Cullman County, Alabama
Cullman County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 80,406, its county seat is Cullman. Its name is in honor of Colonel John G. Cullmann, it is a "moist" county in terms of availability of alcoholic beverages. Cullman County comprises the Cullman, AL Micropolitan Statistical Area, a component of the Birmingham-Hoover-Talladega, AL Combined Statistical Area. Cullman is served by FM radio stations from both Huntsville and Birmingham. Cullman County is a part of the designated market area, or "DMA," of Birmingham. Electricity in Cullman County is provided by the Tennessee Valley Authority and by the Alabama Power Company. For a long time, telephone service in this county was provided by the Southern Bell Company. There is no commercial air transportation service in Cullman County, this county is no longer served by intercity commercial buses; this area was inhabited for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The historic Cherokee and Choctaw lived here at the time of European encounter, with the Cherokee moving in after the American Revolutionary War and in response to pressures from northern area.
Their settlements in Alabama were known as the Lower Towns. People claiming descent from Cherokee who remained in the county after Indian Removal in the 1830s, organized as the "Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama" in the 1980s; the tribe is not federally recognized. It claims 22,000 members in the state in northern Alabama. Cullman County was organized in 1877 by German American immigrants who had moved down from Cincinnati, Ohio, they founded an agricultural community and sought to create an agricultural revolution in what had been a frontier area, in the best traditions of innovation in the New South. However, hard geographical and social realities clashed with the impractical vision of colonizer John G. Cullmann, his Germans, with their traditional work ethic and willingness to experiment with such new products as wine and strawberries, tried to make practical changes in southern farming. The Germans were outnumbered by more traditional families from neighboring regions, who replicated the traditional southern cotton culture.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 755 square miles, of which 735 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. Morgan County Marshall County Blount County Walker County Winston County Lawrence County CSX Transportation As of the census of 2000, there were 77,483 people, 30,706 households, 22,476 families residing in the county; the population density was 105 people per square mile. There were 35,233 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.81% White, 0.96% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races. 2.18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 30,706 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.80% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,256, the median income for a family was $39,341. Males had a median income of $30,444 versus $20,436 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,922. About 9.50% of families and 13.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.50% of those under age 18 and 16.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 80,406 people, 31,864 households, 22,487 families residing in the county; the population density was 109 people per square mile. There were 37,054 housing units at an average density of 49 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 94.7% White, 1.1% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. 4.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 31,864 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.9 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,567, the median income for a family was $47,771.
Males had a median income of $36,952 versus $27,979 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,284. About 12.8% of families and 16.7% of the
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Holly Pond, Alabama
Holly Pond is a town in Cullman County, United States. As of the 2010 census the town's population was 798; the town was incorporated in 1906. Holly Pond is located in eastern Cullman County at 34°10′29″N 86°37′1″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.4 square miles, of which 0.019 square miles, or 0.45%, is water. The elevation at the center of town is 870 feet above sea level. Holly Pond was selected as the location that all virtual Android devices default to when simulating the presence of a GPS detector Holly Pond has a number of businesses that operate out of the small town; the regional petroleum and gas corporation Jet-Pep was started and is now headquartered in Holly Pond. Jet-Pep has gas stations statewide. Holly Pond High School is the town's main high school for grades 9-12; as of 2018, enrollment is 338 students and the principal is Kim Butler. Holly Pond competes in AHSAA Class 3A athletics; the school's mascot is a Bronco. Holly Pond Middle School is the town's middle school for grades 6-8.
It was established in 2008 by the Cullman County Board of Education. The current principal is Cynthia Roden. Holly Pond Elementary School is the town's elementary school for grades K-5; the current principal is Karen Sparks. All schools are part of the Cullman County Board of Education and have a common campus in central Holly Pond; as of the census of 2000, there were 645 people, 250 households, 182 families residing in the town. The population density was 187.3 people per square mile. There were 280 housing units at an average density of 81.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.67% White, 0.47% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 1.40% from other races, 0.31% from two or more races. 3.41% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 250 households out of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.2% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.8% were non-families. 22.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,182, the median income for a family was $31,875. Males had a median income of $27,708 versus $19,432 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,466. About 12.2% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.9% of those under age 18 and 29.8% of those age 65 or over. Guy Hunt, former Governor of Alabama and Primitive Baptist pastor, was lived in Holly Pond. Holly Pond community website
Cullman is a city in and the county seat of Cullman County, United States. It is located along Interstate 65, about 50 miles north of Birmingham and about 55 miles south of Huntsville; as of the 2010 census it had a population of 14,775, with an estimated population of 15,385 in 2017. In the time before European settlement, the area that today includes Cullman was in the territory of the Cherokee Nation; the region was traversed by a trail known as the Black Warrior's Path, which led from the Tennessee River near the present location of Florence, Alabama, to a point on the Black Warrior River south of Cullman. This trail figured in Cherokee history, it featured prominently in the American Indian Wars prior to the establishment of the state of Alabama and the relocation of several American Indian tribes, including the Creek people westward along the Trail of Tears. During the Creek War in 1813, General Andrew Jackson of the U. S. Army dispatched a contingent of troops down the trail, one of which included the frontiersman Davy Crockett.
In the 1820s and the 1830s, two toll roads were built linking the Tennessee Valley to present-day Birmingham. In 1822, Abraham Stout was given a charter by the Alabama Legislature to open and turnpike a road beginning from Gandy's Cove in Morgan County to the ghost town of Baltimore on the Mulberry Fork near Colony; the road passed near present-day Vinemont through Cullman, Good Hope, down the current Interstate 65 corridor to the Mulberry Fork. The road was extended to Elyton in 1827, it became known as Stout's Road. Mace Thomas Payne Brindley was given a charter in 1833 to turnpike two roads, one running between Blount Springs to Somerville by way of his homestead in present-day Simcoe, the second road passing west of Hanceville and east of Downtown Cullman to join Stout's Road north of the city. What became the Brindley Turnpike became an extension of Stout's Road to Decatur. Cullman became located between the juncture of the two roads, they predated the corridor of U. S. Route 31. During the Civil War, the future location of Cullman was the site of the minor Battle of Day's Gap.
On April 30, 1863, Union forces under the command of Colonel Abel Streight won a victory over forces under Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest. This battle was part of a chase known collectively as Streight's Raid. Although Streight got the upper hand in this battle, Forrest would have the last laugh. In one of the more humorous moments of the war, Streight sought a truce and negotiations with Forrest in present-day Cherokee County near present-day Gaylesville. Although Streight's force was larger than Forrest's, while the two were negotiating, Forrest had his troops march in a circuitous route past the site of the talks. Thinking himself to be badly outnumbered, Streight surrendered to Forrest on the spot. Cullman itself was founded in 1873 by a German immigrant. Cullmann had been an advocate of democratic reforms in his native Bavaria, having fought and acquired his honorific title "Colonel" during the Revolutions of 1848–49. After the failure of the revolution, Cullmann found himself in financial ruin.
In the years to follow, he would try to re-establish himself in business, but after several setbacks, including a great financial loss in the First Schleswig War, he would remain unsuccessful. As time went on and Prussia, under King Wilhelm I and his Minister President Otto von Bismarck, began to exert more influence in the German region, Cullmann began to believe that his political ideals were fundamentally incompatible with those of the German Government; as a result, he decided to emigrate from his homeland. Settling first in London due to fears that he would be forced to join in the ongoing American Civil War, Cullman came to America in 1865, he moved to Alabama in 1871 and, in 1873, negotiated an agreement to act as agent for a tract of land 349,000 acres in size, owned by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company, on which he established a colony for German immigrants. Five German families moved to the area in March 1873. Over the next twenty years, Cullmann encouraged around 100,000 Germans to immigrate to the United States, with many settling in the Cullman area.
Cullmann drew on his military engineering training in planning the town. During this period, Cullman underwent considerable growth. German continued to be spoken, Cullmann himself was the publisher of a German-language newspaper; when Cullmann died in 1895, at the age of 72, his funeral was marked by the attendance of Governor William C. Oates; the site Cullmann selected for his headquarters is now his gravesite. German immigrants founded St Bernard's Monastery, on the grounds of, the Ave Maria Grotto, containing 125 miniature reproductions of some of the most famous religious structures of the world. It's Cullman's principal tourist attraction. During the 1890s, Cullman was reported to be a sundown town, where African Americans were not allowed to live; the Ku Klux Klan would maintain a presence in the county throughout the civil rights movement. Erecting signs that deterred African Americans from being within the county at night; this subsequently led to a rise in population of Colony, Alabama, a safe haven for the discriminated.
For many years Cullman was a college town, with Saint Bernard College serving as the home of several hundred students. In the mid-1970s, St. Bernard merged with Sacred Heart College, to become Southern Benedictine C
Alabama House of Representatives
The Alabama House of Representatives is the lower house of the Alabama Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Alabama. The House is composed of 105 members representing an equal number of districts, with each constituency containing at least 42,380 citizens. There are no term limits in the House; the House is one of the five lower houses of state legislatures in the United States, elected every four years. Other lower houses, including the United States House of Representatives, are elected for a two-year term; the House meets at the Alabama State House in Montgomery. All revenue-raising matters must originate in the Alabama House, just as in the Congress of the United States; the House must have a quorum to conduct business, a majority of a quorum can pass any bill except a constitutional amendment, which requires a three-fifths vote of all those elected. An appropriation to a non-government organization, such as a private college, requires a two-thirds vote of those elected.
In order to be a member of the Alabama House of Representatives, one must be a minimum of 21 years of age. The Alabama House of Representatives is composed of 105 members, chosen from an equal number of districts across the state; each member represents a district of 42,000 people, is elected to a four-year term. Members of the House at the time of their election must have been citizens of Alabama for three years, have lived in their respective districts for at least one year preceding their election; the Speaker of the House is a member of the body and is elected by his colleagues to serve as its presiding officer. Members of the House are paid a salary of ten dollars per day, plus expenses other than travel in an amount fixed by joint resolution of the legislature; the Speaker of the House presides over the House of Representatives. The Speaker is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation of the full House through the passage of a House Resolution. In addition to presiding over the body, the Speaker is the chief leadership position and controls the flow of legislation and committee assignments.
Other House leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses relative to their party's strength in the chamber. Speaker of the House: Republican Mac McCutcheon, District 25 Majority Leader: Republican Nathaniel Ledbetter, District 24 Minority Leader: Democrat Anthony Daniels, District 53 Throughout most of the state's history, the Democratic Party has held the majority in the Alabama House of Representatives except for a few brief exceptions; the Whig Party controlled the lower house in 1819 and again in 1821-23 and for the last time in 1837-1838. After the Civil War, Republicans held the majority during the Reconstruction period from 1868-1870 and again from 1872-1874; this was followed by 136 years of Democratic control ending in November, 2010. Beginning with the 2010 General Election Republicans swept to a large majority and have increased it in the succeeding elections in 2014 and 2018. Current committees include: Government of Alabama Alabama Senate Alabama Republican Party Alabama Democratic Party Alabama House of Representatives Official Site
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University