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Colonel (United States)

In the United States Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank above the rank of lieutenant colonel and just below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services. By law, a colonel must have at least 22 years of cumulative service and a minimum of three years as a lieutenant colonel before being promoted; the pay grade for colonel is O-6. When worn alone, the insignia of rank seen at right is worn centered on headgear and fatigue uniforms; when worn in pairs, the insignia is worn on the officer's left side while a mirror-image reverse version is worn on the right side, such that both of the eagles faces forward to the wearer's front. The insignia for a colonel is a silver eagle, a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States; as on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U. S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch and bundle of arrows in its talons.

However, in simplification of the Great Seal image, the insignia lacks the scroll in the eagle's mouth and the rosette above its head. On the Great Seal, the olive branch is always clutched in the eagle's right-side talons, while the bundle of arrows is always clutched in the left-side talons; the head of the eagle faces towards the olive branch, rather than the arrows, advocating peace rather than war. As a result, the head of the eagle always faces towards the viewer's left. However, when worn as a single insignia with no matching pair, such as on the patrol cap, garrison cap/flight cap, or the front of the Army ACU, there is a split between the services on which mirror image of the eagle should be worn. In the United States Army and United States Air Force, the eagle is always worn with "the head of the eagle to the wearer's right," with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's right hand talons. In the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and NOAA, the eagle is worn with "the head facing forward" on the wearer's right side of the garrison cover.

Since respective service's officer insignia is worn on the left side and the rank insignia is worn on the right hand side of the Marine, Coast Guard and NOAA garrison caps, the eagle is facing to the eagle's left with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's left hand talons, a mirror opposite to the wear of the single eagle for Army and Air Force officers. The United States rank of colonel is a direct successor to the same rank in the British Army; the first colonels in the U. S. were appointed from Colonial militias maintained as reserves to the British Army in the North American colonies. Upon the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, colonial legislatures would grant commissions to men to raise a regiment and serve as its colonel. Thus, the first U. S. colonels were respected men with ties in local communities and active in politics. With the post-war reduction of the U. S. Army, the rank of colonel disappeared, was not re-introduced until 1802; the first insignia for the rank of colonel consisted of gold epaulettes worn on the blue uniform of the Continental Army.

The first recorded use of the eagle insignia was in 1805 as this insignia was made official in uniform regulations by 1810. The rank of colonel was rare in the early 19th century because the U. S. Army was small, the rank was obtained only after long years of service. During the War of 1812 the Army grew and many colonels were appointed, but most of these colonels were discharged when their regiments were disbanded at the war's conclusion. A number of other colonels were appointed by brevet - an honorary promotion for distinguished service in combat; the American Civil War saw a large influx of colonels as the rank was held in both the Confederate army and Union Army by those who commanded a regiment. Since most regiments were state formations and were raised, the colonels in command of the regiments were known by the title "Colonel of Volunteers," in contrast to Regular Army colonels who held permanent commissions. During the Civil War, the Confederate Army maintained a unique insignia for colonel, three stars worn on the collar of a uniform.

Robert E. Lee wore this insignia due to his former rank in the United States Army and refused to wear the insignia of a Confederate general, stating that he would only accept permanent promotion when the South had achieved independence. After the Civil War, the rank of colonel again became rare as the forces of the United States Army became small. However, many colonels were appointed in the volunteers during the Spanish–American War, prominent among them Theodore Roosevelt and David Grant Colson. World War I and World War II saw the largest numbers of colonels appointed in the U. S. military. This was due to the temporary ranks of the National Army and the Army of the United States, where those who would hold the rank of Captain in the peacetime Regular Army were thrust into the rank of colonel during these two wars; the Military Promotion System was revised and standardized for all the services in 1980 as a result of passage of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act. Modern U. S. colonels command Army infantry, armor, aviation or other types of brigades, USMC regiments, Marine Expeditionary Units or Marine Aircraft Groups, USAF groups or wings.

An Army colonel commands brigade-sized units, with another colonel or a lieutenant colonel as deputy commander, a major as executive officer, a

Bob McDowall

Robert Montgomery McDowall was one of New Zealand's most prominent freshwater ichthyologists. McDowall was born on 15 September 1939, the son of dairy scientist Frederick Henry McDowall and entomologist Grace Edith Wall, he attended Palmerston North Boys' High School and went on to study for a BSc at Victoria University in 1958. Despite only receiving a C pass in Zoology, he was accepted into the graduate program where he completed an MSc thesis on the biology of the redfin bully. In 1963 he joined the Fisheries Division of the Marine Department of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. At that time, the main laboratories of the Marine Department were housed on the ground floor of the old Wellington City morgue - which McDowall described as an "unhappy and "exceedingly primitive' place with inadequate power and heating. McDowall's dissatisfaction at the Fisheries Division reached Barry Fell a professor at Victoria University and working at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University.

Fell supported his entry. Conveniently, McDowall was awarded a National Research Fellowship with the condition that he study overseas, he left New Zealand on a small cargo ship with an "entry permit to the United States and Harvard, a good scholarship, an extensive fish collection and a wife of 10 days." There he studied the taxonomy of the galaxiid fishes. His PhD thesis on the systematics and phylogeny of the New Zealand whitebait was praised as one of the best submitted at the time, he returned to New Zealand and the Fisheries Division in 1968, where he was supposed to be working on the diet of trout. He resumed his galaxiid studies, focusing on the ecology of the whitebait species. In 1978 he moved to Christchurch to run the expanding Christchurch freshwater fisheries laboratory, was promoted to Assistant Director in 1983. In this role he managed 60 staff around New Zealand, he continued to work on the biology and biogeography of native fishes. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1984, as his father had been in 1962.

During his scientific career, McDowall wrote 14 books, as well as 230 papers in 66 different journals. His last book, Ikawai: freshwater fishes in Māori culture and economy, was published in October 2011 following his death on 20 February 2011, he was posthumously awarded the Le Cren Medal by the Fisheries Society of the British Isles in 2011. Galaxias mcdowalli was named after him "for his long and valuable contribution to galaxioid systematics". Books: New Zealand Freshwater Fishes: a Guide and Natural History. Heinemann Educational, Auckland. 230 pp. Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia. Reed, Sydney. 208 pp. Mobil New Zealand Nature Series – Freshwater Fish. Reed, Wellington. 80 pp. Trout in New Zealand Waters: the Biology and Management of Trout in New Zealand’s Lakes and Rivers. Wetland Press, Wellington. 120 pp. The New Zealand Whitebait Book. Reed, Wellington. 210 pp. Diadromy in Fishes: Migrations Between Freshwater and Marine Environments. Croom Helm, London. 308 pp. New Zealand Freshwater Fishes: a Natural History and Guide.

Heinemann Reed, Auckland. 553 pp. Gamekeepers for the Nation: the Story of New Zealand’s Acclimatisation Societies 1861-1990. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch. 508 pp. Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia. Reed, Sydney. 247 pp. The Reed Field Guide to New Zealand Freshwater Fishes. Reed, Auckland. 225 pp. The Reed New Zealand Nature Series - Freshwater Fishes of New Zealand. Reed, Auckland. 95 pp. McDowall, R. M.. Falklands Conservation, London. 102 pp. New Zealand Freshwater Fishes: an Historical and Ecological Biogeography. Springer, Dordrecht. 449 pp. Ikawai: Freshwater Fishes in Maori Culture and Economy. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch. 872 pp

Good Morning Pilipinas

Good Morning Pilipinas is a flagship morning magazine television show aired on the People's Television Network Channel 4. The show is known as Good Morning Boss during Aquino administration, it is silently rebranded into its present title in July 11, 2016, retaining its current presenters and production team, it premiered in 2000 and hosted by Mandy Ochoa, Tina Pamintuan and Candace Giron. Good Morning Pilipinas air their last broadcast in May 2017 to make way for Daily Info. Audrey Gorriceta Tony Lopez Dianne Medina Karla Paderna Aljo Bendijo Jules Guiang Diane Querrer As Good Morning Pilipinas Mandy Ochoa Tina Pamintuan Candace Giron As Good Morning Boss Freddie Abando Toni Hipolito Catherine Vital Kirby Cristobal Bryan Hafalla as Angas Carla Lizardo Jade Miguel Sandro Hermoso Hazel Ann Salubon Julius Disamburun Balitang Trending On the Spot Usapang SSS Mang Tanong At Your Service School Hopping Lifestyle Eat's Fun Atbp. ASEAN TV Dermaesthetique Reel Talk Entrepinoy Fifi of Fortune Traffic Update Price Watch I Love My Culture Special Feature Just 4 Kids Artsy Craftsy Nominee, Best Morning Show, PMPC Star Awards for TV 2013 & 2014 2014 Anak TV Seal Award People's Television Network