The name War Office is given to the former home of the department, the War Office building located at the junction of Horse Guards Avenue and Whitehall in central London. During August 2013 it was announced that the former War Office building would be sold on the open market. The War Office developed from the Council of War, an ad hoc grouping of the King and his military commanders which managed the Kingdom of Englands frequent wars. It was equivalent to the Admiralty, responsible for the Royal Navy, and the Air Ministry, the department had several London homes until it settled at Horse Guards in Whitehall during 1722, where it was to remain until 1858. The first War Office Secretary at War is usually said to have been William Blathwayt and it was, however, a fairly minor government job which dealt with the minutiae of administration rather than grand strategy. Issues of strategic policy during wartime were managed by the Northern and Southern Departments, from 1704 to 1855, the job of Secretary was possessed by a minister of the second rank, although he was occasionally part of the Cabinet.
Many of his responsibilities were transferred to the Secretary of State for War after the creation of more senior post during 1794. The job of Secretary at War was merged with that of the Secretary of State for War during 1855, during 1855 the Board of Ordnance was abolished as a result of its perceived poor performance during the Crimean War. This powerful independent body, dating from the 15th century, had directed by the Master-General of the Ordnance. The disastrous campaigns of the Crimean War resulted in the consolidation of all duties during 1855 as subordinate to the Secretary of State for War. He was not, solely responsible for the Army and this was reduced in theory by the reforms introduced by Edward Cardwell during 1870, which subordinated the Commander-in-Chief to the Secretary for War. His resistance to reform caused military efficiency to lag well behind that of Britains rivals, the management of the War Office was hampered by persistent disputes between the civilian and military parts of the organisation.
The government of H. H. Asquith attempted to resolve this during the First World War by appointing Lord Kitchener as Secretary for War, making him the first, this was thought unsatisfactory, during his tenure, the Imperial General Staff was virtually dismantled. Its role was replaced effectively by the Committee of Imperial Defence, the War Office decreased greatly in importance after the First World War, a fact illustrated by the drastic reductions of its staff numbers during the inter-war period. On 1 April 1920, it employed 7,434 civilian staff and its responsibilities and funding were reduced. During 1936, the government of Stanley Baldwin appointed a Minister for Co-ordination of Defence, when Winston Churchill became Prime Minister during 1940, he bypassed the War Office altogether and appointed himself Minister of Defence. Clement Attlee continued this arrangement when he came to power during 1945, during 1964, the present form of the Ministry of Defence was established, unifying the War Office and Air Ministry.
The records of the War Office are kept by The National Archives with the code WO and it contains about 1,000 rooms across seven floors, linked by 2½ miles of corridors
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté KB was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was wounded several times in combat, losing most of one arm in the attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife. He was shot and killed during his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling and he rose rapidly through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness. The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service and he fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent.
The following year, he won a victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory and he subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle. After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805, on 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, and Nelsons fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar. The battle was Britains greatest naval victory, but during the action Nelson and his body was brought back to England where he was accorded a state funeral. Nelsons death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britains most heroic figures, numerous monuments, including Nelsons Column in Trafalgar Square and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains highly influential. Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, England and he was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton.
His mother, who died on 26 December 1767, when he was nine years old, was a great-niece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She lived in the village of Barsham and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Nelsons aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe. Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, and attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson was appointed a midshipman and began officer training, early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life. He twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Sucklings longboat, at his nephews request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS Carcass
Board of Ordnance
The Board of Ordnance was a British government body. Established in the Tudor period, it had its headquarters in the Tower of London, the Board maintained and directed the Artillery and Engineer corps, which it founded in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, the Board of Ordnance was second in only to HM Treasury among government departments. The Board lasted until 1855, at which point it was disbanded, the introduction of gunpowder to Europe led to innovations in offensive weapons, such as cannon, and defences, such as fortifications. From the 1320s a member of the Royal Household, the Keeper of the Privy Wardrobe in the Tower of London, became responsible for the procurement, storage. His office and main arsenal were located in the White Tower and this Privy Wardrobe in the Tower grew, both in size and significance, after the start of the Hundred Years War. In the following century, the influence of the Privy Wardrobe and its staff receded, a distinct Office of Ordnance began to establish itself at the Tower, staffed in the 1460s by a Master, a Clerk and a Yeoman.
In the 1540s, under Henry VIII, the Ordnance Office was expanded, new officers were appointed and their principal duties clarified. In 1671, the Ordnance Office took over the work of the Office of Armoury at the Tower, at this time the Ordnance Office began to take on oversight of the nations forts and fortifications. In 1683, by now known as the Board of Ordnance. These detailed Instructions continued, with little change, to provide the working framework for the Board. From the mid-16th century onwards, the Board of Ordnance had six principal officers, merbury was present at the Siege of Harfleur and at the Battle of Agincourt. By 1450 Master of Ordnance was a permanent appointment, firmly based at the Tower of London, until 1544 the Master had generally managed the day-to-day activities of the Ordnance Office. Thereafter the Lieutenant had day-to-day oversight of the Boards activities, while Master had more the role of a statesman, from the seventeenth century through till 1828 the Master-General routinely had a seat in Cabinet, and thus served as de facto principal military adviser to the government.
Some of the most illustrious soldiers of their generation served as Master-General, Cadogan, Hastings, from its earliest years, the Ordnance Office was staffed by a large number of Clerks to manage its substantial administrative functions. A number of officials reported to the board, including furbishers, proofmasters and fireworkers. Two appointments stand out, as they were appointed by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm, namely the Master Gunner of England and these were the senior technicians on the staff. The Treasurer of the Ordnance was another important officer of the department and this office was instituted in 1670, the post was consolidated with several others in 1836 to form that of Paymaster-General
A tercio or tercio español was a Spanish infantry organization during the time that Habsburg Spain dominated Europe in the Early Modern era. The tercio was a unit with command of up to 3000 soldiers, subdivided originally into ten, twelve compañías, made up of pikemen, swordsmen. These companies were deployed in battle and were subdivided into units of thirty soldiers. These smaller units could be deployed individually or brought together to form what were sometimes called Spanish squares and these powerful infantry squares were much used by other European powers, especially the Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire. Moreover, the tercios were the first to efficiently mix pikes, the use of massed pikes by Spanish armies began in the War of Granada. The conflicts at the end of the 15th century and early 16th century evolved into a unique combination of combined arms centered around armored infantry. To counter the French heavy cavalry, a colonelcy could theoretically have up to 6,000 men, armies using tercio companies of up to 300 generally intended to field them in brigades of at least three, with one in the front and two behind.
The rearward formations echeloned off on either side so that a called a colunella. The Spanish tercios rarely had more than 1500 men and they were called tercios, meaning thirds, because they were, in theory, made up originally of 1/3 pikemen, 1/3 swordsmen, and 1/3 of firearms. In time, the number of swordsmen was reduced, the only tercio to have 3,000 men was the Tercio de Galeras or the Galleys Tercio, dedicated only for deployment in galleys and galleons and specialized in naval warfare and amphibious operations. It was assigned in 1537 by royal assent to the Spanish fleets in the Mediterranean and is the ancestor of todays Spanish Navy Marines, the arquebusiers were usually split up in several mobile groups called sleeves and deployed relative to the cuadro, typically with one manga at each corner. Groups of tercios were typically arrayed in dragon-toothed formation and this enabled enfilade lines of fire and somewhat defiladed the army units themselves. From their inception, tercio formations were meant to co-ordinate their field operations with cavalry, mirroring military organization today, the Tercio was led by a Maestre de Campo appointed by the King as the commanding officer and guarded by eight halberdiers.
Assisting him was the sergeant major and a Furir Major in charge of logistics and armaments, with led by a Captain, of royal appointment. Companies had Sergeants and Corporals in them, each company had corps of drums made up of drummers and fifers, sounding duty calls in battle, with the drum major and Fife major being provided by the Tercio headquarters. The Tercio staff included a component and preachers. They all reported to the Maestre de campo directly, during the actions in the Netherlands the Tercios were reorganized into three Colonelcies, led by Colonels, but subdivided into the same 12 companies of 250, two of arquebusiers and 10 of pikemen. Colonels were of royal appointment and they were made up of volunteers and built up around a core of professional soldiers and were highly trained
1st The Royal Dragoons
The Royal Dragoons was a mounted infantry and a heavy cavalry regiment of the British Army. The regiment was formed in 1661 as the Tangier Horse and it served for three centuries and was in action during the First and the Second World Wars. It was amalgamated with the Royal Horse Guards to form The Blues and they were constituted in 1672 and, after Jones was killed during the siege of Maastricht in 1673 while serving with the Duke of Monmouth, command passed to the Duke. The regiment was ranked as the 1st Dragoons, the oldest cavalry regiment of the line, the regiment was recalled to England in 1678 with the expectation of fighting in a war against France. In early 1679, it was disbanded and reformed in June of that year as Gerards Regiment of Horse, with most of the officers and men. The regiment was disbanded in late 1679 and three of its captains, John Coy, Thomas Langston and Charles Nedby, along with their troopers, when they returned in 1683, they joined what became a new permanent regiment of the Royal Dragoons.
On their return to England in 1683, the three troops were joined with three newly raised troops and titled The Kings Own Royal Regiment of Dragoons, named for Charles II, in 1690, the regiment was renamed as simply The Royal Regiment of Dragoons. It fought at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, the regiment fought at the Battle of Beaumont in April 1794 and the Battle of Willems in May 1794 during the Flanders Campaign. The regiment took part in the charge of the Union Brigade under the command of Major-General William Ponsonby at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815 during the Hundred Days Campaign. Captain Alexander Kennedy Clark, an officer in the regiment, captured the French Imperial Eagle of the 105th Line Infantry Regiment during the battle, the regiment next took part in the charge of the heavy brigade at the Battle of Balaclava in October 1854 during the Crimean War. Having been re-titled the 1st Dragoons in 1877, the regiment saw action at the Battle of Abu Klea in January 1885 during the Mahdist War.
In January 1900, during the Second Boer War, the regiment was part of a force that set out to discover the western flank of the Boer lines and it was able to ambush a column of about 200 Boers near Acton Homes and successfully trapped about 40 of them. It took part in the First Battle of Ypres in October 1914, the Second Battle of Ypres in April 1915, the Battle of Loos in September 1915, the regiment retitled as the 1st The Royal Dragoons in 1921. It was deployed to Egypt in 1927, to Secunderabad in India in 1929, the regiment mechanised shortly after the outbreak of the Second World War and was transferred to the Royal Armoured Corps in 1940. It became the Reconnaissance Regiment for the 10th Armoured Division in September 1942, the regiment took part in the advance to the River Elbe and, after taking 10,000 enemy prisoners, liberated Copenhagen in May 1945. The regiment moved to Eutin in Schleswig-Holstein in November 1945 and to Dale Barracks in Chester in November 1950 and it deployed troops to Egypt in February 1951 and moved to Combermere Barracks in Wesendorf in May 1954 and to Harewood Barracks in Herford in August 1957.
It returned to the UK in September 1959 from where it deployed troops to Aden in November 1959, the regiment survived the immediate post-war reduction in forces, and was re-titled as The Royal Dragoons in 1961. It returned home in October 1962 and deployed troops to Cyprus in February 1964 before transferring to Hobart Barracks in Detmold in January 1965 and it amalgamated with the Royal Horse Guards, to form The Blues and Royals in 1969. M
A Scottish regiment is any regiment that at some time in its history has or had a name that referred to Scotland or some part and adopted items of Scottish dress. Their Scottishness is no longer due to recruitment in Scotland nor any proportion of members of Scottish ancestry. Traditionally, Scottish regiments cultivate a reputation of exceptional fierceness in combat and are often given romantic portrayals in popular media, within Scotland, regiments of the Scottish Lowlands did not adopt as strong a Scottish character until the late Victorian Era. These generally predate the more widely known Highland regiments, the senior Lowland regiment was the The Royal Scots which dates from 1633. The Royal Scots Fusiliers and The Kings Own Scottish Borderers were subsequently raised in 1678 and 1689 respectively, throughout the 17th, 18th and most of the 19th centuries these Scottish regiments served widely and with distinction. They did not however differ significantly in appearance or public perception from the bulk of the infantry of the British Army.
In 1881 the introduction of the Cardwell system of reforms provided the opportunity to adopt a form of Scottish dress for the Lowland regiments. Comprising doublets and tartan trews this gave the Lowlanders a distinctive identity, separate from their English, Irish, at the same time, the absence of kilts and the substitution of Kilmarnock bonnets for feather bonnets prevented confusion between Lowlanders and their Highland counterparts. The Cameronians was created at the time from the merging of two existing numbered regiments. The original Highland regiments were raised in the 18th century with the object of recruiting rank, the major 20th century exceptions to this rule were the First and Second World Wars, when many Highland men joined up. However, due to a pressing need for personnel in North America during the Seven Years War, by the Victorian era the loyalty of the Highlanders was no longer suspect. Queen Victoria had a personal interest in things Scottish, in relating to the Highlands.
In addition Highland regiments had played a role in such Victorian conflicts as the Crimean War. The Highland regiments earned a reputation which influenced the mindset of those Scottish regiments which were Lowland in origin and this resulted in the wearing of tartan by Lowland regiments which had previously wore uniforms not clearly distinguishable from their Irish and English counterparts. Scottish bagpipes have been adopted in a number of countries, largely in imitation of the pipers of Highland regiments which served throughout the former British Empire, Highland regiments were raised in a number of Commonwealth armies, often adopting formal honorary affiliations with Scottish regiments of the British Army
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery, is the artillery arm of the British Army. Despite its name Royal Regiment of Artillery it actually consists of 13 Regular Regiments and 5 Reserve Regiments, the introduction of artillery into the English army came as early as the Battle of Crécy in 1346. Henry VIII made the armys artillery semi-permanent in the sixteenth century, before the 18th century, artillery traynes were raised by royal warrant for specific campaigns and disbanded again when they were over. On 26 May 1716, however, by warrant of George I two regular companies of field artillery, each 100 men strong, were raised at Woolwich. The title Royal Artillery was first used in 1720, in 1741 the Royal Military Academy was formed in the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich to provide training for RA and Royal Engineers officers. The regiment expanded rapidly and, by 1757, had 24 companies divided into two battalions, as well as a company formed in 1741. During 1748, the presidential artilleries of Bengal and Bombay were formed,1756 saw the creation of the Royal Irish Regiment of Artillery.
In 1762 the Royal Artillery Band was formed at Minden, by 1771 there were 32 companies in four battalions, as well as two invalid companies comprising older and unfit men employed in garrison duties. During 1782, the regiment moved to the Royal Artillery Barracks on Woolwich Common, in January 1793, two troops of Royal Horse Artillery were raised to provide fire support for the cavalry, augmented by two more in November 1793. The Royal Irish Artillery was absorbed into the RA in 1801, during 1805, the Royal Military Academy moved to Woolwich Common. In 1819, the Rotunda was given to the regiment by the Prince Regent to celebrate end of the Napoleonic Wars, in 1832, the regimental motto, Ubique Quo Fas Et Gloria Ducunt, was granted. The motto signified that the regiment had seen action in all the conflicts of the British Army. The regiment was under the control of the Board of Ordnance until the board was abolished in 1855, thereafter the regiment came under the War Office along with the rest of the army.
The School of Gunnery established at Shoeburyness, Essex in 1859, the third group continued to be titled simply Royal Artillery, and was responsible for ammunition storage and supply. Which branch a gunner belonged to was indicated by metal shoulder titles, the RFA and RHA dressed as mounted men, whereas the RGA dressed like foot soldiers. In 1920 the rank of Bombardier was instituted in the Royal Artillery, the three sections effectively functioned as separate corps. This arrangement lasted until 1924, when the three amalgamated once more to one regiment. In 1938, RA Brigades were renamed Regiments, during the World War II there were over 1 million men serving in 960 gunner regiments
New Model Army
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration. Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia, to establish a professional officer corps, the armys leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords or House of Commons. This was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians, many of its common soldiers therefore held Dissenting or radical views unique among English armies. Ultimately, the Armys Generals could rely both on the Armys internal discipline and its religious zeal and innate support for the Good Old Cause to maintain an essentially dictatorial rule. The New Model Army was formed as a result of dissatisfaction among Parliamentarians with the conduct of the Civil War in 1644, there was increasing dissension among Parliaments generals in the field. Parliament suspected that many of its officers, who were mainly Presbyterians, were inclined to favour peace with King Charles.
The Earl of Manchester was one of the prominent members favouring peace and Cromwell clashed publicly over this issue several times. Parliaments senior commander, the Earl of Essex, was suspected of lack of determination and was on poor terms with his subordinates. The tensions among the Parliamentarian generals became a public argument after the Second Battle of Newbury. Some of them believed that King Charless army had escaped encirclement after the battle through inaction on the part of some commanders. In response, Parliament directed the Committee of Both Kingdoms, the body that oversaw the conduct of the War. On 19 December, the House of Commons passed the Self-denying Ordinance, originally a separate matter from the establishment of the New Model Army, it soon became intimately linked with it. Once the Self-denying Ordinance became Law, the Earls of Manchester and Essex, on 6 January 1645, the Committee of Both Kingdoms established the New Model Army, appointing Sir Thomas Fairfax as its Captain-General and Sir Philip Skippon as Sergeant-Major General of the Foot.
The Self-denying Ordinance took time to pass the House of Lords, although Oliver Cromwell handed over his command of the Armys cavalry when the Ordinance was enacted, Fairfax requested his services when another officer wished to emigrate. Cromwell was commissioned Colonel of Vermuydens former regiment of horse, and was appointed Lieutenant General of the Horse in June and his son-in-law Henry Ireton were two of the only four exceptions to the Self-denying Ordinance, the other two being local commanders in Cheshire and North Wales. They were allowed to serve under a series of temporary commissions that were continually extended. They were intended to reduce the remaining Royalist garrisons in their areas, some of their regiments were reorganised and incorporated into the New Model Army during and after the Second English Civil War. Although the cavalry regiments were well up to strength and there was no shortage of volunteers
Captain (Royal Navy)
Please see Captain for other versions of this naval rank. Captain is an officer rank of the Royal Navy. It ranks above Commander and below Commodore and has a NATO ranking code of OF-5, the rank is equivalent to a Colonel in the British Army and Royal Marines, and to a Group Captain in the Royal Air Force. There are similarly named equivalent ranks in the navies of other countries. In former times Royal Navy officers who were Captains by rank and in command of a vessel were referred to as Post-Captains. In the Ministry of Defence, and in Joint Service establishments, the rank insignia features four rings of gold braid with a loop in the upper ring. When in mess dress or mess undress, officers of the rank of Captain and above wear gold-laced trousers, and may wear the undress tailcoat
Army Reserve (United Kingdom)
The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army. Most Volunteer infantry units had unique identities, but lost these in the reorganisation, only one infantry unit, the London Regiment, has maintained a separate identity. Reservists in the past served as constables or bailiffs, even holding positions of civic duty as overseer of their parish, the more modern Yeomen of the 18th century were cavalry-based units, which were often used to suppress riots. Several units that are now part of the Army Reserve bear the title militia, after the Second World War, for example, the Army Reserve - or Territorial Army as it was known - was not demobilised until 1947. All Army Reserve personnel have their jobs protected to a limited extent by law should they be compulsorily mobilised. There is, however, no protection against discrimination in employment for membership of the Army Reserve in the normal course of events. As part of the process, remaining units of militia were converted to the Special Reserve.
The TF was formed on 1 April 1908 and contained fourteen infantry divisions and it had an overall strength of approximately 269,000. The individual units that made up each division or brigade were administered by County Associations, the other members of the association consisted of military members, representative members and co-opted members. Associations took over any property vested in the volunteers or yeomanry under their administration, each regiment or battalion had a Regular Army officer attached as full-time adjutant. In August 1914, after the outbreak of the First World War, territorial units were given the option of serving in France and, by 25 August, in excess of seventy battalions had volunteered. This question over the availability of territorial divisions for service was one of Lord Kitcheners motivations for raising the New Army separately. The first fully Territorial division to join the fighting on the Western Front was the 46th Division in March 1915, with divisions serving in Gallipoli and elsewhere.
As the war progressed, and casualties mounted, the character of territorial units was diluted by the inclusion of conscript. Following the Armistice all units of the Territorial Force were gradually disbanded, New recruiting started in early 1920, and the Territorial Force was reconstituted on 7 February 1920. On 1 October 1920, the Territorial Force was renamed the Territorial Army, the 1st Line divisions were reconstituted in that year. However, the composition of the divisions was altered, with a reduction in the number of infantry battalions required, there was a reduced need for cavalry, and of the 55 yeomanry regiments, only the 14 most senior retained their horses. The remaining yeomanry were converted to artillery or armoured car units or disbanded, the amalgamation of 40 pairs of infantry battalions was announced in October 1921
Royal Bermuda Regiment
The Royal Bermuda Regiment, formerly the Bermuda Regiment, is the home defence unit of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda. The original Bermuda Militia had existed from 1612 to 1815, during the subsequent decades, short-lived militias were raised within the Bermuda Garrison without a Militia Act or any financial contribution from the local parliament. Georges Harbour that the government authorised the creation of three units. Of these, only two were raised, the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps and the Bermuda Militia Artillery were raised in 1894 and 1895, respectively, in order to allow the Regular Army component of the garrison to be reduced. This was done primarily as a measure, though the regular units withdrawn were required for the build-up of what would become the British Expeditionary Force. Both units served through the two wars, sending contingents to serve overseas while shouldering their responsibilities for the defence of Bermuda. In 1953, when the artillery batteries were taken out of use.
This left the Colony wastefully maintaining two separate infantry units, after closure of the Royal Navys dockyard commenced in 1951, the military garrison, which had existed primarily to protect the Royal Navy base, was closed. The last regular unit was withdrawn in 1957, and the two Bermudian territorials ceased to have any military role under Imperial defence planning. Although the colonial government had formed the two units at the behest of and under pressure from the British government, it chose to continue maintaining them entirely at its own expense. The amalgamation of the forces took place on 1 September 1965, the new Bermuda Regiments stand of colours was presented by Princess Margaret. Princess Margaret presented a second stand of colours to replace the first in 1990, the Royal Bermuda Regiment is not entitled to inherit the battle honours of the units amalgamated into it, so they are not displayed on its colours and are rarely mentioned. The battle honours it inherits from the BVRC, all from World War I, are Ypres 1915, Neuve Chapelle, Somme 1916, Ypres 1917, Hindenburg Line, Messines 1917 and this was not the first time the unit had been disbanded.
Originally a volunteer unit, the BVRC had been disbanded after the First World War. On that occasion, it had been re-embodied as a territorial although it had continued to be titled as a rifle corps until 1951. As reformed after the First World War, the BVRC had retained its identity, the latest set of Colours were presented by HRH Duchess of Gloucester, GCVO at the National Sports Centre on 13 November 2010. The former set will be retired to the Bermuda National Museum, before being laid up in the Warrant Officers. The third set of Colours have been donated by the Bermuda Regiment Charitable Trust, the Royal Bermuda Regiment, as an amalgam of the BMA and BVRC, is 28th
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations air forces or marines. The term general is used in two ways, as the title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, the adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of General is known in countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks and it has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies. The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in military forces are typically known as field officers or field-grade officers. There are two systems of general ranks used worldwide. In addition there is a system, the Arab system of ranks. Variations of one form, the old European system, were used throughout Europe.
It is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth. The other is derived from the French Revolution, where ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a general or a colonel general rank. The rank of marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank. Many countries actually used two brigade command ranks, which is why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major, confusion arises because a lieutenant is outranked by a major. Originally the serjeant major was, the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general, the distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was eventually dropped from both titles, creating the modern rank titles