The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial plants. Their growth form can be climbers, shrubs and stemless plants, all known as palms; those having a tree form are colloquially called palm trees. They are flowering a family in the monocot order Arecales. 181 genera with around 2600 species are known, most of them restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, evergreen leaves, known as fronds, arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, palms exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics and inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts. Palms are among the most extensively cultivated plant families, they have been important to humans throughout much of history. Many common products and foods are derived from palms. In contemporary times, palms are widely used in landscaping, making them one of the most economically important plants. In many historical cultures, because of their importance as food, palms were symbols for such ideas as victory and fertility.
For inhabitants of cooler climates today, palms symbolize the vacations. Whether as shrubs, trees, or vines, palms have two methods of growth: solitary or clustered; the common representation is that of a solitary shoot ending in a crown of leaves. This monopodial character may be exhibited by prostrate and trunk-forming members; some common palms restricted to solitary growth include Roystonea. Palms may instead grow in sparse though dense clusters; the trunk develops an axillary bud at a leaf node near the base, from which a new shoot emerges. The new shoot, in turn, produces a clustering habit results. Sympodial genera include many of the rattans and Rhapis. Several palm genera have both solitary and clustering members. Palms which are solitary may grow in clusters and vice versa; these aberrations suggest. Palms have large, evergreen leaves that are either palmately or pinnately compound and spirally arranged at the top of the stem; the leaves have a tubular sheath at the base that splits open on one side at maturity.
The inflorescence is a spadix or spike surrounded by one or more bracts or spathes that become woody at maturity. The flowers are small and white, radially symmetric, can be either uni- or bisexual; the sepals and petals number three each, may be distinct or joined at the base. The stamens number six, with filaments that may be separate, attached to each other, or attached to the pistil at the base; the fruit is a single-seeded drupe but some genera may contain two or more seeds in each fruit. Like all monocots, palms do not have the ability to increase the width of a stem via the same kind of vascular cambium found in non-monocot woody plants; this explains the cylindrical shape of the trunk, seen in palms, unlike in ring-forming trees. However, many palms, like some other monocots, do have secondary growth, although because it does not arise from a single vascular cambium producing xylem inwards and phloem outwards, it is called "anomalous secondary growth"; the Arecaceae are notable among monocots for their height and for the size of their seeds and inflorescences.
Ceroxylon quindiuense, Colombia's national tree, is the tallest monocot in the world, reaching up to 60 m tall. The coco de mer has the largest seeds of 40 -- 50 cm in diameter and weighing 15 -- 30 kg each. Raffia palms have the largest leaves of any plant, up to 25 m long and 3 m wide; the Corypha species have the largest inflorescence of any plant, up to 7.5 m tall and containing millions of small flowers. Calamus stems. Most palms are native to subtropical climates. Palms can be found in a variety of different habitats, their diversity is highest in lowland forests. South America, the Caribbean, areas of the south Pacific and southern Asia are regions of concentration. Colombia may have the highest number of palm species in one country. There are some palms that are native to desert areas such as the Arabian peninsula and parts of northwestern Mexico. Only about 130 palm species grow beyond the tropics in humid lowland subtropical climates, in highlands in southern Asia, along the rim lands of the Mediterranean Sea.
The northernmost native palm is Chamaerops humilis, which reaches 44°N latitude along the coast of southern France. In the southern hemisphere, the southernmost palm is the Rhopalostylis sapida, which reaches 44°S on the Chatham Islands where an oceanic climate prevails. Cultivation of palms is possible north of subtropical climates, some higher latitude locals such as Ireland, Scotland and the Pacific Northwest feature a few palms in protected locations. Palms inhabit a variety of ecosystems. More than two-thirds of palm species live in humid moist forests, where some species grow tall enough to form part of the canopy and shorter ones form part of the understory; some species form pure stands in areas with poor drainage or regular flooding, including Raphia hookeri, common in coastal freshwater swamps in West Africa. Other palms live in tropical mountain habitats above 1000 m, such as those in the genus Ceroxylon native to the Andes. Palms may live in grasslands and scrublands associated with a water source, in desert oases such as the date palm.
A few palms are adapted to basic lime soils, while others are ada
Kolonna Eterna known as the Millennium Monument, is a 21 st century monumental column in San Gwann, Malta. The column is an abstract art designed by Paul Vella Critien, a Maltese local artist that achieved his studies and experience in Italy and Australia; the monument is a commemoration of the new millennium as part of an initiative by the San Gwann Local Council. The monument was inaugurated in 2003 by the Prime Minister of Malta Dr Eddie Fenech Adami; the monument came to the national attention because it was described as having a phallic appearance. The monument is found in front of Santa Margerita Chapel; the Kolonna Eterna was the first local monument by Paul Vella Critien to be installed in a public space and officiated on 27 February 2003. Behind the project was the San Gwann Local Council which pushed the idea of decorating public gardens with the inclusion of well established local artists' art. Paul Vella Critien has received art education in Italy and had experience as an artist career when he lived in Australia.
Since its erection the monument had caught the attention of the public because of its phallic appearance however it is intended to represent an Egyptian obelisk pointing to the open skies as a symbol to eternity. The 6 meters ceramic structure was inaugurated by back Prime Minister in Office Eddie Fenech Adami President of Malta; the monument had a public ceremony, attended by the Prime Minister himself, the artist, the Local Mayor of San Gwann, local councillors, member of the Nationalist Party, distinct politicians, the general public and local media such as the Times of Malta. Subsequent to the Kolonna Eterna, Paul Vella Critien was invited to create another Monument by the Government of Malta under Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi; the different but similar phallic appearance is the Colonna Mediterranea in Malta. Different from Kolonna Eterna the Luqa Monument had no legal permits for its erection on place, had staunch opposition by the local mayor, it stands on the peripheries of Luqa and not under the responsibility of the local council and had local opposition because of the visit of Pope Benedict XVI to Malta where the pope mobile had to pass by it.
However the San Gwann general public has several artistic monument being erected in different places and the Kolonna Eterna integrated within the landscape of the area. In 2015 Paul Vella Critien had inaugurated another monument at Naxxar Higher Secondary School which had not similar controversy. On the lower-back-side of Kolonna Eterna it is written: Paul Vella Critien"Kolonna Eterna"San Gwann, Malta,'2000' On the plaque uncovered by Eddie Fenech Adami it is written: Kunsill Lokali San GwannL-Onor Eddie Fenech AdamiPrim Ministru Inawgura il-Kolonna Eterna Illum 27 ta' Frar, 2003 Colonna Mediterranea Phallic architecture Phallus Landmarks Egyptian obelisk
Lidl Stiftung & Co. KG is a German global discount supermarket chain, based in Neckarsulm, that operates over 10,000 stores across Europe and the United States, it belongs to Dieter Schwarz, who owns the store chains Handelshof and hypermarket Kaufland. Lidl is the chief competitor of the similar German discount chain Aldi in several markets, including the United States. There are Lidl stores in every member state of the European Union, except Estonia. Lidl stores are present in Switzerland and the USA. In 1930, Josef Schwarz became a partner in Südfrüchte Großhandel Lidl & Co. a fruit wholesaler, he developed the company into a general food wholesaler. In 1977, under his son Dieter Schwarz, the Schwarz-Gruppe began to focus on discount markets, larger supermarkets, cash and carry wholesale markets, he did not want to use the name Schwarz-Markt and rather use the name of Josef Schwarz's former business partner, A. Lidl, but legal reasons prevented him from taking over the name for his discount stores.
When he discovered a newspaper article about the painter and retired schoolteacher Ludwig Lidl, he bought the rights to the name from him for 1,000 German marks. Lidl is part of the Schwarz Group, the fifth-largest retailer in the world with sales of $82.4 billion. The first Lidl discount store was opened in 1973. Schwarz rigorously removed merchandise that did not sell from the shelves, cut costs by keeping the size of the retail outlets as small as possible. By 1977, the Lidl chain comprised 33 discount stores. Lidl opened its first UK store in 1994 and grew during the first decade of the 21st century. Since Lidl has grown and today has over 650 stores. While it is still a small player in the United Kingdom, with a grocery market share of less than 5%, its importance, along with that of continental, no frills competitor Aldi is growing, with half of shoppers in the United Kingdom visiting Aldi or Lidl over Christmas 2014. Sven Seidel was appointed CEO of the company in March 2014, after the previous CEO Karl-Heinz Holland stepped down.
Holland had served as chief executive since 2008 but left due to undisclosed "unbridgeable" differences over future strategy. Seidel stepped down from his position in February 2017 after Manager Magazin reported he had fallen out of favour with Klaus Gehrig, who has headed the Schwarz Group since 2004. Seidel was succeeded as CEO by Dane Jesper Højer head of Lidl's international buying operation. In June 2015, the company announced it would establish a United States headquarters in Arlington, Virginia. Lidl has major distribution centers in Mebane, North Carolina, Spotsylvania County, Virginia; the company focused on opening locations in East Coast states, between Pennsylvania and Georgia, as far west as Ohio. In June 2017, Lidl opened its first stores in the United States in Virginia Beach and other mid-Atlantic cities; the company planned to open a total of one hundred U. S. stores by the summer of 2018. In November 2018, Lidl announced plans to acquire 27 Best Market stores in New Jersey. In 2004, Lidl was awarded the Big Brother Award in Germany for acting like a slave master towards its employees.
In 2005, Lidl was caught putting additives in meat which allowed them to avoid salmonella testing and origin labeling, according to the National Food Agency in Sweden. In 2008, it was reported that Lidl’s Czech branches had allowed female employees who were menstruating to use lavatories on condition that they wore conspicuous headbands during their periods. In 2008, German newspaper Stern uncovered Lidl spying on its staff, including registration of employees' toilet visits as well as personal details regarding employees' love lives, personal finances and menstrual cycles. In 2008, Lidl was fined €1.5 million for the unauthorised surveillance of its employees in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. In 2008, Lidl was forced to issue an official apology because staff at a Lidl store in Sweden deliberately poisoned homeless people by poisoning food in trash containers. In 2009, it was reported that 300 sheets of paper containing Lidl employees' personal information had been found in the trash bin of a car wash in Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Among the sheets were forms filled with details of the employees' sick days and illnesses. This included reproductive health. In 2010, cheese sold under Lidl’s private label Reinhardshof contained listeria; the company failed to prompt a suspension of deliveries in time. One person in Germany died of food poisoning after eating the cheese. Lidl was fined €1.5 million for violating food law. In 2010, the Consumer Protection Agency in Hamburg, Germany filed an unfair competition complaint against Lidl; the company had deceived customers by giving the false impression that the working conditions at Lidl suppliers were good. In reality, the conditions were reported "inhumane" and in breach of standards. In 2011, minced meat steaks sold under Lidl's private label Steak Country contained E. coli bacteria. 18 persons in France, predominantly children, fell ill from the steaks. Many of the children require lifetime treatment. One child was permanently disabled. In 2013, it was reported that in Germany Lidl had failed to notify health officials of numerous rat infestations.
Instead, Lidl spread powdered rat poison on the product shelves, without informing customers of the rodenticide. One of Berlin’s chief health inspectors warned that children who come in contact with rat poison may bleed to death. In 2013, Lidl sold
Phallic architecture consciously or unconsciously creates a symbolic representation of the phallus. Buildings intentionally or unintentionally resembling the human penis are a source of amusement to locals and tourists in various places around the world. Deliberate phallic imagery is found in ancient cultures and in the links to ancient cultures found in traditional artifacts; the ancient Greeks and Romans celebrated phallic festivals and built a shrine with an erect phallus to honor Hermes, messenger of the gods. Those figures may be related to the ancient Egyptian deity Min, depicted holding his erect phallus. Figures of women with a phallus for a head have been found across Yugoslavia. Phallic symbolism was prevalent in the architectural tradition of ancient Babylon; the Romans, who were superstitious often used phallic imagery in their architecture and domestic items. The ancient cultures of many parts of the Far East, including Indonesia, India and Japan, used the phallus as a symbol of fertility in motifs on their temples and in other areas of everyday life.
Scholars of anthropology and feminism have pointed out the symbolic nature of phallic architecture large skyscrapers which dominate the landscape as symbols of male domination and political authority. Towers and other vertical structures may unintentionally or subconsciously have those connotations. There are many examples of modern architecture that can be interpreted as phallic, but few for which the architect has cited or admitted that meaning as an intentional aspect of the design; the worship of the phallus has existed since the Stone Age, was prevalent during the Neolithic period and the Bronze Age. Phallic architecture became prominent in ancient Egypt and Greece, where genitalia and human sexuality received a high degree of attention; the ancient Greeks celebrated phallic festivals. The Greco-Roman deity Priapus was worshiped as a god of fertility, depicted with a giant phallus in numerous public architectural pieces; the Greeks built a shrine which they called "Herm" at the entrance of major public buildings and along roads to honor Hermes, messenger of the gods.
The shrines "took the form of a vertical pillar topped by the bearded head of a man and from the surface of the pillar below the head, an erect phallus protruded". It is believed that they sought their inspiration from the ancient Egyptians and their phallic image of Min, the valley god, "depicted as a standing bearded king with simplified body, one arm raised, the other hand holding his erect phallus."Herodotus, the ancient Greek historian, documented women carrying large phallic shaped monuments and ornaments the size of a human body in villages in ancient Dionysia. On the island of Delos a pillar supports the symbol of Dionysus. Phallus reliefs on buildings on such sites are believed to have been apotropaic devices to ward off evil; the elaborate use of phallic architecture and sculpture in ancient Greek society can be seen in sites such as Nea Nikomedeia in northern Greece. Archaeologists excavating the ancient town discovered clay sculptures of plump women with phallic heads and folded arms.
Similar figurines of women with phallus heads from the Neolithic period have been found across Greece and parts of old Yugoslavia. The vast majority of the figurines of the Hamangia culture have cylindrical phallus-shaped heads without facial features, although some of the Aegean culture, had phallic sculptural pieces with phallic heads with a pinched nose and slitty eyes. In these parts of the ancient world, obelisk like structures resembling the human penis were built with phallic symbols, representing human fertility and asserting male sexuality and orgasm. Phallic symbolism was prevalent in the architecture of ancient Babylonia, in Khametian iconography, the obelisk was considered to be symbolic of the phallus of the masculine earth; the obelisks of ancient Egypt themselves had several functions, existing both as a reference to the cultus of the sun and of the phallus, representing fertility and power. Although phallic architecture as individual pieces was not prevalent in ancient Rome as it was in ancient Greece or Egypt, the Romans were superstitious and introduced phallus-related components as architectural pieces and domestic items.
Archaeologists unearthing a site in Pompei discovered many vases and sculptures unearthed revealing the preoccupation with the phallus unearthing an 18-inch terracotta phallus protruding from what was believed to have been a bakery with the inscription, "Hie habitat felicitas", many Romans wore phallus amulets to ward off the evil-eye. Priapic worship amongst the women of Sicily continued into the 18th century. Fetishism with the phallus architecturally and in smaller implements was exhibited by certain Christian sects in medieval times, such as the Manichaeans, was connected with masochism and sadism, a form of religious flagellantism. Smaller phallic shaped monuments in the form of idols vases, drinking vessels and jewellery have been well-documented and could be found within medieval churches of Ireland. In Hinduism, the Hindu trimurthi represents Brahma, the creator, the preserver and Shiva, the destroyer. Shiva, the main deity in India, is both destroyer and is stated to include his role of creation.
The linga, or phallus, is a
A ceramic is a solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms held in ionic and covalent bonds. Common examples are earthenware and brick; the crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from oriented to semi-crystalline and completely amorphous. Most fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware and porcelain. Varying crystallinity and electron composition in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators. With such a large range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic, the breadth of the subject is vast, identifiable attributes are difficult to specify for the group as a whole. General properties such as high melting temperature, high hardness, poor conductivity, high moduli of elasticity, chemical resistance and low ductility are the norm, with known exceptions to each of these rules. Many composites, such as fiberglass and carbon fiber, while containing ceramic materials, are not considered to be part of the ceramic family.
The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials like silica and sintered in fire. Ceramics were glazed and fired to create smooth, colored surfaces, decreasing porosity through the use of glassy, amorphous ceramic coatings on top of the crystalline ceramic substrates. Ceramics now include domestic and building products, as well as a wide range of ceramic art. In the 20th century, new ceramic materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering, such as in semiconductors; the word "ceramic" comes from the Greek word κεραμικός, "of pottery" or "for pottery", from κέραμος, "potter's clay, pottery". The earliest known mention of the root "ceram-" is the Mycenaean Greek ke-ra-me-we, "workers of ceramics", written in Linear B syllabic script; the word "ceramic" may be used as an adjective to describe a material, product or process, or it may be used as a noun, either singular, or, more as the plural noun "ceramics".
A ceramic material is an inorganic, non-metallic crystalline oxide, nitride or carbide material. Some elements, such as carbon or silicon, may be considered ceramics. Ceramic materials are brittle, strong in compression, weak in shearing and tension, they withstand chemical erosion that occurs in other materials subjected to acidic or caustic environments. Ceramics can withstand high temperatures, ranging from 1,000 °C to 1,600 °C. Glass is not considered a ceramic because of its amorphous character. However, glassmaking involves several steps of the ceramic process, its mechanical properties are similar to ceramic materials. Traditional ceramic raw materials include clay minerals such as kaolinite, whereas more recent materials include aluminium oxide, more known as alumina; the modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide and tungsten carbide. Both are valued for their abrasion resistance and hence find use in applications such as the wear plates of crushing equipment in mining operations.
Advanced ceramics are used in the medicine, electronics industries and body armor. Crystalline ceramic materials are not amenable to a great range of processing. Methods for dealing with them tend to fall into one of two categories – either make the ceramic in the desired shape, by reaction in situ, or by "forming" powders into the desired shape, sintering to form a solid body. Ceramic forming techniques include shaping by hand, slip casting, tape casting, injection molding, dry pressing, other variations. Noncrystalline ceramics, being glass, tend to be formed from melts; the glass is shaped when either molten, by casting, or when in a state of toffee-like viscosity, by methods such as blowing into a mold. If heat treatments cause this glass to become crystalline, the resulting material is known as a glass-ceramic used as cook-tops and as a glass composite material for nuclear waste disposal; the physical properties of any ceramic substance are a direct result of its crystalline structure and chemical composition.
Solid-state chemistry reveals the fundamental connection between microstructure and properties such as localized density variations, grain size distribution, type of porosity and second-phase content, which can all be correlated with ceramic properties such as mechanical strength σ by the Hall-Petch equation, toughness, dielectric constant, the optical properties exhibited by transparent materials. Ceramography is the art and science of preparation and evaluation of ceramic microstructures. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic microstructures is implemented on similar spatial scales to that used in the emerging field of nanotechnology: from tens of angstroms to tens of micrometers; this is somewhere between the minimum wavelength of visible light and the resolution limit of the naked eye. The microstructure includes most grains, secondary phases, grain boundaries, micro-
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment