The Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storms that damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s. The drought came in three waves, 1934, 1936, 1939–1940, but some regions of the high plains experienced drought conditions for as many as eight years. With insufficient understanding of the ecology of the plains, farmers had conducted extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains during the previous decade; the rapid mechanization of farm equipment small gasoline tractors, widespread use of the combine harvester contributed to farmers' decisions to convert arid grassland to cultivated cropland. During the drought of the 1930s, the unanchored soil turned to dust, which the prevailing winds blew away in huge clouds that sometimes blackened the sky; these choking billows of dust – named "black blizzards" or "black rollers" – traveled cross country, reaching as far as the East Coast and striking such cities as New York City and Washington, D.
C. On the plains, they reduced visibility to 3 feet or less. Associated Press reporter Robert E. Geiger happened to be in Boise City, Oklahoma, to witness the "Black Sunday" black blizzards of April 14, 1935. While the term "the Dust Bowl" was a reference to the geographical area affected by the dust, today it refers to the event itself; the drought and erosion of the Dust Bowl affected 100,000,000 acres that centered on the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma and touched adjacent sections of New Mexico and Kansas. The Dust Bowl forced tens of thousands of poverty-stricken families to abandon their farms, unable to pay mortgages or grow crops, losses reached $25 million per day by 1936. Many of these families, who were known as "Okies" because so many of them came from Oklahoma, migrated to California and other states to find that the Great Depression had rendered economic conditions there little better than those they had left; the Dust Bowl has been the subject of many cultural works, notably the novel The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, the folk music of Woody Guthrie, photographs depicting the conditions of migrants by Dorothea Lange.
The Dust Bowl area lies principally west of the 100th meridian on the High Plains, characterized by plains which vary from rolling in the north to flat in the Llano Estacado. Elevation ranges from 2,500 feet in the east to 6,000 feet at the base of the Rocky Mountains; the area is semiarid. The region is prone to extended drought, alternating with unusual wetness of equivalent duration. During wet years, the rich soil provides bountiful agricultural output, but crops fail during dry years; the region is subject to high winds. During early European and American exploration of the Great Plains, this region was thought unsuitable for European-style agriculture; the lack of surface water and timber made the region less attractive than other areas for pioneer settlement and agriculture. The federal government encouraged settlement and development of the Plains for agriculture via the Homestead Act of 1862, offering settlers 160-acre plots. With the end of the Civil War in 1865 and the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, waves of new migrants and immigrants reached the Great Plains, they increased the acreage under cultivation.
An unusually wet period in the Great Plains mistakenly led settlers and the federal government to believe that "rain follows the plow" and that the climate of the region had changed permanently. While initial agricultural endeavors were cattle ranching, the adverse effect of harsh winters on the cattle, beginning in 1886, a short drought in 1890, general overgrazing, led many landowners to increase the amount of land under cultivation. Recognizing the challenge of cultivating marginal arid land, the United States government expanded on the 160 acres offered under the Homestead Act – granting 640 acres to homesteaders in western Nebraska under the Kinkaid Act and 320 acres elsewhere in the Great Plains under the Enlarged Homestead Act. Waves of European settlers arrived in the plains at the beginning of the 20th century. A return of unusually wet weather confirmed a held opinion that the "formerly" semiarid area could support large-scale agriculture. At the same time, technological improvements such as mechanized plowing and mechanized harvesting made it possible to operate larger properties without increasing labor costs.
The combined effects of the disruption of the Russian Revolution, which decreased the supply of wheat and other commodity crops, World War I increased agricultural prices. For example, in the Llano Estacado of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas, the area of farmland was doubled between 1900 and 1920 tripled again between 1925 and 1930; the agricultural methods favored by farmers during this per
Grand County, Colorado
Grand County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,843; the county seat is Hot Sulphur Springs. When Grand County was created February 2, 1874 it was carved out of Summit County and contained land to the western and northern borders of the state, in present-day Moffat County and Routt County, it was named after Grand Lake and the Grand River, an old name for the upper Colorado River, which has its headwaters in the county. On January 29, 1877 Routt County was created and Grand County shrunk down to its current western boundary; when valuable minerals were found in North Park, Grand County claimed the area as part of its county, a claim Larimer County held. It took a decision by the Colorado Supreme Court in 1886 to declare North Park part of Larimer County, setting Grand County's northern boundary. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,870 square miles, of which 1,846 square miles is land and 23 square miles is water.
Great Parks Bicycle Route TransAmerica Trail Bicycle Route Colorado River Headwaters National Scenic Byway Trail Ridge Road/Beaver Meadow National Scenic Byway As of the census of 2000, there were 12,442 people, 5,075 households, 3,217 families residing in the county. The population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 10,894 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.15% White, 0.48% Black or African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 2.00% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. 4.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.8 % were of 10.0 % English and 7.3 % American ancestry. There were 5,075 households out of which 28.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.70% were married couples living together, 5.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.60% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.85. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.80% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 34.70% from 25 to 44, 26.80% from 45 to 64, 7.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 112.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $47,759, the median income for a family was $55,217. Males had a median income of $34,861 versus $26,445 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,198. About 5.40% of families and 7.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.90% of those under age 18 and 6.10% of those age 65 or over. Fraser Granby Grand Lake Hot Sulphur Springs Kremmling Winter Park Parshall Tabernash Radium Colorado portal List of counties in Colorado Saratoga County, Jefferson Territory National Register of Historic Places listings in Grand County, Colorado Official website Arapaho National Recreation Area website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Grand County Library District website Grand County News website Grand County Tourism Board website Town of Hot Sulphur Springs website Rocky Mountain National Park website Winter Park and Fraser Valley Chamber of Commerce website Grand Lake Chamber of Commerce homepage
Denver the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains; the Denver downtown district is east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River 12 mi east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after James W. Denver, a governor of the Kansas Territory, it is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is one mile above sea level; the 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station. Denver is ranked as a Beta world city by World Cities Research Network. With an estimated population of 704,621 in 2017, Denver is the 19th-most populous U. S. city, with a 17.41% increase since the 2010 United States Census, it has been one of the fastest-growing major cities in the United States.
The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 2,888,227 and is the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area. The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 3,515,374 and is the 15th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong urban region stretching across two states with an estimated 2017 population of 4,895,589. Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the United States by U. S. News & World Report. In the summer of 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, a group of gold prospectors from Lawrence, Kansas established Montana City as a mining town on the banks of the South Platte River in what was western Kansas Territory; this was the first historical settlement in what was to become the city of Denver.
The site faded however, by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria and St. Charles City. On November 22, 1858, General William Larimer and Captain Jonathan Cox, both land speculators from eastern Kansas Territory, placed cottonwood logs to stake a claim on the bluff overlooking the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria, on the site of the existing townsite of St. Charles. Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the town's name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him, Governor Denver had resigned from office; the location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver. Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new immigrants.
Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria. In May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express in order to secure the region's first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for "passengers, mail and gold", the Express reached Denver on a trail that trimmed westward travel time from twelve days to six. In 1863, Western Union furthered Denver's dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus; the Colorado Territory was created on February 28, 1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1, 1861, Denver City was incorporated on November 7, 1861. Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the acting territorial capital, in 1881 was chosen as the permanent state capital in a statewide ballot.
With its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver. On August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted to the Union. Although by the close of the 1860s, Denver residents could look with pride at their success establishing a vibrant supply and service center, the decision to route the nation's first transcontinental railroad through Cheyenne, rather than Denver, threatened the prosperity of the young town. A daunting 100 miles away, citizens mobilized to build a railroad to connect Denver to the transcontinental railroad. Spearheaded by visionary leaders including Territorial Governor John Evans, David Moffat, Walter Cheesman, fundraising began. Within three days, $300,000 had been raised, citizens were optimistic. Fundraising stalled before enough was raised, forcing these visionary leaders to take control of the debt-ridden railroad. Despite challenges, on June 24, 1870, citizens cheered as the Denver Pacific completed the link to the transcontinental railroad, ushering in a new age of prosperity for Denver.
Linked to the rest of the nation by rail, Denver prospered as a service and supply center. The young city grew during these years, attracting millionaires with their mansions, as well as the poverty and crime of a growing city. Denver citizens were proud when the rich chose Denver and were thrilled when Horace Tabor, the Leadville mining millionaire, built an impressive business block at 16th and Larimer as well as the el
South Platte River
The South Platte River is one of the two principal tributaries of the Platte River. Flowing through the U. S. states of Colorado and Nebraska, it is itself a major river of the American Midwest and the American Southwest/Mountain West. Its drainage basin includes much of the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, it joins the North Platte River in western Nebraska to form the Platte, which flows across Nebraska to the Missouri. The river serves as the principal source of water for eastern Colorado. In its valley along the foothills in Colorado, it has permitted agriculture in an area of the Colorado Piedmont and Great Plains, otherwise arid; the river is formed in Park County, southwest of Denver in the South Park grassland basin by the confluence of the South Fork and Middle Fork 15 miles southeast of Fairplay. Both forks rise along the eastern flank of the Mosquito Range, on the western side of South Park, drained by the tributaries at the headwaters of the river. From South Park, it passes through 50 miles of the Platte Canyon and its lower section, Waterton Canyon.
Here, it is joined by the North Fork before emerging from the foothills southwest of the Denver suburb of Littleton. At Littleton, the river is impounded to form Chatfield Reservoir, a major source of drinking water for the Denver Metropolitan Area; the river flows north through central Denver, founded along its banks at its confluence with Cherry Creek. The valley through Denver is industrialized, serving as the route for both the railroad lines, as well as Interstate 25. On the north side of Denver it is joined somewhat inconspicuously by Clear Creek, which descends from the mountains to the west in a canyon, the cradle of the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. North of Denver it flows through the agricultural heartland of the Piedmont, it flows directly past the communities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, is joined in succession by Saint Vrain Creek, the Little Thompson River, the Big Thompson River, the Cache la Poudre River, which it receives just east of Greeley. East of Greeley it turns eastward, flowing across the Colorado Eastern Plains, past Fort Morgan and Brush, where it turns northeastward.
It continues past Sterling, runs into Nebraska between Julesburg and Big Springs, Nebraska. In Nebraska, it passes south of Ogallala and joins the North Platte River near the city of North Platte; the South Platte River through Denver is on the U. S. EPA's list of impaired waterbodies for pathogen impairment, with E. coli as the representative pathogen species. Other water issues involve the appearance of the Zebra Mussel; the South Platte was called Niinéniiniicíihéhe by the native Arapaho people who lived on its banks. The early Spanish explorers called it the Rio Chato. In 1702, it was named the Rio Jesus Maria by Captain Jose Lopez, the Tewa Irish scout and Captain of War of the New Mexico Indian Auxiliaries, ordered by the Viceroy of New Spain to search the Tierra Incognita for a French incursion into New Mexico; the South Platte River served as a vital water source in Colorado. Long before the city of Denver was created many travelers came to the South Platte River to escape the arid Great Plains.
These people could survive the heat but not without the vital water source that the South Platte River gave them. Buckets and wells sufficed as a water system for a while but the Denver Water System was created. In an arid region of the United States, the South Platte is marked with several dams; the first notable water impoundment on the South Platte is Antero Reservoir. "Antero" is derived from the Spanish word "first," as it was the first dam on the South Platte River near the river's origin. The next dam is Spinney Mountain Reservoir. At capacity Spinney Mountain covers 2,500 acres. A bottom release dam, Spinney releases to the east of the inlet. Two miles below Spinney Mountain Reservoir, the river enters Eleven Mile Reservoir, with a capacity of 97,000 acre feet; the Eleven Mile Reservoir Dam drains into Eleven Mile Canyon, which runs through Forest Service land. Under the reservoir are three former Colorado towns, Howbert and Freshwater Station, which were submerged to meet the water needs of Denver.
From Eleven Mile Canyon, the South Platte runs northeast to Cheesman Reservoir, named for Denver water pioneer Walter S. Cheesman. At its completion in 1905, the dam was the world's tallest, at 221 feet above the streambed; the reservoir and related facilities were purchased in November 1918 by the Denver Water Board. Cheesman was the first reservoir of Denver's mountain storage facilities and has been designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. Cheesman Reservoir feeds Cheesman Canyon. Six miles below Cheesman Reservoir is the town of Deckers. In the late 1980s, a proposal was put forth for the Two Forks Dam, which would have created a reservoir flooding the entire section from the North Fork confluence to the town of Deckers. In 1990 the Environmental Protection Agency vetoed the permit, calling the project an "environmental catastrophe." From the confluence, the river enters Strontia Springs Reservoir. Below Strontia Springs the South Platte runs through Waterton Canyon before entering Chatfield Reservoir.
Chatfield marks the seventh and fin
Sterling is a home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous city of Logan County, United States. The city population was 14,777 at the 2010 census. Sterling is the largest city in Northeastern Colorado and the county seat of Logan County and the site of the domed Logan County courthouse, built in 1909. A post office called Sterling has been in operation since 1874; the community was named for Sterling, the native home of a railroad official. Sterling is 128 miles northeast of Denver, is located on Interstate 76, on the'eastern plains' of northeastern Colorado. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.9 square miles, all land. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Sterling has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 11,360 people, 4,604 households, 2,790 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,653.1 people per square mile. There were 5,171 housing units at an average density of 752.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 90.75% Caucasian American, 0.75% African American, 0.79% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 5.60% from other races, 1.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.20% of the population. There were 4,604 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.2% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 12.9% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,337, the median income for a family was $39,103.
Males had a median income of $27,921 versus $20,508 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,287. Major employers in Sterling include Northeastern Junior College, the RE-1 Valley School system, Sykes Enterprises, a computer software customer services company, the Sterling Correctional Facility. Sterling is the major shopping hub for most of northeastern Colorado and hosts stores like Wal-Mart, The Home Depot and The Buckle, as well as many local retailers located on Main Street. Six different banks have branches in Sterling and there are local AM and FM radio stations as well as a local television station, a long established regional newspaper, the Sterling Journal-Advocate and South Platte Sentinel; the Colorado Department of Corrections operates the Sterling Correctional Facility in Sterling. Sterling is the home of a residential two year college in Colorado. Sterling is the location of the RE-1 Valley School District. Crosson Field Municipal Airport serves Sterling, but there are no scheduled flights available from there.
The closest airport served by scheduled flights is Denver International Airport, located 121 miles away. Sterling is served by railroads, although only freight carriers serve the town; the main rail operator is Burlington Northern Santa Fe, but other operators, like Union Pacific, serve Sterling as well. The closest Amtrak station is located in Fort Morgan, about 47 miles away. Scheduled bus service is offered by Black Hills Stage Lines with service to Ft. Morgan and Denver in Colorado, as well as number of cities in Nebraska including North Platte and Omaha. Interstate 76 connects Sterling to Denver and northeast to Interstate 80, in Big Springs, along the South Platte River. Business Loop 76 starts on the intersection of Interstate 76 and US 6, going through East Chestnut Street and South 4th Street, South Division Avenue, returning to US 6, connecting Sterling to Atwood and Merino. US 6 runs east-west linking Provincetown, Massachusetts with Bishop, via Nevada, Illinois and 8 other states.
US 138 Runs parallel to Interstate 76, connecting Sterling to US 30, north of Nebraska. State Highway 14 connects Sterling to Fort Collins located 102 miles to the west. Sterling is a regional center for health care as well, is the home of the Sterling Regional Medical Center. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Logan County, Colorado Colorado metropolitan areas Sterling, CO Micropolitan Statistical Area City of Sterling website
St. Vrain Creek
St. Vrain Creek is a tributary of the South Platte River 32.2 miles long, in north central Colorado in the United States. It drains part of the foothills north of Boulder and the Colorado Piedmont area in the vicinity of Longmont; the creek is formed by the confluence of South St. Vrain creeks at Lyons; the creek rises in several branches in the foothills of the Front Range northwest of Boulder. Middle St. Vrain Creek rises along west of St. Vrain Mountain, it descends in canyon to flow along past Raymond. It joins the shorter South St. Vrain Creek about two miles below Raymond. Parts of the South St. Vrain Creek form a five mile Class 5+ kayak run during normal flows. North St. Vrain Creek rises northeast of St. Vrain Mountain near Allenspark and descends in a remote canyon to the east along U. S. Highway 36; the two branches join at the mouth of the canyon. East of Lyons, the combined stream flows southeast through farmland and ranch country, passing south of Hygiene and entering Longmont, it passes through the south side of Longmont where it is rimmed by a greenway trail and several parks.
East of Longmont it flows northeast, meandering through a wide river bottom in ranch country and passing under Interstate 25 south of the intersection with State Highway 66. It joins the South Platte from the west just upstream from the ruins of Fort St. Vrain and 4 miles northwest of Platteville. St. Vrain Creek is joined by Left Hand Creek south of Boulder Creek east of Longmont; the stream was named after a pioneer trader. List of rivers of Colorado
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U. S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, insular areas of the United States. About 75% of federal public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the United States Department of Agriculture's United States Forest Service; the department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, a member of the Cabinet of the President. The current Secretary is David Bernhardt, who serves in an acting capacity, concurrently serves in the Department as Deputy Secretary; the Inspector General position is vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General. Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the interior ministries of other nations, which are responsible for police matters and internal security.
In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice secondarily. The Department of the Interior has been humorously called "The Department of Everything Else" because of its broad range of responsibilities. A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress in 1789, but those duties were placed in the Department of State; the idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by Presidents from James Madison to James Polk. The 1846–48 Mexican–American War gave the proposal new steam as the responsibilities of the federal government grew. Polk's Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a vocal champion of creating the new department. In 1849, Walker stated in his annual report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do, he noted that the General Land Office had little to do with the Treasury and highlighted the Indian Affairs office, part of the Department of War, the Patent Office, part of the Department of State.
Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be brought together in a new Department of the Interior. A bill authorizing its creation of the department passed the House of Representatives on February 15, 1849, spent just over two weeks in the Senate; the department was established on March 3, 1849, the eve of President Zachary Taylor's inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill; the first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing. Many of the domestic concerns the department dealt with were transferred to other departments. For example, the Department of Interior was responsible for water pollution control prior to the creation of the EPA. Other agencies became separate departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, which became the Department of Agriculture; however and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.
As of mid-2004, the department managed 507 million acres of surface land, or about one-fifth of the land in the United States. It manages 476 dams and 348 reservoirs through the Bureau of Reclamation, 410 national parks, seashore sites, etc. through the National Park Service, 544 national wildlife refuges through the Fish and Wildlife Service. Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs handles some federal relations with Native Americans, while others are handled by the Office of Special Trustee; the current acting Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin; the department has been the subject of disputes over proper accounting for Native American Trusts set up to track the income and distribution of monies that are generated by the Trust and specific Native American lands, which the government leases for fees to companies that extract oil, timber and other resources. Several cases have sought an accounting of such funds from departments within the Interior and Treasury, in what has been a 15-year-old lawsuit.
Some Native American nations have sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US. In 2010 Congress passed the Claims Settlement Act of 2010, which provided $3.4 billion for the settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class-action trust case and four Native American water rights cases; the $3.4 billion will be placed in a still-to-be-selected bank and $1.4 billion will go to individuals in the form of checks ranging from $500 to $1,500. A small group, such as members of the Osage tribe who benefit from huge Oklahoma oil revenues, will get far more, based on a formula incorporating their 10 highest years of income between 1985 and 2009; as important, $2 billion will be used to buy trust land from Native American owners at fair market prices, with the government returning the land to tribes. Nobody can be forced to sell. Assistant Secretary for Policy and Budget Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance Office of International Affairs Office of Native Hawaiian Relations Office of Restoration and Damage Assessment Office of Policy Analysis National Invasive Species Council Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget, Finance and Acquisiti