click links in text for more info

Colonel general

Colonel general is a three or four-star rank in some armies equivalent to that of a full general in other armies. North Korea and Russian Federation have used the rank in that fashion throughout their histories; the rank is closely associated with Germany, where Generaloberst has been a higher rank above full General but below Generalfeldmarschall. Colonel general was the second-highest rank in the Austro-Hungarian Army, introduced following the German model in 1915; the rank was not used after World War I in the Austrian Army of the Republic. The People's Liberation Army had a rank of Da Jiang from 1955 to 1965. Da Jiang corresponded to the Soviet rank of colonel general; the rank system of the People's Liberation Army was abolished in 1965 and restored in 1988. The 1988 system introduced a rank of Yi Ji Shang Jiang. No one had held such rank and it was abolished in 1994; the rank of colonel general was created in the Czechoslovak army in 1950. The Egyptian Army uses a rank that translates as "colonel general".

It is equal to the rank of 4-star or "full" general. Colonel general is, junior to the rank of field marshal and is an honorary distinction held only by defense ministers. In the French Army, under the Ancien régime, the officer in nominal command of all the regiments of a particular branch of service was known as the colonel general; this was not an office of the Crown. The Republic of Georgia adopted Soviet designations after its independence in 1991 so that the rank of colonel-general exists, yet it is only used as highest possible rank in the Ministry of Internal Affairs; the equivalent German four-star ranks of the Wehrmacht were as follows: Generaloberst GeneraladmiralThis is not to be confused with Generaloberst, the three-star rank of the National People's Army until 1990. However, the Bundeswehr does not use the rank. Rank insignia Generaloberst In Hungary, the rank of colonel general was introduced to the Imperial and Royal Army in 1915; the rank replaced the ranks of gyalogsági tábornok, lovassági tábornok, táborszernagy in the early 1940s.

The rank title vezérezredes is still in use for the highest ranking general officers of the Hungarian Defence Forces and foreign four-star general officers' rank titles are translated as vezérezredes in Hungarian, including Commonwealth air forces' Air Chief Marshals. The equivalent rank for Colonel general in Iraq is called "Ferik Awwal", in Arabic "فريق أول", considered the highest rank in Iraqi Army nowadays; the North Korean rank of sangjang translates as "colonel general". Sangjang is senior to that of junior to that of daejang; this rank is held by the commanding officer of units along the Korean DMZ and the North Korean security zone at Panmunjom. It is the rank held by the KPA Pyongyang Defense Command's commanding general; the rank of colonel general did not exist in Imperial Russia and was first established in the Red Army on 7 May 1940, as a replacement for the existing командарм второго ранга. During World War II, about 199 officers were promoted to colonel general. Before 1943, Soviet colonel generals wore four stars on their collar patches.

Since 1943, they have worn three stars on their shoulder straps, so Charles Pettibone compares the rank to the US lieutenant general. The rank still exists in the contemporary Russian Air Force. Unlike the German Generaloberst, the Soviet and Russian colonel general rank is neither an exceptional nor a rare one, as it is a normal step in the "ladder" between a two-star lieutenant general and a four-star army general. Other than that, the Soviet and Russian rank systems sometimes cause confusion in regard to equivalence of ranks, because the normal Western title for brigadier or brigadier general ceased to exist for the Russian Army in 1798; the combrig rank that corresponded to one-star general only existed in the Soviet Union during 1935–1940. Positions reserved for these ranks, such as brigade commanders, have always been occupied by colonels or rarely, major generals; the rank has been given to district and army commanders, to deputy ministers of defense, deputy heads of the general staff and so on.

In some post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States armies, there are no generals of the army or marshals, so colonel general is the highest rank held by the minister of the defense. The corresponding naval rank is admiral, denoted by three stars. Colonel general has been a senior military rank in Sweden, used principally before the 19th century; the Syrian Arab Army uses the rank of colonel general only for the senior-most rank of the army beneath that of field marshal. Only defence ministers have held this rank – only six officers have held this rank till now – Hafez al-Assad, Mustafa Tlass, Hikmat al-Shihabi, Ali Habib Mahmud, Dawoud Rajiha and Fahd Jassem al-Freij; the title of colonel general was used

Peru High School Historic District

Peru High School Historic District is a historic school complex and national historic district located at Peru, Miami County, Indiana. It encompasses the Classical Revival style Central Grade School, Collegiate Gothic style Industrial Arts Building, Art Deco style former high school; the high school was built as a Works Progress Administration project along with the Tig-Arena and is a two-story masonry building. The school yard is considered a contributing site; the high school remained in use as a high school until the new Peru High School was built in 1969-1971. Since 1990, the buildings have served as headquarters for the Miami Nation of Indiana, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013

Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway

The Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway was a railway line opened in 1834 in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It linked the quays at Wadebridge with the town of Bodmin and to quarries at Wenfordbridge, its intended traffic was minerals to the port at Wadebridge and sea sand, used to improve agricultural land, inwards. Passengers were carried on part of the line, it was the first steam-powered railway line in the county and predated the main line to London by 25 years. It was always short of money, both for initial construction and for actual operation. In 1847 it was purchased by the London and South Western Railway, when that company hoped to gain early access to Cornwall for its network, but in fact those intentions were much delayed, the little line was long isolated. China clay extraction was developed at Wenfordbridge and sustained mineral traffic on the line for many years, but passenger use declined and the line closed to passengers in 1967, the china clay traffic continuing until 1978. Much of the route now forms part of the Camel Trail, a cycle and footpath from Wenfordbridge to Padstow Local interests obtained parliamentary authority to construct the Bodmin & Wadebridge Railway from metal ore mines near Wenford to the port at Wadebridge for onward transport by coastal shipping.

Sea sand used for improving agricultural land, was to be brought up from Wadebridge. The line was to have a branch to Bodmin and a one-mile branch to Ruthern Bridge; the line was formally opened on 30 September 1834 although trial operation, conveying revenue passengers and minerals had taken place in July. The permanent way consisted of 15 foot parallel rails 42 lbs per yard on stone blocks 20 inches square; the track gauge was the standard gauge. At first there was only one locomotive, called "Camel", a single passenger coach, few wagons, but a second engine, called "Elephant" was obtained from June 1836; the passenger service only operated between Bodmin and Wadebridge, never on the branches. The train service seems to have been irregular because of mechanical problems with the locomotives, for many years the passenger service consisted of a train from Wadebridge on Mondays and Fridays, returning on the other weekdays. Minerals and goods were the dominant traffic, there were numerous wharves—the company used the term borrowed from canal operation, the person in charge of each wharf was a wharfinger.

Wharves and siding connections were at: Ruthern Bridge. In the period from 1835, business interests in the Falmouth area were concerned to regenerate that town's waning importance, railway connection to London was in their thoughts. Several proposals came forward and failed, but a scheme called the Cornwall & Devon Central Railway gained support for a standard gauge line following an inland route, forming an alliance with other lines to get access to London over the London & South Western Railway; the Cornwall & Devon Central company had yet to get parliamentary approval for construction, but it purchased the Bodmin & Wadebridge line for £35,000. In fact the C&DC lost out in its bid for approval for its line, the London & South Western company itself purchased the Bodmin & Wadebridge line for the same £35,000 from the C&DC company in 1847; the LSWR now owned a loss-making little line more than a hundred miles from its own network. The purchase did not have parliamentary authority, the purchase is described as illegal.

In fact the activities of companies incorporated by Act of Parliament were limited by the terms of the Act, the LSWR did not have the power to acquire another railway company. Notwithstanding the remoteness of the new owner, the LSWR brought financial resources to bear and the local line continued its operations with a little more certainty than while still making considerable losses; however the Bodmin & Wadebridge continued to play a role in the battle between the LSWR and its allies, the GWR and its satellites. Several nominally independent companies sought support and parliamentary powers for lines connecting with the Bodmin & Wadebridge. In 1873 the Devon & Cornwall Railway, a narrow gauge company, tried to obtain parliamentary authority to make extensions in the two counties in its name, including a railway from near Okehampton to Wenfordbridge, so as to gain access to Wadebridge. A new halt, called Shooting Range Platform, was opened about 1880, it was long enough for a single coach, located on the south-west side of the line.

Trains stopped there only with written authority from the Army. In 1882 an Act was passed for a railway called the North Cornwall

Hawthorndon House

Hawthorndon House is a double-storeyed house on Herschel Walk in the suburb of Wynberg in Cape Town, South Africa. The house dates from 1683, but was rebuilt in the French Victorian style in 1881 by a Capt. John Spence, it was bought by the Randlord Sir J. B. Robinson in 1891 and was where he lived until his death in 1927. Count Natale Labia, grandson of J. B. Robinson, donated Hawthornden to what is now the Government of the Western Cape Province in 1978, but will continue to live there during his lifetime; the site was declared as a national monument in 1983 and became a provincial heritage site in 2000 when the legislation changed. In 2014 the area protected was extended to include the entire remaining gardens. Hawthornden is one of the major surviving examples of high style Victorian domestic architecture in Cape Town, it is not open to the public. List of heritage sites in South Africa Heritage Western Cape

Egzon Binaku

Egzon Binaku is an Albanian professional footballer who plays as a defender for Swedish club IFK Norrköping and the Albania national team. Binaku was born in Sweden from Kosovo Albanian parents from Mitrovica. On 4 May 2015, he made his Allsvenskan debut for BK Häcken against Halmstads BK. On 21 May 2018. Binaku received a call-up from Albania for the friendly matches against Ukraine; as of 22 April 2019 BK HäckenSvenska Cupen: 2015–16 Egzon Binaku at SvFF Egzon Binaku at Soccerway

Shamkhalate of Tarki

Shamkhalate of Tarki was a feudal domain in north-eastern part of Dagestan with its center in Tarki. It appeared at the end of 15th century on the territory inhabited by ethnic Kumyks, was a feudal state of Tarki which had its vassals in the area, remained the most influential feudal state in the eastern part of the Northern Caucasus until its abolishment in 1867; the Shamkhals possessed the title of the Vali of Dagestan and had his residence in the ancient Khazar-Kumyk mountainous shelter. Final annexation of the Shamkhalate of Tarki and other territories of Dagestan into Russia was done by the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813. In 1867 the Shamkhalate of Tarki was abolished, on its territory there was formed Temir-Khan-Shura district of Dagestan. Shamkhalate of Kazi-Kumukh History of Dagestan Khanates of the Caucasus Russian conquest of the Caucasus