Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and it is south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti, and north of Jamaica. Havana is the largest city and capital, other cities include Santiago de Cuba. Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, with an area of 109,884 square kilometres, prior to Spanish colonization in the late 15th century, Cuba was inhabited by Amerindian tribes. It remained a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, as a fragile republic, Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Further unrest and instability led to Batistas ousting in January 1959 by the July 26 Movement, since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba.
A point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, Cuba is a Marxist–Leninist one-party republic, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of human rights abuses. It is one of the worlds last planned economies and its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, coffee, according to the Human Development Index, Cuba is described as a country with high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America. It ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care, the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language. The exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as where fertile land is abundant, authors who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas, the Taíno, the Guanajatabey, and the Ciboney people. The ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, the Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D. When Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having a population of 150,000. The name Cuba comes from the native Taíno language and it is derived from either coabana meaning great place, or from cubao meaning where fertile land is abundant. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as fishers and hunter-gatherers, Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa, other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital
Dominica, officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is a sovereign island country. The capital, Roseau, is located on the side of the island. It is part of the Windward islands in the Lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea, the island lies south-southeast of Guadeloupe and northwest of Martinique. Its area is 750 square kilometres and the highest point is Morne Diablotins, the population was 72,301 at the 2014 census. Great Britain took it over in 1763 after the Seven Years War, the island republic gained independence in 1978. Its name is pronounced with emphasis on the syllable, related to its French name of Dominique. Dominica has been nicknamed the Nature Isle of the Caribbean for its natural beauty. It is the youngest island in the Lesser Antilles, still being formed by geothermal-volcanic activity, the island has lush mountainous rainforests, and is the home of many rare plants and bird species. There are xeric areas in some of the coastal regions. The Sisserou parrot, known as the amazon and found only on Dominica, is the islands national bird.
Dominicas economy depends on tourism and agriculture, the precolonial inhabitants were the Island Caribs. The name comes from the Latin word dies Dominica for Sunday and its pre-Columbian name by the Caribs was Wai‘tu kubuli, which means Tall is her body. Spain had little success in colonising Dominica, in 1632, the French Compagnie des Îles de lAmérique claimed it and other Petite Antilles for France, but no physical occupation took place. Between 1642 and 1650, French missionary Raymond Breton became the first regular European visitor to the island, in 1660, the French and English agreed that Dominica and St. Vincent should not be settled, but left to the Caribs as neutral territory. But its natural resources attracted expeditions of English and French foresters, in 1690, the French established their first permanent settlements. French woodcutters from Martinique and Guadeloupe began to set up camps to supply the French islands with wood. They brought the first enslaved people from West Africa to Dominique, in 1715, a revolt of poor white smallholders in the north of Martinique, known as La Gaoulé, caused many to migrate to southern Dominique where they set up smallholdings.
Meanwhile, French families and others from Guadeloupe settled in the north, already installed in Martinique and Guadeloupe and cultivating sugarcane, the French gradually developed plantations in Dominique for coffee
Independence of Jamaica
The Colony of Jamaica gained independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. In Jamaica, this date is celebrated as Independence Day, a national holiday, the Caribbean island now known as Jamaica was first settled by the Arawak and Taíno peoples, who originated in neighboring South America. Genoan explorer Christopher Columbus discovered Jamaica in 1494 during his voyage to the New World. At this time, over two hundred villages existed in Jamaica, largely located on the south coast and ruled by caciques, the Spanish Empire began its official rule in Jamaica in 1509, with formal occupation of the island by conquistador Juan de Esquivel and his men. The Spaniards enslaved many of the people and harming them to the point that many perished within fifty years of European arrival. Subsequently, the lack of labor was resolved by bringing in African slaves. Disappointed by the lack of gold on the island, the Spanish mainly used Jamaica as a base to supply colonizing efforts in the mainland Americas.
After 146 years of Spanish rule, a group of British sailors and soldiers landed in the Kingston Harbour on 10 May 1655. Spanish forces surrendered without fight on 11 May, many of them fleeing to Spanish Cuba or the northern portion of the island. Many former Spanish slaves used Anglo-Spanish war as a chance to free themselves and fled into the mountainous, as interracial marriage became extremely prevalent, the two racial groups underwent assimilation. The escaped slaves and their descendants, known as the Jamaican Maroons, were the source of many disturbances in the colony, raiding plantations, imported African slaves would frequently escape to Maroon territory, known as Cockpit Country. Over the first seventy-six years of British rule, skirmishes between Maroon warriors and the British Army grew increasingly common, along with rebellions by enslaved Blacks and these conflicts culminated in 1728, when the First Maroon War began between the English and Maroons. Largely owing to the easily defendable, dense forest of Cockpit Country, following negotiations, the Maroons were granted semi-autonomy within their five towns, living under a British supervisor and their native leader.
In 1795 tensions between the Trelawny Parish Maroons and the British erupted into the Second Maroon War, the conflict ended on a less favorable term for Maroons, with a bloody stalemate reigning over the island for five months. Fearing British victory, the Maroons accepted open discussions in March and this delay was used as a pretext to have the large majority of the Trelawney Maroons deported to Nova Scotia. They were moved to Sierra Leone, Slavery was abolished in the British Empire by the Slavery Abolition Act in 1834. Despite these accomplishments, the members of Jamaican colonial society continued to hold the real power. During the first half of the 20th century the most notable Black leader was Marcus Garvey, Garvey, to no avail, pleaded with the colonial government to improve living conditions for indigenous peoples in the West Indies
History of Jamaica
The island of Jamaica was colonized by the Taino tribes prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1494. The Spanish enslaved the Tainos, who were so ravaged by their conflict with the Europeans, the Spanish transported hundreds of enslaved West Africans to the island. In 1655, the English invaded Jamaica, defeating the Spanish colonists, enslaved Africans seized the moment of political turmoil and fled to the islands interior, forming independent communities. Meanwhile, on the coast, the English built the settlement of Port Royal, in the eighteenth century, sugarcane replaced piracy as English Jamaicas main source of income. The sugar industry was labour-intensive and the English brought hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans to Jamaica, enslaved Jamaicans mounted over a dozen major uprisings during the eighteenth century, including Tackys revolt in 1760. There were periodic skirmishes between the British and the Maroons, culminating in the First Maroon War of the 1730s, the first inhabitants of Jamaica probably came from islands to the east in two waves of migration.
About 1000 CE the culture known as the “Redware people” arrived, little is known of them, beyond the red pottery they left. Alligator in Manchester Parish and Little River in St. Ann Parish are among the earliest known sites of this Ostionoid people and they were followed about 800 CE by the Arawakan-speaking Taíno, who eventually settled throughout the island. Their economy, based on fishing and the cultivation of corn and cassava, the Taíno brought from South America a system of raising yuca known as conuco. To add nutrients to the soil, the Taíno burned local bushes and trees and heaped the ash into large mounds, most Taíno lived in large circular buildings, constructed with wooden poles, woven straw, and palm leaves. The Taino spoke an Arawakan language and did not have writing, some of the words used by them, such as barbacoa, kanoa, yuca and juracán, have been incorporated into Spanish and English. Christopher Columbus is believed to be the first European to reach Jamaica and he landed on the island on May 5,1494, during his second voyage to the Americas.
Columbus returned to Jamaica during his voyage to the Americas. He had been sailing around the Caribbean nearly a year when a storm beached his ships in St. Anns Bay, for a year Columbus and his men remained stranded on the island, finally departing in June 1504. The Spanish crown granted the island to the Columbus family, but for decades it was something of a backwater, valued chiefly as a base for food. In 1509 Juan de Esquivel founded the first permanent European settlement, a decade later, Friar Bartolomé de las Casas wrote Spanish authorities about Esquivels conduct during the Higüey massacre of 1503. In 1534 the capital was moved to Villa de la Vega and this settlement served as the capital of both Spanish and English Jamaica, from its founding in 1534 until 1872, after which the capital was moved to Kingston. The Spanish enslaved many of the Taino, some escaped, but most died from European diseases, the Spaniards introduced the first African slaves
Voyages of Christopher Columbus
For a very long time, it was believed that Columbus and his crew had been the first Europeans to make landfall in the Americas. Columbus was an Italian–born navigator sailing for the Crown of Castile in search of a route to Asia, to access the sources of spices. This led to the discovery of a New World between Europe and Asia, Columbuss voyages led to the widespread knowledge that a new continent existed west of Europe and east of Asia. This breakthrough in science led to the exploration and colonization of the New World by Spain and other European sea powers. The search for a route to Asia continued in 1513 when Vasco Nuñez de Balboa crossed the narrow Isthmus of Panama to become the first European to sight the Pacific Ocean. The search was completed in 1521, when the Castilian Magellan expedition sailed across the Pacific, Portugal had been the main European power interested in pursuing trade routes overseas. Their next-door neighbors, Castile had been slower to begin exploring the Atlantic due to the bigger land area it had to re-conquer from the Moors.
In 1492 the joint rulers of the Spanish nation conquered the Moorish kingdom of Granada and he proposed the king equip three sturdy ships and grant Columbus one years time to sail out west into the Atlantic, search for a western route to India, and return. Columbus requested he be made Great Admiral of the Ocean Sea, appointed governor of any and all lands he discovered, the king submitted the proposal to his experts, who rejected it after several years. It was their opinion that Columbuss estimation of a travel distance of 2,400 miles was, in fact. In 1488 Columbus appealed to the court of Portugal, receiving a new invitation for an audience with King John II and this proved unsuccessful, in part because not long afterwards Bartolomeu Dias returned to Portugal following a successful rounding of the southern tip of Africa. With an eastern sea route now under its control, Portugal was no longer interested in trailblazing a western route to Asia crossing unknown seas. Columbus traveled from Portugal to Spain to convince the Catholic Monarchs of Spain to finance the expedition, King Ferdinand II of Aragon married Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1469, uniting the two largest kingdoms into what would be the Spanish Crown.
They were known jointly as the Catholic Monarchs, and ruled their kingdoms independently, Columbus was granted an audience with them, on May 1,1489, he presented his plans to Queen Isabella, who referred them to a committee. They pronounced the idea impractical, and advised the monarchs not to support the proposed venture, after continually asking, nagging and crying for the monarchs to support his plan at the royal court and enduring two years of negotiations, Columbus finally succeeded in January 1492. Queen Isabellas forces had just conquered the Moorish Emirate of Granada and Ferdinand received Columbus in the Alcázar in Córdoba to support his plans. The monarchs left it to the treasurer to shift funds among various royal accounts on behalf of the enterprise. Columbus was to be made Admiral of the Seas and would receive a portion of all profits, the terms were unusually generous but, as his son wrote, the monarchs were not confident of his return
Colony of Jamaica
Jamaica was an English colony from 1655 or 1670, and a British Colony from 1707 until 1962, when it became independent. Jamaica became a Crown colony in 1866, in late 1654, English leader Oliver Cromwell launched the Western Design armada against Spains colonies in the Caribbean. In April 1655, General Robert Venables led the armada in an attack on Spains fort at Santo Domingo, the Spanish repulsed this poorly-executed attack, known as the Siege of Santo Domingo, and the English troops were soon decimated by disease. In May 1655, around 7,000 English soldiers landed near Jamaicas Spanish Town capital, the English invasion force soon overwhelmed the small number of Spanish troops. Spain never recaptured Jamaica, losing the Battle of Ocho Rios in 1657, for England, Jamaica was to be the dagger pointed at the heart of the Spanish Empire, although in fact it was a possession of little economic value then. Cromwell increased the islands white population by sending indentured servants and prisoners captured in battles with the Irish and Scots, as well as some common criminals.
This practice was continued under Charles II, and the population was augmented by immigrants from the North American mainland and other islands. But tropical diseases kept the number of well under 10,000 until about 1740. At the beginning of the century, the number of slaves in Jamaica did not exceed 45,000. Beginning with the Stuart monarchys appointment of a governor to Jamaica in 1661. The second governor, Lord Windsor, brought him in 1662 a proclamation from the king giving Jamaicas non-slave populace the rights of English citizens. The legislature consisted of the governor and an elected but highly unrepresentative House of Assembly, England gained formal possession of Jamaica from Spain in 1670 through the Treaty of Madrid. Removing the pressing need for constant defense against Spanish attack, this served as an incentive to planting. For much of the 1670s and 1680s, Charles II and James II, the last Stuart governor, the Duke of Albemarle, who was more interested in treasure hunting than in planting, turned the planter oligarchy out of office.
This settlement improved the supply of slaves and resulted in more protection, including military support and this was of particular importance during the Anglo-French War in the Caribbean from 1689 to 1713. The sugar monoculture and slave-worked plantation society spread across Jamaica throughout the eighteenth century, when the British captured Jamaica in 1655, the Spanish colonists fled, leaving a large number of African slaves. These former Spanish slaves created three Palenques, or settlements, the third chose to join those who had previously escaped from the Spanish to live and intermarry with the Arawak people. Each group of Maroons established distinct independent communities in the interior of Jamaica
Hispaniola is the 22nd-largest island in the world, located in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles. It is the second largest island in the Caribbean after Cuba, two sovereign nations share the 76, 192-square-kilometre island. The only other shared island in the Caribbean is Saint Martin, Hispaniola is the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in 1492 and 1493. The island was called by various names by its native people, fernández de Oviedo and de las Casas both recorded that the island was called Haiti by the Taíno. DAnghiera added another name, but shows that the word does not seem to derive from the original Arawak Taíno language. When Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana, meaning the Spanish Island in Latin and La Isla Española, meaning the Spanish Island, in Spanish. De las Casas shortened the name to Española, and when d‘Anghiera detailed his account of the island in Latin, he rendered its name as Hispaniola.
Due to Taíno, Spanish and French influences on the island, historically the whole island was referred to as Haiti, Santo Domingo, St. Domingue. The name Haïti was adopted by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1804, as the name of independent Saint-Domingue. It was adopted as the name of independent Santo Domingo, as the Republic of Spanish Haiti. Christopher Columbus inadvertently landed on the island during his first voyage across the Atlantic in 1492, where his flagship, a contingent of men were left at an outpost christened La Navidad, on the north coast of present-day Haiti. The island was inhabited by the Taíno, one of the indigenous Arawak peoples, the Taino were at first tolerant of Columbus and his crew, and helped him to construct La Navidad on what is now Môle-Saint-Nicolas, Haiti, in December 1492. European colonization of the began in earnest the following year. In 1496 the town of Nueva Isabela was founded, after being destroyed by a hurricane, it was rebuilt on the opposite side of the Ozama River and called Santo Domingo.
It is the oldest permanent European settlement in the Americas, several 16th century writers estimated the 1492 population of Hispaniola at over 1 million people. Twentieth-century estimates of the range from 60,000 to 8,000,000. Harsh enslavement by Spanish colonists, redirection of food supplies and labor towards the colonists, had a impact on both mortality and fertility over the first quarter century. Colonial administrators and Dominican and Hyeronimite priests observed that the search for gold, demographic data from two provinces in 1514 shows a low birth rate consistent with a 3. 5% annual population decline
Diego Columbus was a Portuguese navigator and explorer under the Kings of Castile and Aragón. He served as the 2nd Admiral of the Indies, 2nd Viceroy of the Indies and 4th Governor of the Indies as a vassal to the Kings of Castile and he was the eldest son of Christopher Columbus and wife Filipa Moniz Perestrelo. He was born in Portugal, either in Porto Santo in 1479/1480 and he spent most of his adult life trying to regain the titles and privileges granted to his father for his explorations and denied him in 1500. He was greatly aided in this goal by his marriage to María de Toledo y Rojas, niece of the 2nd Duke of Alba, Diego was made a page at the Spanish court in 1492, the year his father embarked on his first voyage. Diego had a younger half-brother, Fernando, by Beatriz Enríquez de Arana and Diego had been pages to Prince Don Juan, became pages to Queen Isabella in 1497. In 1509, he was named Governor of the Indies, the post his father had held and he established his home, which still stands there, in Santo Domingo in what is now the Dominican Republic.
Also on the expedition were his criados and his fathers old retainers, Marcos de Aguilar, his forthright alcalde mayor, Diego Mendez, his business manager, and Gerónimo de Agüero, his former tutor. Other loyal Colombistas met him at Santo Domingo - his uncle by marriage, Francisco de Garay, whom he named alguacil mayor, and Bartolomés criados, Miguel Díaz, Diego Velázquez, and Juan Cerón. His coming represented the permanent establishment of the most titled and notable family in the islands, in 1511, a royal council declared Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Cuba were under Diegos power by right of his fathers discovery. However and Veragua were deemed excluded, since the council regarded them as being discovered by Rodrigo de Bastidas, the council further confirmed Diegos titles of Viceroy and admiral were hereditary, though honorific. Furthermore, Diego had the right to one-tenth of the net royal income, factions soon formed between those loyal to Diego and Ferdinands royal officials. Matters deteriorated to the point that Ferdinand recalled Diego in 1514, Diego spent the next five years in Spain futilely pressing his claims.
Finally, in 1520, Diegos powers were restored by Charles, Diego returned to Santo Domingo on 12 Nov.1520 in the midst of a native revolt in the area of the Franciscan missions on the Cumana River. This was the area of the Spanish salt and pearl trade, Diego sent Gonzalo de Ocampo on a punitive expedition with 200 men and 6 ships. Then in 1521, Diego invested in Bartolomé de las Casas enterprise to settle the Cumana area and that failure, blamed on Diego, meant the loss of the kings confidence. That loss, plus Diegos defiance of royal power on Cuba, forced Charles to reprimand Diego in 1523 and recall him back to Spain. The first major revolt in the Americas occurred in Santo Domingo during 1522. Many of these managed to escape to the mountains where they formed independent maroon communities among the Tainos
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean and those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of routes and colonies. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America. These voyages had, therefore, an impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives.
Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios, the name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish and he was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers, Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. He had a sister named Bianchinetta, Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian.
In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10, in 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but and these competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in a convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern Europe