ranks.
Pilots wore insignia according to the appointment not their rank. One of the appointments was wing commander holding the rank of commander. On 1 April 1918, the newly created British Royal Air Force did not adopt a new rank structure with personnel continuing their prior services' rank and uniform. There were some changes in ranks but it was inconstant. In 1920, RAF began using the rank of wing commander. In the early years of the RAF, a wing commander commanded a flying wing a group of three or four aircraft squadrons. In current usage a wing commander is more to command a wing, an administrative sub-division of an RAF station. A flying squadron is commanded by a wing commander but is commanded by a squadron leader for small units. In the Air Training Corps, a wing commander is the officer commanding of a wing; the rank insignia is based on the three gold bands of commanders in the Royal Navy and consists of three narrow light blue bands over wider black bands. This is worn on both the lower sleeves of the tunic or on the shoulder of the flying suit or the casual uniform.
The command pennant is two triangular command pennants used in the RAF. Two thin red lines differentiate this one from the other. During 1941-45 RAF Fighter Command's wing leaders were allowed to use their own initials as aircraft identification letters on their personal aircraft, e.g. Wing Commander Roland Beamont's personal Hawker Tempest, JN751, was coded "R-B", Wing Commander John Robert Baldwin's personal Hawker Typhoon was coded "J-B"; the rank of wing commander is used in a number of the air forces in the Commonwealth, including the Bangladesh Air Force, Ghana Air Force, Nigerian Air Force, Indian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal New Zealand Air Force, the Sri Lankan Air Force. It is used in the Egyptian Air Force, Hellenic Air Force, Royal Air Force of Oman and the Royal Thai Air Force; the Royal Malaysian Air Force used the rank until it was retitled as that of lieutenant colonel in 1973, with the same rank insignia. The Royal Canadian Air Force used the rank until the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968, when army-type rank titles were adopted.
A Canadian wing commander became a lieutenant colonel. In official French Canadian usage, a wing commander's rank title was lieutenant-colonel d'aviation; the rank of wing commander continues to be used as a cadet rank at the Royal Military College of Canada. In the 1990s, the Canadian Forces Air Command altered the structure of those bases under its control, redesignating them as wings; the commander of such an establishment was re-designated as the "wing commander". Like the United States Air Force usage, the term "wing commander" is an appointment, not a rank. A wing commander holds the rank of colonel. In the United States Air Force wing commander is a duty title, not a rank; the equivalent USAF rank is lieutenant colonel who has command of a squadron. Because USAF wings are larger formations than RAF wings, the commander of a wing must hold at least the rank of colonel, is a colonel or a brigadier general; the one exception to this is the commander of the 59th Medical Wing, customarily a major general.
The Civil Air Patrol, the volunteer auxiliary of the USAF, follows the USAF rank structure. The CAP divides the nation into 52 wings; each wing is headed by a CAP colonel. Douglas Bader, Second World War fighter pilot and double amputee, was the first commander to lead formations of three or more squadrons during the Battle of Britain. Roland Beamont, Second World War fighter pilot and post-war test pilot. Abdel Latif Boghdadi, pilot in the Egyptian Air Force turned politician Pierre Clostermann, Second World War fighter pilot and author of The Big Show. Linda Corbould, first woman to command a RAAF flying squadron Roald Dahl, Second World War fighter pilot, famous novelist, his record of five aerial victories has been confirmed by post-war research and cross-referenced in Axis records. Brendan "Paddy" Finucane, top ranking RAF World War II ace with 32 kills. A native of Rathmines, Ireland, he is the youngest wing commander in the histor
The commanding officer or sometimes, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general, is the officer in command of a military unit. The commanding officer has ultimate authority over the unit, is given wide latitude to run the unit as they see fit, within the bounds of military law. In this respect, commanding officers have significant responsibilities and powers. In some countries, commanding officers may be of any commissioned rank. There are more officers than command positions available, time spent in command is a key aspect of promotion, so the role of commanding officer is valued; the commanding officer is assisted by an executive officer or second-in-command, who handles personnel and day-to-day matters, a senior enlisted advisor. Larger units may have staff officers responsible for various responsibilities. In the British Army, Royal Marines, many other Commonwealth military and paramilitary organisations, the commanding officer of a unit is appointed, thus the office of CO is an appointment.
The appointment of commanding officer is exclusive to commanders of major units. It is customary for a commanding officer to hold the rank of lieutenant colonel, they are referred to within the unit as "the colonel" or the CO. "The colonel" may refer to the holder of an honorary appointment of a senior officer who oversees the non-operational affairs of a regiment. However, the rank of the appointment holder and the holder's appointment are separate; that is, not all lieutenant colonels are COs, although most COs are lieutenant colonels, not a requirement of the appointment. Sub-units and minor units and formations do not have a commanding officer; the officer in command of such a unit holds the appointment of "officer commanding". Higher formations have a general officer commanding. Area commands have a commander-in-chief; the OC of a sub-unit or minor unit is today customarily a major, although again the rank of the appointment holder and the holder's appointment are separate and independent of each other.
In some cases, independent units smaller than a sub-unit will have an OC appointed. In these cases, the officer commanding can be a captain or a lieutenant. Appointments such as CO and OC may have specific powers associated with them. For example, they may have statutory powers to promote soldiers or to deal with certain disciplinary offences and award certain punishments; the CO of a unit may have the power to sentence an offender to 28 days' detention, whereas the OC of a sub-unit may have the power to sentence an offender to 3 days' restriction of privileges. Commanders of units smaller than sub-units are not specific appointments and officers or NCOs who fill those positions are referred to as the commander or leader. In the Royal Air Force, the title of commanding officer is reserved for station commanders or commanders of independent units, including flying squadrons; as with the British Army, the post of a commander of a lesser unit such as an administrative wing, squadron or flight is referred to as the officer commanding.
In the Royal Navy and many others, commanding officer is the official title of the commander of any ship, unit or installation. However, they are referred to as "the captain" no matter what their actual rank, or informally as "skipper" or "boss". In the United States, the status of commanding officer is duly applied to all commissioned officers who hold lawful command over a military unit, ship, or installation; the commanding officer of a company a captain, is referred to as the company commander. The commanding officer of a battalion, is a lieutenant colonel; the commanding officer of a brigade, a colonel, is the brigade commander. At the division level and higher, the commanding officer is referred to as the commanding general, as these officers hold general officer rank. Although holding a leadership position in the same sense as commanders, the individual in charge of a platoon, the smallest unit of soldiers led by a commissioned officer a second lieutenant, is referred to as the platoon leader, not the platoon commander.
This officer does have command of the soldiers under him but does not have many of the command responsibilities inherent to higher echelons. For example, a platoon leader cannot issue non-judicial punishment. Non-commissioned officers may be said to have charge of certain smaller military units, they cannot, hold command as they lack the requisite authority granted by the head of state to do so. Those wielding "command" of individual vehicles are called vehicle commanders; this distinction in title applies to officers who are aircraft commanders, as well as officers and enlisted soldiers who are tank and armored vehicle commanders. While these officers and NCOs have tactical and operational command (including full authority and accountability – in the case
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit
An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Three-star officers hold the rank of vice admiral, lieutenant general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air marshal. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded three-star ranks: Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal Official rank insignia for Australian'three-star' officers do not use stars in the same fashion as the United States; the RAN does incorporate stars into the hardboard rank insignia for flag-rank officers but this is in conjunction with other devices. Unofficial star rank insignia are sometimes worn when serving with or visiting other military organisations in order to facilitate equivalent rank recognition; the Chiefs of all three services within the Australian Defence Force hold three-star rank as well as three joint positions: Vice Chief of Defence Force, Chief of Joint Operations and Chief Capability Development Group.
Inspector general of Police Lieutenant general Vice admiral Air marshal Vice Almirante General de Divisão Major Brigadeiro The three-star rank in Brazil is the second rank in a general career. The officers in this position are divisional commanders. Vice admiral / vice-amiral Lieutenant-general / lieutenant-général Three maple leaves appear with St. Edward's crown and crossed sabre and baton. Prince Charles holds the rank of vice-admiral in an honorary capacity. Before unification, the rank of air marshal was the three-star equivalent for the RCAF; the equivalent modern German three-star ranks of the Bundeswehr are as follows: Generalleutnant and Vizeadmiral Generaloberstabsarzt and AdmiraloberstabsarztNot to be confused with the Generalleutnant and Vizeadmiral of the Wehrmacht until 1945 or the National People's Army until 1990. Air marshal Lieutenant general Vice admiral Director general Letnan Jendral - Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps three-star rank Laksamana Madya - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency three-star rank Marsekal Madya - Indonesian Air Force three-star rank Komisaris Jenderal - Indonesian National Police three-star rank Inspector-General of the Police Lieutenant-General Air-Marshal Vice-Admiral Lieutenant general Lieutenant general Vice admiral Vice admiral Deputy Commissioner Police Deputy Director General Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal Vice admiral Lieutenant general A vice admiral commands a numbered fleet, responsible for all naval ships within its area of responsibility.
An Army or Marine Corps lieutenant general commands a corps-sized unit, while an Air Force lieutenant general commands a large Numbered Air Force consisting of several wings. Additionally, lieutenant generals and vice admirals of all services serve as high-level staff officers at various major command headquarters and the Pentagon as the heads of their departments. In the Russian and Soviet armies, the three-star rank is full admiral; this is a title. Most Warsaw Pact and Soviet-aligned countries adopted this rank; the rank is held by commanders of the ground forces, chiefs of military academies and commanders of military districts. Colonel general is considered a stepping stone to the rank of general of the army, itself essential to achieving the high rank of marshal of the Russian Federation; this title applies to three star officers of the air force, MVD, police and militia, internal troops, FSB/KGB, border guards and some others. In the navy, the three star rank is admiral. Corps general Ranks and insignia of NATO Four-star rank Two-star rank